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Buffaloheart (USA) on Encyclopedia > Green River (Kentucky) 1640 days 8 hours 1 minute 41 seconds ago
The Southern Cherokee Nation in 1893 the Governor John Y. Brown, recognized the Southern Cherokee Nation as an Indian tribe. The Southern Cherokee still live in Henderson, Co today (www.southerncherokeenation.net) - Our new website is www.southerncherokeenationky.com - would you please update this blog. If you have questions please feel free to contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Wado for all that you do for Native Americans.
Smoke and Signals Skyward
MOHIT RAJPUT (MOHIT_RAJPUT1992@REDIFF.COM) on Encyclopedia > James Hargreaves (chemist) 1649 days 17 hours 2 minutes ago
The Castner-Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide, invented by Hamilton Castner and Karl Kellner in the 1890's.
The apparatus shown is divided into two types of cells separated by slate walls. The first type, shown on the right and left of the diagram, uses an electrolyte of of sodium chloride solution, a graphite anode (A), and a mercury cathode (M). The other type of cell, shown in the center of the diagram, uses an electrolyte of sodium hydroxide solution, a mercury anode (M), and an iron cathode (D). Note that the mercury electrode is shared between the two cells. This is achieved by having the walls separating the cells dip below the level of the electrolytes but still allow the mercury to flow beneath them.
The reaction at anode (A) is:
2Cl– → Cl2 + 2e–
The chlorine gas that results vents at the top of the outside cells where it is collected as a byproduct of the process. The reaction at the mercury cathode in the outer cells is
2Na+ + 2e– → 2Na (amalgam)
The sodium metal formed by this reaction dissolves in the mercury to form an amalgam. The mercury conducts the current from the outside cells to the center cell. In addition, a rocking mechanism (B shown by fulcrum on the left and rotating eccentric on the right) agitates the mercury to transport the dissolved sodium metal from the outside cells to the center cell.
The anode reaction in the center cell takes place at the interface between the mercury and the sodium hydroxide solution.
2Na (amalgam) → 2Na+ + 2e–
Finally at the iron cathode (D) of the center cell the reaction is
2H2O + 2e– → 2OH– + H2
The net effect is that the concentration of sodium chloride in the outside cells decreases and the concentration of sodium hydroxide in the center cell increases. As the process commences some sodium hydroxide solution is withdrawn from center cell as output product and is replaced with water. Sodium chloride is added to the outside cells to replace what has been electrolized.
The first patent for electrolyzing brine was granted in England in 1851 to Charles Watt. His process was not an economically feasible method for producing sodium hydroxide though because it could not prevent the chlorine that formed in the brine solution from reacting with its other constituents. Hamilton Castner solved the mixing problem with the invention of the mercury cell and was granted a U.S. patent in 1892. Austrian chemist, Karl Kellner arrived at a similar solution at about the same time. In order to avoid a legal battle they became partners in 1895, founding the Castner-Kellner Alkali Company, which built plants employing the the process throughout Europe. The mercury cell process continues in use to this day. Current-day mercury cell plant operations are criticized for environmental release of mercury  leading in some cases to severe mercury poisoning as occurred in Ontario Minamata disease. Due to these concerns, mercury cell plants are being phased out, and a sustained effort is being made to reduce mercury emissions from existing plants.
Joe (NJ) on Encyclopedia > Kajukenbo 1654 days 7 hours 32 minutes 59 seconds ago
One could most likely train in Chinese Kenpo, work some basic boxing/basic wrestling and have an arsenal that might equal Kaju for self-defense purposes.
Sally Goodson (Houston, Texas) on Encyclopedia > William T. Anderson 1655 days 8 hours 40 minutes 47 seconds ago
A very good comparison of William T. Anderson and William C. Anderson of Brownwood, Texas, can be found at:
This really should be an external link on this site. It shows that the gentleman in Brownwood, Texas was not Bloody Bill that history recognizes.
Georgi (Moscow) on Encyclopedia > Evolution 1656 days 17 hours 9 minutes 43 seconds ago
One can see:
"In famous publications, Thermodynamic Theory of the Evolution of Living Beings is a 1997, 142-page book, written by Russian physical chemist Georgi Gladyshev, which set forth the first unified theory of the origin and evolution of living beings from the view point of thermodynamics, built on the chemical thermodynamics work of American mathematical engineer Willard Gibbs."
Tara (USA) on People > Teenage birth rate 1668 days 7 hours 51 minutes 17 seconds ago
Unfortunately, Jamaica should deinitely be on this list..Not only are babies are having babies at an alarming rate, but too many children (and adults alike) are technically not even known citizens of Jamaica, since they were not registered at birth (I obtained over 100 birth certificates in my year of service in Jamaica, and that was one small town). Aside from this, there is little or NO sex education in the schools, esp the poor rural areas, and its not uncommon for women to not understand how they got pregnant, even after giving birth to several children.
Jasmine, Knowledge is power! http://ezinearticles.com/?Teenage-Pregnancy-In-Jamaica---The-Reasons-Behind-This-Problem&id=930799
According to UNICEF 2006,
Teen pregnancy, double exclusion: Approximately 20% of births are given by adolescents. In other words a child gives birth to a child in one out of 5 births. Had all teenage pregnancies been brought to terms the rate would be even higher. This is attributable to a number of factors including high rate of forced sex, transactional sex, low rate of contraceptive use, early sexual initiation, and poor access to information and skills on safe and responsible sex....About one-third (32.8 percent) of women experiencing pregnancy between the ages of 15 and 24 years first conceived while still in school and only 34 percent of adolescent mothers return to school after giving birth (up from 16 percent in 1993) (Friedman 1999).
No official existence for 10% of children under one: A 2004 study found that about 10% of births are not registered within the first year of life. The right to immediate registration continues to be violated despite the fact that since 2000 in excess of 96% of total births have occurred in hospitals (98.2% in 2004). Children who are not registered are less likely to be provided appropriate care and protection as their existence is not documented – they are invisible.
"Rates of teenage pregnancy in Jamaica are among the highest in the Caribbean, with the birth rate for 15-19 year olds at 108 births per 1,000 women. Forty-five percent of all Jamaican women who are 15 to 24 years old have been pregnant by 19 years of age, and 41% have given birth. Females between the ages of 10 and 19 account for roughly 25% of all births in Jamaica and about 22% of births in 15-19 year-olds are second births." http://www.pregnancydigest.info/society-and-teenage-pregnancy-in-jamaica/
RAO VIKRAM YADAV (GURGAON) on Encyclopedia > Ahir 1673 days 15 hours 31 minutes 53 seconds ago
Yadav or Yadava (Sanskrit: यादव, yādava) is an Indian caste that claims descent from Yadu. Yadavas have been mentioned as one of the panchjanya tribes in ancient Vedic texts.
Yadavs generally follow Vaishnav traditions, share Dharmic religious beliefs, and are located in different parts of India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. Traditionally, the Yadavs are classified under the Kshatriya varna in Hinduism.
In Hindu mythology, Yadvas are the descendants of Yadu, the eldest son of King Yayati. Yayati removed Yadu from the succession because he rebelled against Yayati's wishes. Yadu and his descendants ruled in Jambudvipa, according to mythology, and later overthrew many Puru rulers.
According to the Bhagvad Gita, Yadavas possessed great mystical knowledge, as far back as Manu, and much knowledge was also given to Surya and Ikshavaku in ancient times. According to Dharmic mythology, Jarasandh, Kansa's father-in-law, and king of Magadha attacked Yadavas to avenge Kansa's death. Yadavas had to shift their capital from Mathura (central Aryavart) to Dwaraka (on the western coast of Aryavart) on the Sindhu.
Yadavas as an ethnic category
According to M.S.A. Rao (an eminent sociologist), Yadava is an ethnic category consisting of several allied castes, which together constitute about one-tenth of the total population of India. These castes are found in different parts of India, Burma, Nepal and Sri Lanka and are known as the "Ahir" in the Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan; the "Goalas" and "Sadgopa" or Gauda in Bengal and Orissa; Dhangar in Maharashtra; Yadava in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and Idayan and Konar in Tamil Nadu. There are also several sub-regional names such as Thetwar and Rawat in Madhya Pradesh, and Mahakul (Great Family) in Bihar
Two things are common to these cognate castes. First, they claim to be descendants of the Yadu Dynasty (Yadava) to which Lord Krishna belonged. Secondly, many castes in this category have occupations relating to cattle. The Krishna mythology lends a kind of legitimacy to the pastoral occupations relating to cattle, and as the castes following these occupations are to be found in almost all parts of India, the Yadava category encompasses a range of related castes.
Besides this mythical origin of the Yadavas, semi-historical and historical evidence exists for equating the Ahirs with the Yadavas. It is argued that the term Ahir comes from Abhira (Behandarkar, 1911;16), who where once found in different parts of India, and who in several places wielded political power. The Abhiras are equated with Ahirs, Gopas and Gollas, and all of them are considered Yadavas.
M.S.A Rao further states that the Allahabad iron pillar inscription of Samudragupta (fourth century A.D) mentions the Abhiras as one of the tribal states of west and south west India, who paid homage to the emperor (churn, 1943:81). A fourth century (A.D) inscription found in Nashik speaks of an Abhira king, and there is proof that in the middle of the fourth century the Abhiras were settled in eastern Rajputana and Malwa. Similarly, when the Kathis arrived in Gujarat in the eighth century, they found the greater part of the country in the possession of the Ahirs. The Mirzapur district of the United Provinces has a tract known as Ahraura, named after the Ahir, and near Jhansi, another piece of country was called Ahirwar. The Ahirs were also kings of Nepal at the beginning of the Christian era. Khandesh and the Tapti valley were other regions where they were kings.
This indicates that the Abhiras, who rose to political prominence in the second century B.C., had a chequered political career until the fourteenth century A.D when their importance was over-shadowed by the Mughals, but even during the Mughal period the Ahir and Golla rajahs were a power to be reckoned with. The Gavlis rose to political power in Deogarh, on the Chhindwara Plateau in the central provinces. The Saugar traditions trace the Gavli supremacy to a much later date, as the tracts of Etawa and Khurai are held to have been governed by chieftains till the close of the seventeenth century (Russell, 1916:II, 20).
Abhira, which is considered to be a subgroup of the Yadava caste today, may be unrelated to the ancient Yadavas. Linkage is obscure and views vary from scholar to scholar. The term was used for cowherds initially but has been extended to include Yaduvanshi and Nandavanshis too by its corrupt version Ahir. Abhira means "fearless" and appears in most ancient historical references dating back to the Abhira kingdom of the Saraswati Valley, who spoke Abhiri until the Buddhist period. Analysis of Hindu scriptural references of the Abhira kingdoms has led some scholars to conclude that it was merely a term used for Holy Yadava Kingdoms. In Bhagavatam, the Gupta dynasty has been alled Abhir.
Although the Abhiras constituted a distinct ethnic group, they spoke diverse regional dialects. The language of the Ahirs was known as Ahirani in Khandesh, resembling Marathi. While the Ahirs of Kathiawad and Kachh have a dialect which resembles Gujarathi (Bhandarkar, 1911:17). Abhira bhasha is in fact considered to be Apabhransha. In the ninth century B.C., it had become the language of the people, and was spoken from Saurashtra, and Shastri (1967) proves that poetry was composed in the language around the sixth century B.C. Suryavamsi (1962:14-15) mentions the following two dialects in addition to the ones above--Gaddi, which is currently the dialect spoken in Gadderan, on the outskirts of the Chamba and Kangra hills, and Gandi, spoken in some parts of Madhya Pradesh. Abhiri as a dialect has been recorded by Sanskrit poets such as Bharata and Dandin. Yadav (1916:15), notes that the dialect the people of Ahirwal in Haryana speak, has a resemblance to Rajasthani, and Grierson,(1916:9) considers Ahirwati a branch of eastern Rajasthani and western Hindi.
Legends of the cowherd Krishna and his dances with cowherdesses are mentioned in the Sangam classics. The term Ayarpati (cowherd settlement) is found in Cilappatikaram (Iyer, 1950). It is argued that the term Ayar has been used for the Abhiras in ancient Tamil literature, and V. Kanakasabha Pillai (1904) derives Abhira from the Tamil word Ayir which also means cow. He equates the Ayars with Abhiras, and Suryavamsi (1962:17-18) treats this as evidence of migration of the Abhiras to the south in the first century A.D.
Thus, linguistic evidence is used to support the argument that the Abhiras spread to different parts of India, and that they retained different but related cultural traditions. The most common denominator, as was pointed out earlier, was a descent from the Yadu dynasty and their association with cattle.
 Religious Seats of Yadavas
Besides chiefdoms and jagirs, the Yadavas had peethams (seats) granted to them by virtue of their religious powers. For instance, there were fourteen seats (peethams) among the Yadavas of Warangal according to a sanad granted in 1425 (Shaka Samvat), by Sree Pratapa Rudra, Maharaja of Warangal, to Sree Kondiah Guru, as the head of the fourteen seats. Subsequently when Bhagyanagar was founded by Sultan Abdulla of Kutub Shahi in A.D. 1560 the rights of the yadavas were acknowledged and recognized, and the name Golkonda was substituted for Manugal.
According to the charter awarded by the Sultan Abdulla of Kutub Shahi in 1071 Hijri, Kondiah built the fort for the Sultan by using his charisma in resolving the mystery of the site, and also discovered for him gold coins buried underground. In return, the Sultan gave him the Charter conferring upon Kondiah the rights and privileges due to the head of the fourteen seats, and of twelve classes of Gollas and two classes of shepherds (Kuruba Gollas). Kondiah, although a follower of Basaveshwara (Lingayat), was the head of the Yadava Peethams. Perhaps the Gollas at this time were under the influence of Veerasaivism, although they were incorporated into the Yadava category.
 Political influence
Through numerous political parties such as the Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Republic), Janata Dal the Yadavs have considerable political influence, especially in the North Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Laloo Yadav became the chief minister of Bihar and Mulayam Singh in UP.
Many groups and clans claiming descent from the ancient Yadu clan call themselves Yadavs. The major clans among these are:
Ahirs (variously called Ahira and Abhira) are divided into clans called Khanap:
Nandavanshi (descendants of Nanda}
Gwalvanshi (descendants of Holy Gwals)
Bhragudev (Central UP )
Sandilya (Central UP)
Gosia (Central UP)
Nirvan (Western UP Chaubisa)
Adhikari [Bengal and Orissa]
Bharwad in Gujarath
Bhatrajus (Andhra Pradesh)
Dhangars (in Maharashtra and Karnataka), having 108 clans
Edayar (Tamil Nadu)
Gaurs (also called Goriya, and mentioned in the Mahabharata)
Gadri / Gadariya
Konar (Yadava) (Tamil: கோனார் (in Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
Kurubas or Gollas (in Karnataka)
Krishnauth (claiming direct lineage from Lord Shri Krishna)
Maniyani,Ayar,Mayar and Nair (in Kerala)
Manjrauth (linked with Jarasandh)
Mandal & Bhagat (Bihar)
Saini (Shoorseni/Surasena/Shaursaini)    
Deshwal (some city in U.P)
of the major groups called castes many bear names derived from the principal professions they follow or the crafts they practice, for example, the cattle-breeding group takes the significant name of Gauli, derived from a Sanskrit word for cow. The names of the shepherd castes seem to be derived from words meaning sheep. Such is at least the case with Gadaria from 'gadar', on old Hindi word for sheep. Many others of these major groups called castes bear merely tribal or ethic names. Such are for example: Arora, Gujar, Lohana, Bhatia, Mina, Bhil, Dom, Oraon, Munda, Santal, Koch, Ahir, Mahar, Nayar, Maratha, Gond, Khond, etc.
Shree Raje Ratnasing Jadhavrao, Shree Raje Krushnasing
Shrimant Namdar Sardar Raje Shambhusing Amarsing Jadhavrao
Shrimant Sau Khashibaisaheb Jadhavrao, The Queen of Malegaon
Lord Krishna, was born in the dynasty of Yadu and was known as king of Yadavas
Balram, Elder brother of Lord Krishna
Neminatha, The 22nd Teerthankar of Jains & cousin of Krishna
Vasudeva, father of Krishna
Kartavirya Arjuna (Emperor of Mahismati, also known as Shasrabahu)
Kunti, sister of Vasudeva and mother of Pandavas and Karna
Kansa, a tyrannical king of Mathura, who was killed by Krishna
Ugrasen, the father of Kansa
Yadava Dynasty (Deogiri now Daulatabad)
Wodeyar Dynasty of Mysore, Karnataka
Hoyasala Dynasty of Karnataka
King Katamaraju (Andhra Pradesh)
VeeraPandya Kattabomman (1857 Freedom Fighter-The Ideal King)
Rao Balbir Singh (King of haryana)
Jijabai (mother of Chhatrapati Shivaji)
Rao Tula Ram (1857 freedom fighter)
Pran Sukh Yadav (fought along with Rao Tula Ram Yadav at Nasibpur)
Some scholars, such as Robert Sewell believe that the rulers of Vijayanagara Empire were Kurubas (also known as Yadavas).
Some early inscriptions, dated 1078 and 1090, have implied that the Hoysalas of Mysore were also the descendants of the original Yadava clan, by referring to the Yadava vamsa (clan) as Hoysala vamsa. But there are no records directly linking the Hoysalas to the Yadavas of North India. Calling it 'poetic fancy', William Coelho, author of Hoysala Vamsa, 1950, argues that there is no evidence of even a tradition that traces back their lineage to one of northern origin. S.U. Kamath argues that it was a common practice in royal families of medieval South India to build puranic genealogies-. However, J.N. Singh Yadav, a famous historian, gives the following account in his 'YADAVAS THROUGH THE AGES', " The Hoysalas ruled illustriously for over three centuries and have left in the country imperishable monuments of art and culture. They were family of kings who ruled over practically the whole of the kannada country at the height of their power. They scheduled the hill tribes known as Malepas in the Western Ghats and they assumed the title 'Maleparoleganda'. The account of their origin can be traced in some of their inscriptions. They claimed Sosevura (Sasakapura of Sanskrit writers) as their birthplace. This place has been identified with Angadi of Mudigere Taluk in chikamanglura district. It has been mentioned as the seen of the incident between Sala and the tiger. When Sala,' an ornament of the Yaduvamsa' (Yaduvamsojvala tilakan) was worshiping the goddess Vasantike of Sasakapura, a tiger came from the forest. The holiman Sodutta, who was there gave him his fan saying 'Poysala(Strike, Sala). Sala killed the tiger. From that time the name of Poysala become the designation of the Yadava kings (E.C. VOL. VI, Cm. 20.). Almost the same account, though differing in certain details, is found in many of their inscriptions. According to annother version, when Sala was hunting along the slopes of the Sahya mountains (or the Western Ghats), he was astonished to see a hare (SKt. Sasa) pursuing a tiger, while he was walking alone saying to himself, 'This is heroic soil', a holy muni near by, being afraid of the tiger, called out 'Poy-Sala' and before it could proceed the length of a span Sala slew it with his sword (E.C., VOL. V, PART I B1. 171.). It is after this incident that the place came to be known as Sasakapura.
The founder of the Wodeyar dynasty, Vijaya, also claimed descent from the Yadu and took on the name Yadu-Raya.
According to S.C.Raychoudhary (author of Social, Cultural and Economic History of India), a noted historian, "The Pandya kingdom generally associated with the Pandus of the Mahabarata covered the districts of Madura and Tinnivelly as well as certain portions of south Travancore."
Dr.V. Manickam in his path-breaking work Kongu Nadu gives an expanded version of his doctoral thesis submitted to the university of Madras as follows,"It was noted that the pastoral people(Ayar) of the mullai land in Kongu formed the major component of the Vellalar community of the medieval period.It is Dr.V. Manickam thesis that the Vellalar of Kongu were nothing but the pastoral people of Kongu, of course,with some additions (p-553). However, We come across references to Idaiyar of kiranur, alias Kolumam Konda Cholanallur (SII : 5:283), Kon from the same place (SII : 5: 265,267,269), and Yatavar in two epigraphs from Chevur (Eye Copy 94,98). Further, there are also references to Tiruvayappadi nattar, which indicate the supra-local activities of the herdsmen discussed in chapter 15. The presence of the herdsmen, with the titles as found in the macro region, may be explained as survivors of the pastoral people of the pre-chola period who were reluctant to integrate themselves in the new setup or new additions.
Swami Ramdev, The Yogacharya ranked first among the most popular persons in India.
Ram Baran Yadav President of Nepal
B. P. Mandal, Ex CM, Bihar, Chairman of Mandal Commission
Mulayam Singh Yadav, Ex CM, Uttar Pradesh & President of SP
Daroga Prasad Rai, Ex CM, Bihar
Ram Naresh Yadav, Ex CM, Uttar Pradesh
Lalu Prasad Yadav, Indian Railway Minister & President of RJD, Ex CM Bihar
Babulal Gaur, Ex CM, Madhya Pradesh
Subhash Yadav Former Deputy Chief Minister, Madhya Pradesh
Siddaramaiah, Former Deputy Chief Minister of Karnataka
Sharad Yadav, President JD(U), MP, Former Union Minister
Gajendra Prasad Himanshu, Ex Deputy Speaker/Minister, Bihar
Kannappan (Former PWD Minister of Tamil Nadu (BECAUSE OF HIM TN GOVT DECLARED HOLIDAY FOR KRISHNA JAYANTI AND IT CONTINUES TILL TODAY)
Upendra Yadav, Minister of Foreign Affirs, Nepal Govt.
Dr. Karan Singh Yadav, Veteran Heart Sergeon & M.P., Alwar(Rajasthan)
Tostan (Germany) on Encyclopedia > List of ship classes of the Bundesmarine and Deutsche Marine 1681 days 11 hours 15 minutes 5 seconds ago
"Former NVA units" -> Type 621 Tarantul I
The NVA had only 5 units with pennant numbers 571—575.
The P6166 is the Bundesmarine-Number for 572.
Only this ship go US Navy, the USNS Hiddensee. Today is in Battleship Cove Museum in Fall River, Massachusetts.
3 scrapped and one(the 575) as museum in Peenemünde, Germany
David (UK) on Encyclopedia > Parka fetish 1684 days 9 hours 20 minutes 21 seconds ago
Also, a big part of this fetish interest is to do with the snorkel style hood.
This 'snorkel' style hood is quite tight fitting and very deep, so when zipped right up fully encases the wearer in a fur and nylon shell tunnel ;-)
Elie Elhadj (London, UK) on Encyclopedia > Battle of Ain Dara 1697 days 13 hours 40 minutes 17 seconds ago
The Battle for Lebanon
The battle for Lebanon is a battle between a relatively rich minority (numerically) among Lebanon’s four million people and a poor majority. The minority, which is anti-Syria (and Iran), encompasses certain factions within the Maronite and other Christian communities; traditionally anti-Syria, certain Sunni Muslims; traditionally pro-Syria but changed sides of late; and certain Druzes who were pro-Syria but changed sides as well. The majority, which supports Syria (and Iran), includes Maronite and other Christians, the downtrodden Shiites, Sunni Muslims, and Druzes. Today, the rich minority is guesstimated at 40% of the population, winning in the 2005 parliamentary election 72 out of 128 seats. The poor majority, estimated at about 60% won 56 seats. A flawed election law and Saad Al-Hariri’s billions skewed the results. Today, the rich minority is guesstimated at 40% of the population, winning in the 2005 parliamentary election 72 out of 128 seats. The poor majority, estimated at about 60% won 56 seats. A flawed election law and Saad Al-Hariri’s billions skewed the results.
Saad Al-Hariri is a son of Rafiq Al-Hariri. He holds Saudi and Lebanese nationalities. Rafiq Al-Hariri was born in 1944 in the Lebanese port city of Sidon to a Sunni Muslim family of modest means. In 1965, he left for Saudi Arabia, working as an accountant in a construction company. He moved from rags to riches swiftly. Fifteen years later, Rafiq Al-Hariri was on the Forbes top 100. After his assassination in 2006, his family members featured in Forbes’ list of billionaires in 2006. Saudi Oger, a construction company owned by Al-Hariri is a thriving business in Saudi Arabia today specializing in the construction and maintenance of profligate palaces for the senior Al-Sauds.
In 1978, Rafiq Al-Hariri and family were made citizens of Saudi Arabia. He returned to Lebanon in the early 1980’s; implanted by the Saudi ruling family in response to the absence of a viable Sunni leadership in the country and the rising power of the Shiite population since the early 1960s under the leadership of the cleric Musa Al-Sadr (disappeared in 1978 while on a visit to Libya).
The Shiites have been for centuries the downtrodden of Lebanon, suffering abject poverty, illiteracy, and ill health. Marginalized and discriminated against as second-class citizens by the government and society, Lebanon’s Shiites have suffered centuries of indignity and humiliation. Their liberation started in 1959 with the arrival to the coastal city of Tyre of Musa Al-Sadr, an Iranian-born Lebanese Shiite cleric, son of a long line of distinguished Shiite scholars. At the turn of the nineteenth century, his ancestors escaped Ottoman persecution from Tyre to Iraq’s holy city of Najaf, then to Iran.
A close religious connection between Iran and the Shiites of Lebanon had been established some five centuries ago. Shah Ismail made Shiism the state religion of the Safavid dynasty (1502-1737) instead of Sunnism, presumably to fight the Sunni Ottomans. Lacking the clerics to convert and teach Shiism to his subjects, Shiite scholars from southern Lebanon (Mount Amel) were invited to establish schools and train Persian clerics in Shiism. Ever since that time a theological bridge between Iran and Lebanon flourished.
Musa Al-Sadr awakened in the Shiites of Lebanon a sense of dignity and worth unknown before. He replaced their innate self-pity, sorrow, and submission by a fiery spirit of hope, defiance, and revolution. In 1974, Al-Sadr formed the Movement of the Disinherited, a political movement aimed at social justice. In 1975, the Amal movement was formed as the militia wing of the Movement of the Disinherited. After Al-Sadr’s disappearance in 1978, the momentum of his work gave rise in the early 1980s to Hezbollah, a militia trained, organized, and funded by Ayatollah Khomeini’s Revolutionary Guards. In addition to its military wing, Hezbollah organizes extensive networks of social development programs, running hospitals, schools, and social help for the poor.
In Lebanon, Rafiq Al-Hariri started to establish his power base through making large donations and contributions to various groups and causes. He laid the groundwork for the 1989 Taif Accord, which Saudi Arabia organized. Taif ended the fifteen-year civil war (1975-1990) and paved the way in 1992 for Al-Hariri to become prime minister. He was prime minister from 1992 to 1998 and again from 2000 until his resignation on 20 October 2004. Hariri was assassinated on 14 February 2005.
Until the cataclysmic events of September 11, 2001 took place Rafiq Al-Hariri was content to rule in Lebanon under Syria’s domination. Syrian troops entered Lebanon in 1976 at the request of the Lebanese. They put an end to Lebanon’s civil war. Syrian troops were in Lebanon for 29 years before being forced to withdraw unceremoniously on April 26, 2005, in accordance with Security Council Resolution 1559 of September 2004. After 9/11, however, matters changed.
The Bush administration’s response to 9/11 was to want to reshape the Middle East; change the regimes of Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, and Syria, destroy Hezbollah in Lebanon plus Hamas and Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip; and, force a settlement in the Arab Israeli conflict on Israel’s terms. US forces occupied Afghanistan in October 2001 and Iraq in April 2003. Saudi Arabia would play a major role in Washington’s unfolding plans.
That 15 out of the 19 murderers on 9/11 were Saudis threatens catastrophe to the Al-Sauds. Fearing America’s retaliation, the Al-Sauds performed an act of preemptive surrender. Events since 2001 suggest that the Al-Sauds have become even more obsequious and obvious in their submissiveness to Washington than ever before.
Traditionally, Saudis traveled the more than a thousand kilometers or so to Lebanon as tourists seeking temperate climate, breathtaking mountains, beautiful women, delicious cuisine, and abundant alcohol. Post 9/11, Saudi Arabia’s interest in Lebanon took a new purpose; install in Beirut a pro Washington government, destroy Hezbollah, and change the regime in Damascus. The instrument would be a Trojan horse loaded with Saudi money called Al-Hariri.
Since the 2005 parliamentary elections the Al-Hariri/ Gemayel/ Geagea/ Junblat alliance, known as 14 March alliance, has been in control of the Lebanese parliament and the cabinet. Prime minister Fouad Seniora has been for years an employee of Al-Hariri companies serving as finance director. Seniora was made finance minister in Rafiq Al-Hariri’s cabinets then prime minister in 2005 by Saad Al-Hariri and his Saudi handlers. The 14 March alliance succeeded in removing Syria’s troops from Lebanon in 2005.
The Saudi plan, however, has run into trouble. Hezbollah proved to be more resilient than to be sidelined easily. In July 2006, Israel failed to destroy Hezbollah despite 33 days of relentless bombardment from the air, land, and sea using the most sophisticated weapons that destroyed much of Lebanon’s civilian infrastructure and killed more than 1,000 civilians. Also, when Lebanon’s cabinet decided on May 6, 2008 that Hezbollah’s communication network should be dismantled and that the head of Beirut’s airport security must be removed, Hezbollah reacted violently forcing the cabinet on May 14, 2008 to reverse the two decisions. In the aftermath of this showdown, government and opposition representatives reached on May 21, 2008 in Doha, Qatar a power-sharing agreement in which the Hezbollah-led opposition increased its seats in the cabinet from six to eleven out of 30 seats; winning a veto power over the cabinet decisions.
Syria objects to Saudi Arabia’s political encroachment of Lebanon. Syria and Lebanon have been over the millennia one society. Natural Syria has always signified Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine. A look at the map shows why. Lebanon, a small land of 10,230 square kilometers, is surrounded by Syria from all sides (375 kilometers), the Mediterranean Sea to the West (225 kilometers) and a strip of land to the south bordering Israel (79 kilometers). Less than two-hour car ride separates Damascus from Beirut. Many of the families in Beirut and Tripoli, for example, have branches in Damascus and Homs. Syrians and Lebanese share the Arabic language, values, customs, habits, food, music, let alone centuries of being ruled as one entity. They became two separate states after the French mandate ended in the mid 1940s.
Syria fears that threats to its own national security could come from Lebanon in two ways. First, Damascus worries that a Saudi controlled government in Lebanon would compromise the defenses of Syria’s own border with Israel. Given their contiguous geography, the military defenses of the Syrian and Lebanese fronts need, in Syria’s view, to be closely coordinated if the Syrian front is to remain viable. Post 9/11, Riyadh’s intentions and policies became suspect. Under such conditions, Syria would strive to keep Lebanon’s southern border from falling under the control of a Saudi controlled government in Beirut.
Secondly, Syria considers Wahhabi extremism and intolerance towards other Islamic sects and religions as a threat to Syria’s age-old religious and ethnic harmony. To Syria’s ruling Alawites, Wahhabi belief that the Alawites, indeed all Shiites, are non-Muslim heretics could endanger the very existence of the Alawites and their regime. To most Syrians, Wahhabism is a primitive doctrine exploited by the Al-Sauds to subdue the populace in the name of extremist interpretation of Islam; an anathema to Syria’s moderate Hanafi Sunni rite, let alone Syria’s other religions and sects. As such, Syria would resist Saudi Wahhabi attempts to make Lebanon a gateway to Syria. It may be predicted that even if Syria reaches its own peace agreement with Israel in the future, Damascus’ would continue to strive to keep Lebanon free of Wahhabi control. That certain factions amongst Lebanon’s Maronites and moderate Sunnis, let alone the Druzes, have found it politically convenient to ally themselves with the Wahhabis is like the lamb befriending the wolf.
It ought to be remembered that Wahhabi designs over Syria (and Lebanon) go back to the early days of independence from the French Mandate. In the early 1950s, until the fall of the Baghdad monarchy, the Hashemite kings in Iraq and Jordan were in the way of Wahhabi ambitions. In the late 1950s, Nasser’s Egypt was in the way. To many in Syria, Lebanon is not for sale to Saudi Arabia.
Author: The Islamic Shield. Arab Resistance to Democratic and Religious Reforms.
albert van der Horst (email@example.com) on Encyclopedia > Electronic organ 1701 days 9 hours 33 minutes 41 seconds ago
There is no way electronic organs have "evolved" into Hammond organs.
1. Hammond organs are very specific instruments, created in a special era. Like Cavaille organs they can be restored, and replica's built, but they don't "evolve".
2. Hammond organs are not electronic at all! They are electromechanic devices which results in their unique sound. A modern synthesizer that can have a saxophone sound in it, that doesn't make it a saxophone. It also can have a Hammond sound in it. That doesn't make it a Hammond organ. As a rule of thumb, if it weights less than 80 kg it can't be a Hammond organ (The iron in the tone wheels weight that much).
3. Only some of the electronic organs were designed to imitate church organs.
Mostly it was a new and unique instrument, and creative people have worked hard to explore all its possibilities. Only classic bozo's would
deny it the right to occupy its new and unique place.
Electronic organs of the 1970 have evolved into a plethora of electronic keyboard instruments, so you better leave that out, if what is currently there is the only you have to say.
Harikesh Maurya (M. Pharm) (Mumbai (India)) on Encyclopedia > Phenyramidol 1716 days 12 hours 36 minutes 8 seconds ago
Phenyramidol Activity: Pheniramidol probably inhibits the metabolism of oral anticoagulants, thus potentiate their activity.
J. Spence (Burbank, Ca) on Encyclopedia > John McCain 1719 days 22 hours 53 minutes 2 seconds ago
John McCain Vietnam War POW CIA & Department of Defense Files
CIA and Defense Department files related to Jon McCain's captivity as a POW during the Vietnam War. Includes transcripts of propaganda broadcasts using McCain, a report written by his father Admiral McCain about POWs and the Vietnam War, and a collection of CIA files with things like intelligence reports on the "Hanoi Hilton."
Dr. John Zammit (Malta) on Encyclopedia > Liberalism worldwide 1731 days 12 hours 16 minutes 35 seconds ago
Malta's Liberal Party is now The Alleanza Liberal-Demokratika Malta with website: www.freewebs.com/liberalalliance and www.malta-liberals.org
Bill Desmond (Kincardine Ontario) on Encyclopedia > HMCS Shearwater (ship) 1734 days 22 hours 34 minutes 42 seconds ago
The aft mast of HMS (later HMCS) Shearwater, was, until just 2007, erected on display at Ambassador park in windsor Ontario, along the Detroit River- (near the Ambassador Bridge, at the foot of California Avenue on the river front)It was donated to the city many years before by a Mr. kovinsky, a local scrap dealer. Rot and the concern over it coming down in a wind forced the city to remove it last year. The base, with a large stone plaque decribing the ship is still in place. There is still some bits of wood from the mast on the base, and I have a piece of it.
I remember this mast and the flags flying from it from my earliest childhood, as we lived near the river.
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