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Country vs country: Australia and Taiwan compared: Economy

Definitions

  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • Household income or consumption by percentage share > Highest 10%: This entry is derived from Economy > Household income or consumption by percentage share, which data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries, and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Labor force > By occupation > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Labor force > By occupation > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
    Additional details:
    • Gibraltar: negligible (2013)
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Household income or consumption by percentage share > Lowest 10%: This entry is derived from Economy > Household income or consumption by percentage share, which data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Big Mac Index: Price of a McDonald's Big Mac in US Dollars at current exchange rates. January 12th, 2006.
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Business efficiency: Based upon a business efficiency index where '100' represents the highest level of business efficiency.
  • Overall productivity > PPP: Estimates: GDP (PPP) per person employed, US$
  • Economic importance: Globalpolicy.org
  • Trade balance with US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Macroeconomic environment index: The macroeconomic environment index indicates the quality of the macroeconomic environment of a country.
  • Growth competitiveness score: The GCI, or the Growth competitiveness index, is composed of three pillars, all of which are widely accepted as being critical to economic growth: the quality of the macroeconomic environment, the state of a country's public institutions, and, given the increasing importance of technology in the development process, a country's technological readiness. The GCI aims specifically to gauge the ability of the world's economies to achieve sustained economic growth over the medium to long term.
  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • Steel > Production: Production of crude steel in million tonnes.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • Exchange rates > Recent years: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat."
  • Currency code: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.
  • Policy competitiveness: Extent to which government policies are conducive to competitiveness (2003)
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Trade > Imports > Per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Imports > Per $ GDP: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Market value of publicly traded shares > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Share of household income > Highest 10%: The percentage of total national household income held by the top 10 percent of households. Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
  • Share of household income > Lowest 10%: The percentage of total national household income held by the bottom 10 percent of households. Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
STAT Australia Taiwan HISTORY
Central bank discount rate 3%
Ranked 3rd. 60% more than Taiwan
1.88%
Ranked 34th.

Debt > External $1.5 trillion
Ranked 12th. 11 times more than Taiwan
$130.8 billion
Ranked 40th.

Distribution of family income > Gini index 30.3
Ranked 29th.
34.2
Ranked 9th. 13% more than Australia

Exchange rates Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -<br />0.97 (2012 est.)<br />0.97 (2011 est.)<br />1.09 (2010)<br />1.28 (2009)<br />1.21 (2008) New Taiwan dollars (TWD) per US dollar -<br />29.62 (2012 est.)<br />29.47 (2011 est.)<br />31.65 (2010 est.)<br />33.06 (2009)<br />31.53 (2008)
Exports > Commodities coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment electronics, flat panels, machinery; metals; textiles, plastics, chemicals; optical, photographic, measuring, and medical instruments
Fiscal year 1 calendar year
GDP > Composition by sector > Services 69.4%
Ranked 48th. 1% more than Taiwan
68.6%
Ranked 54th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 20.1%
Ranked 164th.
73.6%
Ranked 31st. 4 times more than Australia
GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories 0.4%
Ranked 90th. Twice as much as Taiwan
0.2%
Ranked 105th.
GDP > Per capita > PPP $42,000
Ranked 10th. 9% more than Taiwan
$38,400
Ranked 18th.

GDP > Real growth rate 3.7%
Ranked 87th. 3 times more than Taiwan
1.3%
Ranked 138th.

Gross national saving 25.2% of GDP
Ranked 45th.
30.3% of GDP
Ranked 25th. 20% more than Australia

Household income or consumption by percentage share > Highest 10% 25.4%
Ranked 1st.
40.3%
Ranked 5th. 59% more than Australia

Imports > Commodities machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products electronics, machinery, crude petroleum, precision instruments, organic chemicals, metals
Public debt 32.4% of GDP
Ranked 107th.
35.8% of GDP
Ranked 102nd. 10% more than Australia

Current account balance $-57,140,000,000
Ranked 175th.
$49.92 billion
Ranked 13th.

Commercial bank prime lending rate 6.98%
Ranked 124th. 2 times more than Taiwan
2.88%
Ranked 173th.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 3.9%
Ranked 137th. 95% more than Taiwan
2%
Ranked 177th.
Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $610.8 billion
Ranked 13th. 10 times more than Taiwan
$59.36 billion
Ranked 50th.

Imports $263 billion
Ranked 20th.
$268.8 billion
Ranked 19th. 2% more than Australia

Taxes and other revenues 33.2% of GDP
Ranked 67th. 98% more than Taiwan
16.8% of GDP
Ranked 159th.

GDP > Purchasing power parity $961 billion
Ranked 18th. 7% more than Taiwan
$894.3 billion
Ranked 19th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital 28.5%
Ranked 43th. 45% more than Taiwan
19.6%
Ranked 120th.
Stock of narrow money None None
Stock of direct foreign investment > Abroad $426 billion
Ranked 16th. 88% more than Taiwan
$226.1 billion
Ranked 23th.

Labor force > By occupation > Services 75%
Ranked 2nd. 28% more than Taiwan
58.8%
Ranked 12th.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 68.9%
Ranked 55th. 1% more than Taiwan
68.2%
Ranked 61st.
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 27.2%
Ranked 103th.
29.8%
Ranked 79th. 10% more than Australia
Budget > Revenues $504.7 billion
Ranked 10th. 6 times more than Taiwan
$78.38 billion
Ranked 39th.

Budget > Expenditures $556.1 billion
Ranked 11th. 6 times more than Taiwan
$90.42 billion
Ranked 37th.

Labor force > By occupation > Industry 21.1%
Ranked 66th.
36.2%
Ranked 11th. 72% more than Australia

Overview The Australian economy has experienced continuous growth and features low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt, and a strong and stable financial system. By 2012, Australia had experienced more than 20 years of continued economic growth, averaging 3.5% a year. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has grown rapidly, creating a channel for resources investments and growth in commodity exports. The high Australian dollar has hurt the manufacturing sector, while the services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of jobs. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control. Australia has benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years, stemming from rising global commodity prices. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food. Australia's abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity, stimulated growth, and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organization, APEC, the G20, and other trade forums. Australia has bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and the US, has a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand, is negotiating agreements with China, India, Indonesia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, as well as with its Pacific neighbors and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US, and Vietnam. Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with gradually decreasing government guidance of investment and foreign trade. Exports, led by electronics, machinery, and petrochemicals have provided the primary impetus for economic development. This heavy dependence on exports exposes the economy to fluctuations in world demand. In 2009, Taiwan's GDP contracted 1.8%, due primarily to a 13.1% year-on-year decline in exports. In 2010 GDP grew 10.7%, as exports returned to the level of previous years, and in 2011, grew 4.0%. In 2012, however, growth fell to 1.3%, because of softening global demand. Taiwan's diplomatic isolation, low birth rate, and rapidly aging population are major long-term challenges. Free trade agreements have proliferated in East Asia over the past several years, but except for the landmark Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) signed with China in June 2010, so far Taiwan has been excluded from this greater economic integration in part because of its diplomatic status. Negotiations continue on such follow-on components of ECFA regarding trade in goods and services. The MA administration has said that the ECFA will serve as a stepping stone toward trade pacts with other key trade partners, which Taiwan subsequently launched with Singapore and New Zealand. Taiwan's Total Fertility rate of just over one child per woman is among the lowest in the world, raising the prospect of future labor shortages, falling domestic demand, and declining tax revenues. Taiwan's population is aging quickly, with the number of people over 65 accounting for 11.2% of the island's total population as of 2012. The island runs a large trade surplus largely because of its surplus with China, and its foreign reserves are the world's fifth largest, behind China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, and Russia. In 2006 China overtook the US to become Taiwan's second-largest source of imports after Japan. China is also the island's number one destination for foreign direct investment. Three financial memorandums of understanding, covering banking, securities, and insurance, took effect in mid-January 2010, opening the island to greater investments from the mainland's financial firms and institutional investors, and providing new opportunities for Taiwan financial firms to operate in China. In August 2012, Taiwan Central Bank signed a memorandum of understanding on cross-Strait currency settlement with its Chinese counterpart. The MOU allows for the direct settlement of Chinese RMB and the New Taiwan dollar across the Strait, which could help develop Taiwan into a local RMB hub. Closer economic links with the mainland bring greater opportunities for the Taiwan economy, but also poses new challenges as the island becomes more economically dependent on China while political differences remain unresolved.
Market value of publicly traded shares $1.4 trillion
Ranked 1st. 68% more than Taiwan
$831.9 billion
Ranked 7th.

Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture 3.6%
Ranked 155th.
5%
Ranked 144th. 39% more than Australia

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $49.15 billion
Ranked 38th.
$408.5 billion
Ranked 6th. 8 times more than Australia

Stock of domestic credit $2.25 trillion
Ranked 11th. 3 times more than Taiwan
$743.1 billion
Ranked 18th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 54.9%
Ranked 142nd.
60.3%
Ranked 114th. 10% more than Australia
Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -3.4% of GDP
Ranked 109th. 31% more than Taiwan
-2.6% of GDP
Ranked 84th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -22%
Ranked 13th.
-66%
Ranked 140th. 3 times more than Australia
Exports > Partners China 29.5%, Japan 19.3%, South Korea 8%, India 4.9% China 27.1%, Hong Kong 13.2%, US 10.3%, Japan 6.4%, Singapore 4.4%
Industrial production growth rate 3.5%
Ranked 77th. 4 times more than Taiwan
0.9%
Ranked 117th.

Industries mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel electronics, communications and information technology products, petroleum refining, armaments, chemicals, textiles, iron and steel, machinery, cement, food processing, vehicles, consumer products, pharmaceuticals
Imports > Partners China 18.4%, US 11.7%, Japan 7.9%, Singapore 6%, Germany 4.6%, Thailand 4.2%, South Korea 4.1% Japan 17.6%, China 16.1%, US 9.5%
Household income or consumption by percentage share > Lowest 10% 2%
Ranked 107th.
6.4%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Australia

Labor force 12
Ranked 115th. 9% more than Taiwan
11
Ranked 122nd.

Agriculture > Products wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry rice, vegetables, fruit, tea, flowers; pigs, poultry; fish
GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 4%
Ranked 139th. 2 times more than Taiwan
1.8%
Ranked 182nd.

Stock of broad money None None
GDP > Official exchange rate $1.52 trillion
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Taiwan
$467.7 billion
Ranked 27th.

Inflation rate > Consumer prices 1.8%
Ranked 168th.
1.9%
Ranked 166th. 6% more than Australia

GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption 18.2%
Ranked 63th. 47% more than Taiwan
12.4%
Ranked 138th.
Exports $257.9 billion
Ranked 22nd.
$299.8 billion
Ranked 20th. 16% more than Australia

Unemployment rate 5.2%
Ranked 88th. 24% more than Taiwan
4.2%
Ranked 96th.

GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 26.6%
Ranked 108th.
29.6%
Ranked 81st. 11% more than Australia

Big Mac Index $2.44
Ranked 28th. 4% more than Taiwan
$2.35
Ranked 31st.
Technology index 4.93
Ranked 16th.
6.04
Ranked 2nd. 23% more than Australia
Economic freedom 3.15
Ranked 10th. 17% more than Taiwan
2.7
Ranked 27th.
Industrial > Production growth rate 3%
Ranked 105th.
26.4%
Ranked 2nd. 9 times more than Australia

Business efficiency 81.97
Ranked 9th. 5% more than Taiwan
78.32
Ranked 11th.
Overall productivity > PPP $55,166.7
Ranked 12th. 2% more than Taiwan
$54,217.3
Ranked 15th.
Economic importance 9
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Taiwan
3.9
Ranked 16th.
Trade balance with US $1.43 billion
Ranked 2nd.
$-3,563,100,000
Ranked 217th.
GDP > CIA Factbook $571.4 billion
Ranked 16th. 8% more than Taiwan
$528.6 billion
Ranked 17th.

Macroeconomic environment index 5.04
Ranked 15th.
5.11
Ranked 10th. 1% more than Australia
Growth competitiveness score 5.25
Ranked 14th.
5.69
Ranked 4th. 8% more than Australia
Public institution index 6.1
Ranked 12th. 10% more than Taiwan
5.56
Ranked 27th.
Steel > Production 5.2 million tonnes
Ranked 26th.
15.7 million tonnes
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than Australia

Currency Australian dollar New Taiwan dollar
Investment > Gross fixed 28.2% of GDP
Ranked 27th. 40% more than Taiwan
20.1% of GDP
Ranked 91st.

Exchange rates > Recent years Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003), 1.8406 (2002), 1.9334 (2001) new Taiwan dollars per US dollar - 31.71 (2005), 34.418 (2004), 34.575 (2003), 33.8 (2002), 33.09 (2001)
Currency code AUD TWD
Policy competitiveness 89.91%
Ranked 3rd. 42% more than Taiwan
63.32%
Ranked 18th.
Exchange rates to USD 1.2137 32.84
GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $37,828.78 per capita
Ranked 15th. 24% more than Taiwan
$30,561.44 per capita
Ranked 28th.

GDP > Per capita $37,828.78 per capita
Ranked 15th. 24% more than Taiwan
$30,561.44 per capita
Ranked 28th.

GDP > Official exchange rate > Per capita $44,474.51 per capita
Ranked 15th. 3 times more than Taiwan
$16,768.11 per capita
Ranked 41st.

GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita $28,752.58 per capita
Ranked 13th. 23% more than Taiwan
$23,386.28 per capita
Ranked 24th.
Trade > Imports $200.4 billion
Ranked 20th.
$251.4 billion
Ranked 17th. 25% more than Australia

Trade > Imports > Per capita $7,830.02 per capita
Ranked 33th.
$9,409.91 per capita
Ranked 27th. 20% more than Australia

Trade > Imports > Per $ GDP $0.175 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 151st.
$0.226 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 103th. 29% more than Australia

Market value of publicly traded shares > Per capita $39,554.33 per capita
Ranked 14th. 38% more than Taiwan
$28,610.34 per capita
Ranked 5th.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per $ GDP $71.7 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 106th.
$391.79 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 13th. 5 times more than Australia
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per capita $1,316.91 per capita
Ranked 44th.
$12,030.34 per capita
Ranked 5th. 9 times more than Australia

Share of household income > Highest 10% 25.4%
Ranked 6th.
40.3%
Ranked 1st. 59% more than Australia

Share of household income > Lowest 10% 2%
Ranked 5th.
6.7%
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Australia

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; The Economist.; World economic forum - Global Competitiveness Report 2004-2005; The Heritage Foundation; IMD International, 2005; IMD International; Economic Importance, 1998 (GDP x PC Inc) figures in quadrillion people dollars; US Census Bureau; World economic forum - Global Competitiveness Report 2004-2005; World Steel Association: World Crude Steel Production; CIA World Factbook, 22 August 2006; UN human development reports

Citation

"Economy: Australia and Taiwan compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Australia/Taiwan/Economy

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