Country vs country: Australia and French Southern and Antarctic Lands compared: Geography


  • Area > Comparative: The area of various small countries expressed in comparison to various areas within the United States of America.
  • Climate: A brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
  • Coastline: The total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea.
  • Elevation extremes > Highest point: Highest point above sea level
  • Elevation extremes > Lowest point: This entry is derived from Geography > Elevation extremes, which includes both the highest point and the lowest point.
  • Environment > Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
    Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain).
    Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England.
    Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog.
    Afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire.
    Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form.
    Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption.
    Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
    Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume.
    Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.
    Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar.
    DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.
    Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.
    Deforestation - ...
    Full definition
  • Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.
  • Note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
  • Irrigated land: The number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.
  • Land use > Other: The percentage share of used land that is not arable or under permanent crops. This includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.
  • Location: The country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.
  • Map references: The name of the CIA World Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.
  • Maritime claims > Exclusive economic zone: Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the LOS Convention (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal State has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natura
  • Maritime claims > Territorial sea: territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal State extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the LOS Convention (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every State has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles. A full and definitive definition can be found in the Law of the Sea (LOS) Convention.
  • Natural resources: A country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.
STAT Australia French Southern and Antarctic Lands HISTORY
Area > Comparative slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states <strong>Ile Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): </strong>less than one-half the size of Washington, DC<br /><strong>Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul):</strong> more than 10 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC<br /><strong>Iles Crozet:</strong> about twice the size of Washington, DC<br /><strong>Iles Kerguelen:</strong> slightly larger than Delaware<br /><strong>Bassas da India (Iles Eparses):</strong> land area about one-third the size of The Mall in Washington, DC<br /><strong>Europa Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> about one-sixth the size of Washington, DC<br /><strong>Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses):</strong> about eight times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC<br /><strong>Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> about seven times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC<br /><strong>Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Climate generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north <strong>Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul: </strong>oceanic with persistent westerly winds and high humidity<br /><strong>Iles Crozet:</strong> windy, cold, wet, and cloudy<br /><strong>Iles Kerguelen:</strong> oceanic, cold, overcast, windy<br /><strong>Iles Eparses:</strong> tropical

Coastline None

Elevation extremes > Highest point Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m Mont de la Dives on Ile Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) 867 m; unnamed location on Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul) 272 m; Pic Marion-Dufresne in Iles Crozet 1,090 m; Mont Ross in Iles Kerguelen 1,850 m; unnamed location on Bassas de India (Iles Eparses) 2.4 m; unnamed location on Europa Island (Iles Eparses) 24 m; unnamed location on Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses) 12 m; unnamed location on Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses) 10 m; unnamed location on Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses) 7 m

Elevation extremes > Lowest point Lake Eyre -15 m Indian Ocean 0 m

Environment > Current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural freshwater resources introduction of foreign species on Iles Crozet has caused severe damage to the original ecosystem; overfishing of Patagonian toothfish around Iles Crozet and Iles Kerguelen

Geographic coordinates 27 00 S, 133 00 E <strong>Ile Amsterdam (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul): </strong>37 50 S, 77 32 E<br /><strong>Ile Saint-Paul (Ile Amsterdam et Ile Saint-Paul):</strong> 38 72 S, 77 53 E<br /><strong>Iles Crozet:</strong> 46 25 S, 51 00 E<br /><strong>Iles Kerguelen:</strong> 49 15 S, 69 35 E<br /><strong>Bassas da India (Iles Eparses):</strong> 21 30 S, 39 50 E<br /><strong>Europa Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> 22 20 S, 40 22 E<br /><strong>Glorioso Islands (Iles Eparses):</strong> 11 30 S, 47 20 E<br /><strong>Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> 17 03 S, 42 45 E<br /><strong>Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> 15 52 S, 54 25 E

Note world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; the only continent without glaciers; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world islands component is widely scattered across remote locations in the southern Indian Ocean<br /><strong>Bassas da India (Iles Eparses):</strong> the atoll is a circular reef that sits atop a long-extinct, submerged volcano<br /><strong>Europa Island and Juan de Nova Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> wildlife sanctuary for seabirds and sea turtles<br /><strong>Glorioso Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> the islands and rocks are surrounded by an extensive reef system<br /><strong>Tromelin Island (Iles Eparses):</strong> climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones in the western Indian Ocean; wildlife sanctuary (seabirds, tortoises)

Irrigated land 25,500 sq km
Ranked 23th.
Ranked 15th.

Land use > Other 93.79%
Ranked 86th.
Ranked 2nd. 7% more than Australia

Location Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean southeast and east of Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean, some near Madagascar and others about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia

Map references Oceania Antarctic Region, Africa

Maritime claims > Exclusive economic zone 200 nautical mile
Ranked 99th. The same as French Southern and Antarctic Lands
200 nautical mile
Ranked 4th.

Maritime claims > Territorial sea 12 nautical mile
Ranked 137th. The same as French Southern and Antarctic Lands
12 nautical mile
Ranked 11th.

Natural resources bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, rare earth elements, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum fish, crayfish

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008


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