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Euf00t on Encyclopedia > Hungary national football team 1501 days 4 hours 13 minutes 30 seconds ago
Details of all the matches of Hungary national football team before 1950 you can find here:
ALEX SELVEN on Honduras Profile > Religion 1501 days 5 hours 43 minutes 7 seconds ago
THE PROTESTANTS IN HONDURAS COMPRISE 36%
charles brough on Religion > Church attendance 1505 days 23 minutes 3 seconds ago
The number of people who SAY they attend church regularly is about twice the number who ACTUALLY do attend regularly. The figures above are based on what people SAY . . .
Even so, those who are believe in "the inerrant word of God"
in the US may not be going down, but their influence has been spreading in the country since about 1970 in reaction to the chaotic, anti-Vietnam war Hippy era and the decades of unisex, gay, animal rights, and other demonstrations and excesses. see: http://atheistic-science.com
The Republic upper economic classes have largely adopted a Von Mises economic philosophy that fosters their control and they suppliment it with support for the Christian faith. Most are not, themselves, "born again" but they feel the "common man" needs the conservative, stable values of the faith, so they push it. They fear public support for socialist changes and hence push for more control over society.
The result is that the Creationist, Intelligent Design and anti-abortion concepts have spread. During war, economic crisis, terrorist attacks, the Conservative agenda progresse snad public opinion becomes more religious-oriented. The History channel, for example, begins showing more Bible Stories dressed up as documentaries, and articles about religion become more commen in the newspapers and magazines.
Also, our government leans more to religion.
Now, church attendance is rising again due to the economic slump, but the same slump as for a while cut the power and ability of the Conservative-rich and religious to influence public opinion.
Louis Salve on Encyclopedia > Good Friday 1506 days 22 hours 12 minutes 52 seconds ago
Respond to :Glendalyn your question was "why is this day called 'good friday' when it was a horrible day for Jesus:
Good Friday was a horrible day for Jesus but it is good for all human being because jesus gave his life for the sin what human being have done. He shed his blood for the mankind and with the blood of jesus we were baptised and we were out of sin. Secondly he had to give his life on cross so the bible has to be compleated. Thirdly when he was born three wise man saw the wonder star they came to Bethlem to bow the king so while comming they brought gift with them and the gift was First gave GOLD Second gave MIRTH (INSENSE) & Third Gave WOOD so dear this were the signs Jesus Glittered like GOLD he was phosperious like MIRTH (INSENSE) and the WOOD was the wood on which he was Crusified. one more thing i will share that is on the cross he said : "Lord forgive them for they do not know what they are doing" so he took all the sins of mankind on him, so the sins were from Adam & Eve (the lord told them not to eat the fruit but the serpent (devil) made them to eat & when lord came to Eden garden they were hiding them selves because they had the fruit of knowledge and came to know that were naked god send them out of Eden garden on Earth because they had made the first sin, but they were not sorry for what they have done they went out of the garden without saying sorry) Second Abhram was told to take his son Isac to the mountain and make a holy Alter and sacrifice his only son to god Abhram did not asked nor felt sorry he went and tried to do according to what had god said to him Third Moses had ego and he uttered a sentenced I will give water to you and he took his stick and he banged it on a stone like platue god said I had told you that I will send you to the land where there are rivers of Honey & Milk but now you will not go there but I will show the same promise land Moses did not said sorry to the god and the bible says Moses died on the same mountain. So dear all this sin's that would have wiped out the earth so god have to give his beloved son the happy future of the mankind and now what we are breathing because of the cross of Jesus, blood of Jesus(Jesus blood when it fell on this land of sin's every body was baptised and the earth was pure from that day and again sin's were commited)
"JESUS GAVE HIS BLOOD AND BOUGHT OUR SIN'S SO THAT WE THE MANKIND WILL SERVIFE AND THOSE WHO WILL NOT SIN'S AGAIN AND FELL SORRY FOR THE SIN'S WILL HAVE ETERNAL LIFE WITH JESUS AND HIS FATHER FOREVER AND EVER"
LOUIS DAVID SALVE
Andrew Gwilt (Wickford, Essex) on Encyclopedia > National Express East Anglia 1507 days 19 hours 37 minutes 1 second ago
In Essex. Class 360 are normally used on the Great Eastern Mainline thought out Essex. The lines that the Class 360's uses these lines are the Mayflower Line (Manningtree-Harwich),Colchester North-Walton-on-the-Naze/Clacton-on-Sea line via Colchester Town and London Liverpool Street-Ipswich service. What if Class 360's should run other services like Shenfield-Southend Victoria line, Crouch Valley Line (Wickford-Southminster) and Witham-Braintree Line. Maldon had a station before the Axed Beeches caused the line to close. What about rebuilding the line from Chelmsford to Maldon known as Chelmsford-Maldon line in the near future.
sumit (behrod rajasthan) on Encyclopedia > Ahir 1507 days 22 hours 30 minutes 40 seconds ago
Origin of Ahir Community
The Ahirs today claim descent from Krishna.They were a powerful race of nomad cowherds from eastern or central Asia who entered India from the Punjab in large hordes about the same time as the Sakas and the Yuechis in the first or second century BC and gradually spread over large parts of Northern, Eastern and Central India.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahirs http://www.haryana-online.com/People/ahirs.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahirs#Origin_of_Ahir
Other views are that they came from Syria or Asia Minor about the beginning of the Christian era; were Dravidians; sprang from the Aayars of Tamil Nadu; lived in India long before the Aryan invasion; were descendants of the Yadavas of the Lunar Dynasty of Pururavas Aila; and that their original habitat was the region between the Sutlej and the Yamuna from where they migrated beyond Mathura in the East and beyond Gujarat and Maharashtra in the South.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ahirs#Origin_of_Ahir
The name of the State of Haryana may have been derived from its ancient inhabitants: Abhirayana. The name `Abhira` may stem from a-bhira meaning fearless.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haryana
History Of Ahir Community
At the beginning of the Christian era, the invading Scythians and Kushans forced most of them out of their land to lower Rajasthan in the Arbuda (Aravali region). In Marubhumi (Marwar), Saurashtra and Maharashtra they served the local rulers and established their own rule. Ishwarsena, a great Ahir general, became master of Western Deccan in place of the famous Satava-hanas. He took the title of Rajan and an era was named after him. His descendants continued to rule for nine generations.
For centuries the Ahirs were eclipsed as a political power in Haryana until the time of the Pratihara dynasty. In time they became independent rulers of Southwest Haryana.
In 1150, Vighararaja IV, a Chauhan from Rajasthan forced them to become his feudatories. In 1181 they were defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan but only after they had put up a tough resistance.
Some scholars seek yadav and Jews connection. According to Stephen Knapp, the Greeks referred to the Jews as Judeos, or Jah deos or Yadavas, meaning people of Ya or descendants of Yadu, one of the sons of Yayati. It is also regarded that the basis of the Kabbalah, the book of Jewish mystical concepts, as described in The Holy Kabbalah by Arthur Edward Waite, is linked with Vedas. Yadavas were possessors of great mystical knowledge is confirmed in Bhagvad Gita itself which says same knowledge was given to Manu (first man on earth), Surya and Ikshavaku (ancestor of Lord Rama) at very ancient time. It is believed Abhira were the link between eastern and western religions. There are compelling proofs of both mauryan and Guptas being Abhirs. The Kshatriya religion was propounded by Krishna, and no reference is found before him. We only find Rajnya as the term alternatively used for it (Bhagwad Gita is emaciated form of hidden knowledge—Gope—which has its root in Shiva). Later on, many Kshatriyas were made based on the philosophy of this religion as revealed in Bhagavad Gita.
 Yadavas as an ethnic category
According to M.S.A. Rao (an eminent sociologist), Yadava is an ethnic category consisting of several allied castes, which together constitute about one-tenth of the total population of India. These castes are found in different parts of India, Burma, Nepal and Sri Lanka and are known as the "Ahir" in the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan; the "Goalas" and "Sadgopa" or Gauda in Bengal and Orissa; Dhangar in Maharashtra; Yadava in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and Idayan and Konar in Tamil Nadu. There are also several sub-regional names such as Thetwar and Rawat in Madhya Pradesh, and Mahakul (Great Family) in Bihar.
Two things are common to these cognate castes. First, they claim to be descendants of the Yadu Dynasty (Yadava) to which Lord Krishna belonged. Secondly, many castes in this category have occupations relating to cattle. The Krishna mythology lends a kind of legitimacy to the pastoral occupations relating to cattle, and as the castes following these occupations are to be found in almost all parts of India, the Yadava category encompasses a range of related castes.
Besides this mythical origin of the Yadavas, semi-historical and historical evidence exists for equating the Ahirs with the Yadavas. It is argued that the term Ahir comes from Abhira (Behandarkar, 1911;16), who where once found in different parts of India, and who in several places wielded political power. The Abhiras are equated with Ahirs, Gopas and Gollas, and all of them are considered Yadavas.
M.S.A Rao further states that the Allahabad iron pillar inscription of Samudragupta (fourth century A.D) mentions the Abhiras as one of the tribal states of west and south west India, who paid homage to the emperor (churn, 1943:81). A fourth century (A.D) inscription found in Nashik speaks of an Abhira king, and there is proof that in the middle of the fourth century the Abhiras were settled in eastern Rajputana and Malwa. Similarly, when the Kathis arrived in Gujarat in the eighth century, they found the greater part of the country in the possession of the Ahirs. The Mirzapur district of the United Provinces has a tract known as Ahraura, named after the Ahir, and near Jhansi, another piece of country was called Ahirwar. The Ahirs were also kings of Nepal at the beginning of the Christian era. Khandesh and the Tapti valley were other regions where they were kings.
This indicates that the Abhiras, who rose to political prominence in the second century B.C., had a chequered political career until the fourteenth century A.D when their importance was over-shadowed by the Mughals, but even during the Mughal period the Ahir and Golla rajahs were a power to be reckoned with. The Gavlis rose to political power in Deogarh, on the Chhindwara Plateau in the central provinces. The Saugar traditions trace the Gavli supremacy to a much later date, as the tracts of Etawa and Khurai are held to have been governed by chieftains till the close of the seventeenth century (Russell, 1916:II, 20).
Abhira, which is considered to be a subgroup of the Yadava caste today, may be unrelated to the ancient Yadavas. Linkage is obscure and views vary from scholar to scholar. The term was used for cowherds initially but has been extended to include Yaduvanshi and Nandavanshis too by its corrupt version Ahir. Abhira means "fearless" and appears in most ancient historical references dating back to the Abhira kingdom of the Saraswati Valley, who spoke Abhiri until the Buddhist period. Analysis of Hindu scriptural references of the Abhira kingdoms has led some scholars to conclude that it was merely a term used for Holy Yadava Kingdoms. In Bhagavatam, the Gupta dynasty has been alled Abhir.
 Yaduvanshi Rajput and Ahirs
The word Jadu became Yadu and later on Jadav/ Jadon or Yadav.Krishna being a gopi led to the popular belief that all cowherd castes like Ahir,Golla,Mandal etc were Yadavs.The Nand Baba, in whose house lord Kishna spent his childhood, was the friend of Vasudeva a Yaduvanshi and the father of Lord Krishna.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasudeva
Yadav originally is the Chandravanshi Rajput clan directly claiming descent from Yadu in the great epic Mahabharat,however it has now lost it's rajput status by the merger of allied ahir castes which in some parts are Other Backward Class. The fact that Lord Krishna was born to Yadu kshatriyas was the son of Vasudeva and Devaki and for fear of being killed by Kansa of Mathura, Vasudeva had taken him to his friend Nanda Baba and his wife Yasoda who belonged to Ahir caste. Ahirs became his followers.Ahirs used to rever the Lord Krishna. The Ahirs believe that their ancestors walked together with Lord Krishna.Ahirs synonyms are Yadav and Rao Saheb.Rao Saheb is only used in Behrod area of Alwar district.However generally the Ahir community is called by the name Yadav.Historically,Ahir laid the foundation of Ahir Batak town which was later called Ahrora and Ahirwar in Jhansi district in A.D.108.Rudramurti Ahir became the chief of the Army and later on, the king .Madhuriputa, Ishwarsen and Shivdatta were well known kings from the lineage who mingled with Yadav Rajputs,Ahirs were exclusively found in northern Alwar and Jaipur.The Ahir are Hindu by religion. They worship Dahmi Mata and go to her shrine at the time of jadula(head shaving ceremony of the child)and gathjoda(after marriage,to get the blessings of the deity).Likewise, Biladi Mata, Shyamji,Shivji,Ram and other gods and goddesses of Hindu religion are worshipped by the Ahirs with great reverence and devotion.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandravanshi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jadaun#Origins http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasudeva
History works of Smith and James Tod can be relied in this regard. Moreover, in the records of British empire, Ahirs are sub-castes of Yadav clan. As per the most authentic 1931 Census condcuted by the British Indian Government in India, which was the only census conducted on the basis of castes prevalent in India at that time. As per Rig veda and Various Purans and many historical works available in India, Yaduvanshi and Chandravanshi are Yadus( Jadon found in western UP, Jadeja of Gujrat, Bhatis of Rajsthan, jharejas, Banaphars of Mahobas, Dabi ( Rajsthan) Kharbad Rajput of Udaipur; Khagar of Atri Gotra found in districts of jhansi, Hamirpur, Jalon of UP, Hoysal of Dwar samudra whose capital was Belapur, , Sighel Rajput( Kashyap gotriya) found in Azamgarh district of UP and Chhapra, Bhagalpur, Mujjafarpur district of Bihar are some of the Yaduvanshi Rajputs and are recongnised as such by all the Rajput castes/clans in India.Yaduvanshi Rajputs in UP have Thikans in Aligarh,Awagarh of Etah UP, Somna,Hasnagarh, Kole ( Aligarh), Secunderabad, Shamasabad, Ghiror and mustafabad in Mainpuri. Raja Balwant Singh of Awagarh, a Jadon Rajput, set up Raja Balawant Singh College in Agra and helped Guru Rabindra Nath Tagore in setting up Shantinketkan University. Dullipsingh of Jamnagar after whom is named Dulip trophy in Cricket, Ranjitsingh after whom is named Ranjit trophy in Crciket are Yaduvansi Rajputs of Jadeja/ Jadon clan of Rajputs and are classified as one of 36 clans of Rajputs in the history and in his work by James Tod also.
Yayati's first wife Devayani bore a son named Durvasu ( or Rigvedic Turvasus tribe. The descendents of Durvasu are called Durvasu Rajputs and Chandravanshi. Yayati's second wife Sharmishta gave birth to eldest son named Drahayu. The Descendents of his are called Drahayu Rajputs who ruled in Bengal, Assam and Tripura and still found there. Anu Rajputs who are descendents of Anu, second son of Sharmistha, second wife of Yayati, set up Ushinar shivi, Kakaya pradesh etc.As per annals and governement records of British period. .http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandravanshi. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jadaun
1) Yaduvanshi - These are predominant in Rajasthan,Haryana,Maharastra,South India,UP & Gujrat
2) Nandvanshi - These are predominant in Western UP (Etah, Bulandshahar,Agra,Madhya Pradesh,Maharastra,Gujrat & Mathura.
3) Gwal Bansi - These are the gwalas & are considered the lowest of the three. They are spread out in Bihar to Bengal.From some decades they are fighting with Bhumihars (land owning Bramins) for their right to cultivate their own land for farming.
Yaduvanshi's have common gotras with the Jats (eg, Dahiya, Atri etc). Bhatti Rajputs are descendents of Yadu Vanshi Ahirs, and Sidhu & Barar Jats are descendents of Bhatti Rajputs.
 Jaisalmer yadav link
Rao Jaisal laid the foundation stone of Jaisalmer in 1156 A.D. He hailed from the Yadav and Rajput kin group. His Yadav descent can be traced back to the Mahabharata and the Rajputs were famed for courage and gallantry.The city has an interesting legend associated with it, according to which, Lord Krishna, the head of the Yadav Clan, foretold Arjuna, one of the Pandava brothers of the Mahabharata that a remote descendent of the Yadav Clan would build his kingdom atop the Trikuta Hill. His prophecy was fulfilled in 1156 AD when Rawal Jaisal, a descendent of the Yadav Clan and a Bhatti Rajput, abandoned his fort at Lodurva and founded a new capital Jaisalmer, perched on the Trikuta Hill.
 Yadavs in Maratha
Yadav - Jadhav – Jadhavrao
Yadav traces their origin from Rajput clan who supposed to be Lord Krishna's Descendant and further they converted into Jadhav due to language and Some Jadhav who served Sultanets refered as Rao title called as Jadhavrao.As pre record Jadhav are the descendent of yadav or Chandervanshi rajput. Bhosle / Bhonsle, Ranas, Yadhavas, Nimbalkars come under the category of Marathas
 Yadavs found in South India
Konar is a sub caste of yadav caste foud in Tamil Nadu.
Maniyani is a caste of Kerala that claims descent from Krishna.
 Variations in Caste status
All groups included in the Yadav category belonged to the “clean castes”, though their actual status varied from area to area. The Ahirs of Delhi, Punjab and parts of UP had a status equal to that of Rajput and Jats with whom, according to Rao, they shared commensual relations. In places where the Ahirs were owner-cultivators they ranked immediately after Brahmins and Baniyas but where they were small owner-cultivators or tenants (and Thakurs, the main landowning group), they moved lower down the caste hierarchy (below Thakurs, Baniyas and Bhumihar Brahmins. In areas where the Ahirs and Gollas were cowherds and milksellers they were given a still lower ranking.
To improve their status,Yadavs at the turn of the century not only began to claim Kshatriya status but also to adopt Arya Samaj practices in a big way. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar witnessed widespread jenevo movements in the first two decades of the 20th century as Yadavs began to don the sacred thread in accordance with Arya Samaj practices. These years also saw the sprouting of Arya mandirs, pracharaks, priests and schools in many parts of India.
This was accompanied by major changes in the life-style of the Yadavs. They began to follow Vedic life cycle ceremonies conducted by Arya priests. There was renewed emphasis on their Kshatriya identity and their links with Lord Krishna. Yadavs emerged as major protectors of cattle and the celebration of Janmashtmi (Krishna’s birthday) became a major event in their social and religious life.
Yadavs all over the country were quick to respond to the forces of change unleashed by British rule. At the opening of the century itself their regional associations concerned themselves with establishing educational institutions and seeking modern employment opportunities for their castemen. In Punjab, western UP, and Madhya Pradesh, Yadavs turned mainly to the army for employment. In Punjab they even petitioned the government in the 1880’s for recruitment of Ahirs into the army.
 Major changes
The emergence of an English-educated elite among the Yadavs led to the formation of the All-India Yadava Mahasabha in 1923. The AIYM immediately engaged itself in two issues. It appealed to its castemen in all regions to add “Yadav” to their names and at the same time launched on a major programme of social reform. In fact as early as 1911, regional caste groups had been petitioning the Census Commissioner to change their caste name from Golla, Ahir etc., to Yadav. The regional organisation of the Gollas of Hyderabad, the Hyderabad Rashtra Yadav Mahajana Samajam, for example, appealed to the Census Commission that their caste names of Golla, Gowli, Gollawar and Ahir be changed to Yadava.
In the period after Independence, the Yadavs have emerged as the leaders of the backward classes.Prof: Rao’s study of the Yadava elite in the various States (based on the members and supporters of the All India Yadav Sabha and not on those of the rival All India Yadav Mahasabha) reveals the growth of varied business and professional groups within the caste category. Heading the list are businessmen who comprise roughly 21 per cent of the elite. They include dairy owners, contractors, tobacco and timber merchants, wholesale grass dealers. owners of engineering firms and other industries as well as restaurant owners. They are followed by the large farmers who comprise around 21 per cent of the Yadav elite. Politicians (MPs, MLAs, ministers, municipal councillors, district board members, office-bearers of political parties) constitute 17 percent of the elite and school and college teachers, doctors. vaids. lawyers and engineers together another 20 percent.
 Yadav Martyrs of 1962 War
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In the Indo-China War of 1962, the Ahirs (almost all of them hailing from the Ahirwal region of Southern Haryana) of 13 Kumaon Regiment set an unparallel example in the military history of Aryavart by defending their position at Rezang La in Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. The battle of Rezang La, a ridge overlooking the strategic Chushul plains in Ladakh, to defend the highest air strip in the world located at 16,000 feet—just across the Chinese claim line—is one of the most glorious chapters in the history of the Bharatya army and has been compared by some Bharatya military historians with the famed Battle of Thermopylae. In the final phase of the Indo-China War of 1962, where Bharatya units typically offered little resistance while being routed by attacking PLA forces, the Ahir Charlie Company from 13 Kumaon, set a rare example of bravery and dedication by literally fighting to the last man. Of the 120 defenders, only three survived, all seriously wounded. The rest, were discovered after the winter, frozen, mostly holding their weapons but with no ammunition. According to some accounts, several jawans, having run out of ammunition, came out of the pickets and charged the enemy with bare hands—Lance Naik Ram Singh killing several Chinese soldiers after lifting and hitting them against the rocks. It is also believed that these jawans inflicted heavy casualties on the attackers. Of the 120 soldiers, 114 were Yadavas from Haryana. On this horrific battle, Major-General Ian Cardozo, in his book Param Vir, Our Heroes In Battle writes,“When Rezang La was later revisited dead jawans were found in the trenches still holding on to their weapons... every single man of this company was found dead in his trench with several bullet or splinter wounds. The 2-inch mortar man died with a bomb still in his hand. The medical orderly had a syringe and bandage in his hands when the Chinese bullet hit him... Of the thousand mortar bombs with the defenders all but seven had been fired and the rest were ready to be fired when the (mortar) section was overrun.” General T.N. Raina said"You rarely come across such example in the annals of world military history when braving such heavy odds, the men fought till the last bullet and the last man. Certainly the Battle of Rezang La is such a shining example." General K S Thimayya remarked,"I had said many years ago that the Army must have a Ahir Regiment. The supreme sacrifice of the Charlie Company has fulfilled my expectations. I hope a suitable memorial will be built in Ahirwal in their memory so that the generations to come may seek inspiration from the immense courage and valour of their forefathers." The heroes who were awarded the Vir Chakra in 1962 defending Rezang La were Naik Hukum Chand (posthumous), Naik Gulab Singh Yadav, Lance-Naik Ram Singh (posthumous), Sub. Ram Kumar and Sub.Ram Chander. All hailed from the Rewari district of Haryana.
Although the Abhiras constituted a distinct ethnic group, they spoke diverse regional dialects. The language of the Ahirs was known as Ahirani in Khandesh, resembling Marathi. While the Ahirs of Kathiawad and Kachh have a dialect which resembles Gujarathi (Bhandarkar, 1911:17). Abhira bhasha is in fact considered to be Apabhransha. In the ninth century B.C., it had become the language of the people, and was spoken from Saurashtra, and Shastri (1967) proves that poetry was composed in the language around the sixth century B.C. Suryavamsi (1962:14-15) mentions the following two dialects in addition to the ones above--Gaddi, which is currently the dialect spoken in Gadderan, on the outskirts of the Chamba and Kangra hills, and Gandi, spoken in some parts of Madhya Pradesh. Abhiri as a dialect has been recorded by Sanskrit poets such as Bharata and Dandin. Yadav (1916:15), notes that the dialect the people of Ahirwal in Haryana speak, has a resemblance to Rajasthani, and Grierson,(1916:9) considers Ahirwati a branch of eastern Rajasthani and western Hindi.
Legends of the cowherd Krishna and his dances with cowherdesses are mentioned in the Sangam classics. The term Ayarpati (cowherd settlement) is found in Cilappatikaram (Iyer, 1950). It is argued that the term Ayar has been used for the Abhiras in ancient Tamil literature, and V. Kanakasabha Pillai (1904) derives Abhira from the Tamil wordAyir which also means cow. He equates the Ayars with Abhiras, and Suryavanshi (1962:17-18) treats this as evidence of migration of the Abhiras to the south in the first century A.D.
Thus, linguistic evidence is used to support the argument that the Abhiras spread to different parts of India, and that they retained different but related cultural traditions. The most common denominator, as was pointed out earlier, was a descent from the Yadu dynasty and their association with cattle.
 Religious Seats of Yadavas
Besides chiefdoms and jagirs, the Yadavas had peethams (seats) granted to them by virtue of their religious powers. For instance, there were fourteen seats (peethams) among the Yadavas of Warangal according to a sanad granted in 1425 (Shaka Samvat), by Sree Pratapa Rudra, Maharaja of Warangal, to Sree Kondiah Guru, as the head of the fourteen seats. Subsequently when Bhagyanagar was founded by Sultan Abdulla of Kutub Shahi in A.D. 1560 the rights of the yadavas were acknowledged and recognized, and the name Golkonda was substituted for Manugal.
According to the charter awarded by the Sultan Abdulla of Kutub Shahi in 1071 Hijri, Kondiah built the fort for the Sultan by using his charisma in resolving the mystery of the site, and also discovered for him gold coins buried underground. In return, the Sultan gave him the Charter conferring upon Kondiah the rights and privileges due to the head of the fourteen seats, and of twelve classes of Gollas and two classes of shepherds (Kuruba Gollas). Kondiah, although a follower of Basaveshwara (Lingayat), was the head of the Yadava Peethams. Perhaps the Gollas at this time were under the influence of Veerasaivism, although they were incorporated into the Yadava category.
 Political influence
Through numerous political parties such as the Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Republic), Janata Dal the Yadavs have considerable political influence, especially in the North Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Laloo Yadav became the chief minister of Bihar and Mulayam Singh in UP.
Many groups and clans claiming descent from the ancient Yadu clan call themselves Yadavs. The major clans among these are:
* Ahirs (variously called Ahira and Abhira) are divided into clans called Khanap:
o Nandavanshi (descendants of Nanda}
o Gwalvanshi (descendants of Holy Gwals)
o Bhragudev (Central UP )
o Sandilya (Central UP)
o Gosia (Central UP)
o Nirvan (Western UP Chaubisa)
* Adhikari [Bengal and Orissa]
* Bharwad in Gujarath
* Bhatrajus (Andhra Pradesh)
* Dhangars (in Maharashtra and Karnataka), having 108 clans
* Edayar (Tamil Nadu)
* Gaurs (also called Goriya, and mentioned in the Mahabharata)
* Gadri / Gadariya
* Gouda (Orissa)
* Konar Doss,Karayalar(Yadava) (Tamil: கோனார்pillai (in Tamil Nadu and Kerala)*
* Krishnauth (claiming direct lineage from Lord Shri Krishna)*
* Kurubas or kurubagowda, in karnataka and andhra pradesh
* Maniyani,Nayar,Mayar (in Kerala)
* Manjrauth (linked with Jarasandh)
* Mandal & Bhagat (Bihar)
* Saini (Shoorseni/Surasena/Shaursaini)    
* Sassedran( Kerla)
* Deshwal (some city in U.P)
of the major groups called castes many bear names derived from the principal professions they follow or the crafts they practice, for example, the cattle-breeding group takes the significant name of Gawli, derived from a Sanskrit word for cow. The names of the shepherd castes seem to be derived from words meaning sheep. Such is at least the case with Gadaria from 'gadar', on old Hindi word for sheep. Many others of these major groups called castes bear merely tribal or ethic names. Such are for example: Arora, Gujjar, Lohana, Bhatia, Meena, Bhil, Dom, Oraon, Munda, Santal, Koch, Ahir, Mahar, Nayar, Maratha, Gond, Khond, etc.
 Notable Yadavs
* Lord Krishna, was born in the dynasty of Yadu and was known as king of Yadavas.
* Balarama, Elder brother of Lord Krishna.
* Neminatha, The 22nd Teerthankar of Jains & cousin of Krishna.
* Vasudeva, father of Krishna.
* Kartavirya Arjuna (Emperor of Mahismati, also known as Shasrabahu)
* Kunti, sister of Vasudeva and mother of Pandavas and Karna
* Kansa, a tyrannical king of Mathura, who was killed by Krishna
* Ugrasen, the father of Kansa.
* Kanakadasa,greatest devotee of Lord Sri Krishna.
* Kalidasa,greatest sanskrit poet.
* Vijayanagar empire,SriKrishnadevaraya.
* Yadava Dynasty (Deogiri now Daulatabad).
* Wodeyar Dynasty of Mysore, Karnataka.
* Ananda Konar (yadav ruler in Tamilnadu 1200AD he build chengi fort).
* Krishna Konar (yadav ruler in krishnakiri in tamilnadu).
* Hoyasala Dynasty of Karnataka.
* King Katamaraju (Andhra Pradesh).
* Jamin Alagumuthu kone(small king of kattalankulam in tamilnadu 1st freedom
fighter of south india).
* VeeraPandya Kattabomman (1857 Freedom Fighter-The Ideal King)
* Rao Balbir Singh (King of haryana)
* Jijabai (mother of Chhatrapati Shivaji)
* Rao Tula Ram (1857 freedom fighter)
* Pran Sukh Yadav (fought along with Rao Tula Ram Yadav at Nasibpur)
Some scholars, such as Robert Sewell believe that the rulers of Vijayanagara Empire were Kurubas (also known as Yadavas).
Some early inscriptions, dated 1078 and 1090, have implied that the Hoysalas of Mysore were also the descendants of the original Yadava clan, by referring to the Yadava vamsa (clan) as Hoysala vamsa. But there are no records directly linking the Hoysalas to the Yadavas of North India. Calling it 'poetic fancy', William Coelho, author of Hoysala Vamsa, 1950, argues that there is no evidence of even a tradition that traces back their lineage to one of northern origin. S.U. Kamath argues that it was a common practice in royal families of medieval South India to build puranic genealogies-. However, J.N. Singh Yadav, a famous historian, gives the following account in his 'YADAVAS THROUGH THE AGES', " The Hoysalas ruled illustriously for over three centuries and have left in the country imperishable monuments of art and culture. They were family of kings who ruled over practically the whole of the kannada country at the height of their power. They scheduled the hill tribes known as Malepas in the Western Ghats and they assumed the title 'Maleparoleganda'. The account of their origin can be traced in some of their inscriptions. They claimed Sosevura (Sasakapura of Sanskrit writers) as their birthplace. This place has been identified with Angadi of Mudigere Taluk in chikamanglura district. It has been mentioned as the seen of the incident between Sala and the tiger. When Sala,' an ornament of the Yaduvamsa' (Yaduvamsojvala tilakan) was worshiping the goddess Vasantike of Sasakapura, a tiger came from the forest. The holiman Sodutta, who was there gave him his fan saying 'Poysala(Strike, Sala). Sala killed the tiger. From that time the name of Poysala become the designation of the Yadava kings (E.C. VOL. VI, Cm. 20.). Almost the same account, though differing in certain details, is found in many of their inscriptions. According to annother version, when Sala was hunting along the slopes of the Sahya mountains (or the Western Ghats), he was astonished to see a hare (SKt. Sasa) pursuing a tiger, while he was walking alone saying to himself, 'This is heroic soil', a holy muni near by, being afraid of the tiger, called out 'Poy-Sala' and before it could proceed the length of a span Sala slew it with his sword (E.C., VOL. V, PART I B1. 171.). It is after this incident that the place came to be known as Sasakapura.
The founder of the Wodeyar dynasty, Vijaya, also claimed descent from the Yadu and took on the name Yadu-Raya.
According to S.C.Raychoudhary (author of Social, Cultural and Economic History of India), a noted historian, "The Pandya kingdom generally associated with the Pandus of the Mahabarata covered the districts of Madura and Tinnivelly as well as certain portions of south Travancore."
Dr.V. Manickam in his path-breaking work Kongu Nadu gives an expanded version of his doctoral thesis submitted to the university of Madras as follows,"It was noted that the pastoral people(Ayar) of the mullai land in Kongu formed the major component of the Vellalar community of the medieval period.It is Dr.V. Manickam thesis that the Vellalar of Kongu were nothing but the pastoral people of Kongu, of course,with some additions (p-553). However, We come across references to Idaiyar of kiranur, alias Kolumam Konda Cholanallur (SII : 5:283), Kon from the same place (SII : 5: 265,267,269), and Yatavar in two epigraphs from Chevur (Eye Copy 94,98). Further, there are also references to Tiruvayappadi nattar, which indicate the supra-local activities of the herdsmen discussed in chapter 15. The presence of the herdsmen, with the titles as found in the macro region, may be explained as survivors of the pastoral people of the pre-chola period who were reluctant to integrate themselves in the new setup or new additions.
KUTCH SCIENCE FOUNDATION (KUTCH - BHUJ) on Encyclopedia > Dholavira%23Excavation 1514 days 21 hours 59 minutes 2 seconds ago
TOPO MAP information for maruda Takkar
Maruda TAKKAR area of SMALL bat in the middle of the great RANN OF THE KUTCH
Maruda TAKKAR area of SMALL but in the middle of the great RANN OF THE KUTCH. IS HAVING AN ANCIENT PORT OF 15000 YEARS AGO WHEN THERE WAS A PORT. IS OLDER THAN DHOLAVIRA AND MOST ANCIENT PORT OF THE WORLD.
And also for the Maruda TAKKAR area and PORT TO SAIL to go ALL OVER THE WORLD. That was possible TO GO THERE only with the help of Local people who have been there before in their life and with the help of the BSF rangers. So we visited both groups of people BSF Rangers and also local visitors to the RANN and BHANHJANO hills and Also MARUDA TAKKAR.
FROM -Science Group Of INDIA.
President:"Kutch Science Foundation".
Founder :"Kutch Amateurs Astronomers Club - Bhuj - Kutch".
Life Member:"kutch Itihaas Parishad".
Do visit our ABOVE Clubs/Groups of Science Groups of India.
ARUN (USA) on Encyclopedia > A%C3%83%C2%A7a%C3%83%C2%AD berries 1515 days 22 hours 22 minutes 8 seconds ago
Facts About Acai Berry Diet
acai berry comes from the Amazonian palm tree that has a long history of medical usage in Brazil. This berry is known to contain numerous healthy elements, which is why acai berry diet is one of the most popular diets nowadays.
There is no particular acai berry diet but people who want to lose weight use acai berry in combination with other weight loss diet plans. Acai berry diet is usually paired other nutritional ingredients or a colon-cleansing product that can help in weight loss.
Acai berry is famous for its antioxidant properties that are much higher than that of other foods that are also known to have high antioxidant levels such as red wine and blueberries. People who have tried acai berry diet claim that antioxidants enhance vitality and general well being that greatly affects weight loss.
Acai berry diet has a lot of health benefits, which include detoxifying and cleansing the body, supporting cardiovascular health, boosting the immune system, enhancing vision, increasing mental clarity, slowing down the process of aging and reducing insomnia.
Acai berry diet is best for people who want to lose weight because of the combination of nutritional properties such as amino acids, phytosterols and essential fatty acids that work together to enhance metabolism, improve digestion and lessen appetite.
If you are interested in acai berry diet, you can purchase acai berry supplements that come in powder, juice, puree or capsules. Some scientific studies support several of these health claims for acai berry diet. However, be careful in choosing acai berry products in the market because there are many inferior products that are luring customers for free trials, which can be dangerous to the health.
acai berry oprah
Brad Thatcher ( London) on Encyclopedia > Shithead 1526 days 15 hours 25 minutes 19 seconds ago
Shithead – it is the card game most treasured and played by adults, students, travellers and children all across the world. Shithead is not all about the winning, but all about NOT losing! The aim is to get rid of your cards faster than the other players can get rid of theirs!
The card game is so popular as the rules of Shithead are very easy and simple to learn, it is fun, it is fast, and the more experience you gain, the more strategy you will adopt, and the more you will want to play over and over and over.....
With our novelty of Shithead the card game all of the playing cards depict an assortment of hilarious characters, also included in the box are the rules of Shithead, a unique poor carry case and a comical poor stained headpiece for the crowning of the Shithead!
Buy the game here www.infeckious.com
Lau P (Denmark) on 1541 days 1 hour 9 minutes 4 seconds ago
Of course finding "the love of your life" would be the best thing for all, but we have to educate based on what is actually happening in society. We are all humans with sexual urges. "Abstinence only" education is NOT a viable way if you want to lower teen pregnancy rates and STD infections. Proper educations about sex, anatomy, biology and contraception is the only properly proven way to reduce these occurrences.
Honest Opinion (USA) on Crime > Rapes 1548 days 20 hours 42 minutes 14 seconds ago
The U.S. Department of Justice relies on states to identify juvenile sex offenders, defining as “sexual assault” any sexual activity done “not forcibly or against that person's will where the victim is incapable of giving consent because of his/her youth.” Such definitions were originally intended to protect children and teenagers from exploitation by adults. However, they are now applied even when the supposed offender is too young to give consent. The Department notes that virtually all offenses by juveniles involve family members and acquaintances, confirming that many may be incidents of sex play among siblings or friends, or sexual activity within romantic relationships.6 So it is not surprising that statistics would seem to show that our society is being overwhelmed by violent, sex-crazed children and adolescents.
One expert writes that “at least a half-million juveniles commit a hands-on sex crime every year.
Another claims that 1 out of every 20 boys is or will be a child molester.
Both the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and the Center for Sex Offender Management state that one-third to one-half of all child molestation is committed by children themselves.
The U.S. Department of Justice finds that of all ages 7 - 60, “the single age with the greatest number of offenders from the perspective of law enforcement was age 14.
Allan Lucas (Washington, D.C.) on Encyclopedia > District of Columbia home rule 1548 days 21 hours 13 minutes 38 seconds ago
Unknown to most District residents, in 1979 the President of the United States (Jimmy Carter), the Mayor (Marion Barry), The Nelson Commission attorneys (headed by now-U.S. Appellate Judge Judith Rogers), the Director of OMB, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, all Congressional representatives of D.C., Maryland, and Virginia, and the entire City Council, conspired to commit a massive fraud on certain "officers and employees" of the D.C. Department of Corrections. The purpose of the Home Rule Act of 1974, was to set a five-year limit on the separation of federal from newly-granted "municipal" authority, for all district government agencies. Within the Home Rule Act, the specific language reads, "without exception." Yet, against the very principles set within the Home Rule Act, these august bodies quietly inserted within Section 731 of the Act, a "Work-Share Agreement," which continued the D.C. Department of Corrections and its prisoner infirmary (D.C. Jail, the Lorton Reformatory, and D.C. General Hospital's "lockward"), under federal authority with continued federal duties and powers. All, in violation of federal law. You see, after January 2, 1980 no municipal District employee could legally continue to cross the boundaries of the District, and man the 9,000 federal inmate strong prison at Lorton, Virginia, or the federal juvenile facilities at Oak Hill and Cedar Knoll, in Laurel, Maryland. So, the "work-share agreement" was secretly inserted into the language of the Home Rule Act, whereby all of the employees hired after 1980 (who were supposed to work only for the Mayor, with municipal duties and powers)would secretly continue to work under contract to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, until those federal convicts could be eventually absorbed into the federal system (2001). In the meantime, all of the employees and officers of the D.C. Department of Corrections, continued illegally performing a federal duty with federal powers, and receiving federal retirements, health benefits, and using a federal badge, despite the fact that they would never be able to retire on their promised federal retirements, as none of them after January 2, 1980 was a career-federal employee. An intentional scam, that was prefaced by Mayor Barry's assertion to Congress, that before these "contracted" workers could apply for the retirement benefits promised them in 1980, all of them would be fired by a convenient "reduction-in-force." This, before any of them learned, that they had all been placed into a defunct Civil Service Retirement that none of them qualified for, because the District had given-up federal duties and powers, with the start of the Home Rule Act in 1980. Thousands of black men and women, who worked in one of the most primitive and dangerous prison systems in America, were fired before their 20-year federal retirements became fruitful. Retirements that they righfully earned, but were no longer entitled to. And no one knows this scam took place, because the predecessors of the aforementioned high-office scumbags, made sure to keep the secret, before dismantling this gross crime. Just a little 'FYI' on why Lorton, and D.C. General Hospital, really closed down, leaving 9,000 honest black District employees without pensions or futures! Now you know.
John (USA) on Encyclopedia > Lee Teng hui 1549 days 19 hours 22 minutes 52 seconds ago
Lee Teng = Taiwanese
Hui = Liberator
Lee Teng Hui = Taiwanese Liberator
h.jones (UK) on Encyclopedia > Planck volume 1550 days 3 hours 27 minutes 50 seconds ago
The linear version of the planck length is [(4Gh)/c^3]^0.5. The planck radius is [Gh/c^3]^0.5. We live in a linear universe with spherical planets and stars but the number of Planck units in any mass is Mc^2/h, therefore, the Schwarzchild surface area of any mass is (Mc^2)/h x (Planck radius)^2 x 4pi.
Therefore, Planck area = (Planck radius)^2 x 4pi. Planck volume = (Planck radius)^3 x 8pi.
Planck length = 8.1x10^-35m.
Planck radius = 4.05 x 10^-35m.
Linda (Rock View Estates, Moline) on Encyclopedia > Moline, Illinois 1550 days 12 hours 37 minutes 18 seconds ago
There are condos and apts. on the hillside of 35 St, up from 38th Ave, and some duplexes on 34th St and 35th St, however, these are mixed with homes. If you look at Virtual or Goggle Earth, you will see many pools at these single family homes, also. Homes mostly were built, starting in the early 70's and later. The duplexes run from $700 to $1000 for rent. It also has a great view of the distant planes landing at the airport and is only minutes from John Deere Road and Interstate 74.
Uptown area landmark is First National Bank, also. It's been there since the 50's or before. Holst Kakert moved after a fire a few years ago. Sacred Heart Church is also a landmark of this area, along with the American Legion.
Wharton area also has Country Style Ice Cream which has been there as long as Whiteys. The men who started these were brothers. One is soft serve and the other, hard.
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