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Country vs country: China and Japan compared: Military stats

Edsel.G

Author: Edsel.G

The Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) is, according to the Japanese constitution, designed only for minimal self defense capability. Brought up after World War II, the JSDF was supposed to tell the world that Japan will no longer attempt to threaten world peace. In theory, the laws prohibiting Japan to export and acquire powerful weapons should minimize its military might. In truth, Japan possesses one of the world’s most powerful armed forces. In fact, by 2012, Japanese defense budget was the 5th biggest all over the world, and by 2013, hawkish Prime Minister Shinzo Abe ordered a full-scale rearmament of Japan.

This massive rearmament is brought about by the threat coming from two countries: North Korea and China, with the much bigger threat coming from the latter. Recently, China has been more physically assertive of its claimed territories, including the Japanese-controlled Senkaku islands (known as Diaoyu in China).

Of course, economically and militarily, China is ahead of Japan. The former has a greater number of conventional weapons and personnel, but Japan hopes to counter these with more sophisticated weapons supplied by its ally the United States. Japan has announced its desire to acquire the 5th generation stealth fighter, the F-35, which is deemed to be superior to anything in the Chinese arsenal.

In an event of a conflict between the two great Asian power, China would probably not have the upper hand. This is due to the fact that the US is obliged by law to come to Japan’s aid should war take place.

Definitions

  • Air force > Combat aircraft: Number of fighter aircrafts (fixed wing aircrafts with combat capability).
  • Army > Main battle tanks: Number of main battle tanks.
  • Budget: Annual defense budget in billion USD.
  • Global Peace Index: The Global Peace Index is comprised of 22 indicators in the three categories ongoing domestic or international conflicts; societal safety; and security and militarization. A low index value indicates a peaceful and safe country.
  • Military branches: This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces).
  • Military expenditures: This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). For countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures on public security and police.
  • Military service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation.
  • Navy > Aircraft carriers: Number of aircraft carriers.
  • Navy > Corvette warships: Number of corvettes.
  • Paramilitary personnel: Paramilitary.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of sevice obligation.
  • WMD > Missile: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of missile weapons of mass destruction
  • WMD > Nuclear: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of nuclear weapons
  • War deaths: Battle-related deaths are deaths in battle-related conflicts between warring parties in the conflict dyad (two conflict units that are parties to a conflict). Typically, battle-related deaths occur in warfare involving the armed forces of the warring parties. This includes traditional battlefield fighting, guerrilla activities, and all kinds of bombardments of military units, cities, and villages, etc. The targets are usually the military itself and its installations or state institutions and state representatives, but there is often substantial collateral damage in the form of civilians being killed in crossfire, in indiscriminate bombings, etc. All deaths--military as well as civilian--incurred in such situations, are counted as battle-related deaths."
  • Navy > Submarines: Number of patrol boats (includes minesweepers).
  • Expenditures > Percent of GDP: Current military expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
  • Armed forces personnel: Total armed forces (2000)
  • Air force > Aircraft carriers > Commissioned:

    Amount of aircraft carriers in full service in each country. These numbers can also be interpreted as the amount of each country's commissioned aircraft carriers.   

  • Navy > Frigates: Number of frigates.
  • Navy > Nuclear submarines: Number of nuclear submarines.
  • Navy > Destroyers: Number of destroyers.
  • Personnel > Per capita: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Expenditures > Dollar figure per capita: Current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Personnel: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces.
  • Air force > Aircraft carriers > Total: Total amount of aircraft carriers possessed by each country. 
  • Navy > Amphibious warfare ships: Number of amphibious warfare ships.
  • Navy > Cruisers: Number of cruisers.
  • Armed forces personnel > Total: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organisation, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces."
  • Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical Weapons Convention ratification: Date of ratification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC) of countries who either declared chemical weapon stockpiles, are suspected of secretly stockpiling them, or are running chemical weapons research programs.
  • Conscription: A description of the status of conscription in the nation in 1997.
  • Air force > Aircraft carriers > In reserve: Total amount of reserve aircraft carriers in each country.
  • Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical weapons possession:

    Status of possession of chemical weapons of countries that either declared chemical weapon stockpiles, are suspected of secretly stockpiling them, or are running chemical weapons research programs.

  • Expenditures > Dollar figure: Current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies
  • Military expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilisation, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)"
  • Branches: The names of the ground, naval, air, marine, and other defense or security forces
  • Armed forces growth: Growth in the number of armed forces personnel from 1985 (index = 100) to 2000. 100 means no growth, 50 means it halved and 200 means it doubled.
  • Military expenditures > Percent of GDP: This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). For countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures on public security and police.
  • Weapon holdings per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Armed forces personnel per 1000: Total armed forces (2000). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Conventional arms imports: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre).
  • Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services.
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males: The number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.
  • WMD > Chemical: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of chemical weapons of mass destruction
  • WMD > Biological: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of biological weapons of mass destruction
  • Military spending > 2009 > USD billions: Defense expenditure of some countries in the year 2010.
  • Defence spending > Percent of GDP: Defense expenditure as percentage of GDP. Figures are for the year 2010.
  • Expenditures > Dollar figure > Per $ GDP: Current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Males: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Personnel per 1000: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
  • Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49: The total numbers of males aged 15-49. This statistic assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
  • Expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
  • Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services.
  • Expenditures > Dollar figure > Per capita: Current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males per 1000: The number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower > Military age: The minimum age at which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject to conscription.
  • Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
  • Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
  • Exports > USD: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services."
  • Imports > USD: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services."
  • Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Conventional arms imports per capita: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Females per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 > Per capita: The total numbers of males aged 15-49. This statistic assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Manpower > Availability > Females per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49: The number of males aged 15-49 fit for military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military manpower availability which tries to correct for the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended.
  • Conventional arms imports > Per $ GDP: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre). Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Employment in arms > Production per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Expenditure > % of central government expenditure: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Manpower > Availability > Males per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Conventional arms imports, % of GDP: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males > Per capita: The number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Armed forces personnel > % of total labor force: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organisation, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Labor force comprises all people who meet the International Labour Organisation's definition of the economically active population."
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.
  • Military expenditure > % of GDP: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilisation, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)"
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid > Per $ GDP: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 100,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid per capita: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid, % of GDP: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Expenditures > Dollar figure, % of GDP: Current military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product (GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis not purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Dollar figures for military expenditures should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of their currencies. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 per 1000: The total numbers of males aged 15-49. This statistic assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Personnel > % of total labor force: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Labor force comprises all people who meet the International Labour Organization's definition of the economically active population.
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Manpower > Fit for military service > Females per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Males per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Females: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 > Per capita: The number of males aged 15-49 fit for military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military manpower availability which tries to correct for the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Manpower > Fit for military service > Males per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Expenditure > % of GDP: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 per 1000: The number of males aged 15-49 fit for military service. This is a more refined measure of potential military manpower availability which tries to correct for the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum potential number to a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
STAT China Japan HISTORY
Air force > Combat aircraft 1,500
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Japan
374
Ranked 6th.
Army > Main battle tanks 9,000
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than Japan
902
Ranked 7th.
Budget 166 US$ BN
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan
51.4 US$ BN
Ranked 3rd.
Global Peace Index 2.14
Ranked 62nd. 66% more than Japan
1.29
Ranked 28th.

Manpower fit for military service > Males age 16-49 None None
Military branches People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (PLAN; includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF; includes Airborne Forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jieitai, GSDF), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jieitai, MSDF), Air Self-Defense Force (Koukuu Jieitai, ASDF)
Military expenditures 2.6% of GDP
Ranked 19th. 3 times more than Japan
1% of GDP
Ranked 46th.
Military service age and obligation 18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; mandatory retirement at age 53 for senior enlisted personnel and at 62 years for senior service officers
Navy > Aircraft carriers 1
Ranked 2nd.
0.0
Ranked 8th.
Navy > Corvette warships 15
Ranked 2nd.
24
Ranked 2nd. 60% more than China
Paramilitary personnel 3.97 million
Ranked 1st. 324 times more than Japan
12,250
Ranked 49th.
Service age and obligation 18-22 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with 24-month service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs 18 years of age for voluntary military service
WMD > Missile China has produced and deployed a wide range of ballistic missiles, ranging from short-range missiles to intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). China's missiles are operated by the Second Artillery Corps, and include about 650 DF-11 (M-11) and DF-15 (M-9) missiles opposite Taiwan; several dozens of DF-3, DF-4, and DF-21 medium-range missiles that can reach Japan, India, and Russia; and 18-24 DF-5 ICBMs that can reach the United States and Europe. A transition is currently underway from relatively inaccurate, liquid-fueled, silo/cave-based missiles (DF-3, DF-4, DF-5) to more accurate, solid-fueled, mobile missiles (DF-11, DF-15, and DF-21, and a new ICBM [the DF-31] and SLBM [the JL-2], which are currently under development). China is replacing its older DF-5 missiles with new DF-5A variants, which may eventually be equipped with multiple warheads. A key question is how US deployment of ballistic missile defense (former known as theater and national missile defense) will affect the pace and scope of Chinese strategic modernization. Chinese missile exports have been a problem for more than a decade. China transferred 36 DF-3 medium-range missiles to Saudi Arabia in 1988, and supplied Pakistan with 34 M-11 short-range missiles in 1992. China has provided technology and expertise to the missile programs of several countries, including Pakistan, Iran, and North Korea. China has not joined the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), but has pledged to abide by its main parameters. In November 2000, China promised not to assist any country in the development of nuclear-capable ballistic missiles. In August 2002, China issued regulations and a control list restricting the export of missiles and missile technology. Since 2004, China has been engaged in consultation with the MTCR; however, its application for membership was not successful in the regime's latest plenary meeting in Seoul, South Korea, in October 2004. Concerns about Chinese missile technology transfers continue. Japan does not have a ballistic missile development program, but its space program includes a number of technologies that could potentially be adapted to long-range missiles. The solid-fueled M-5 rocket system, first launched in 1995, includes technologies that could be adapted to develop intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capabilities roughly similar to those of the U.S. MX Peacekeeper missile. Japan's two-stage H-2 rocket is capable of placing a two-ton payload into orbit, but the H-2 is not optimal for ballistic missile applications due to its reliance on cryogenic liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel. Japan lacks sophisticated command and control systems, as well as some guidance and warhead technology that would be necessary to develop operational missiles. Japan has partnered with the United States to research ballistic missile defenses (BMD), but has yet to make a final decision on future development and deployment. Many in Japan argue that a missile defense system would compliment the U.S. nuclear deterrent and defend against possible belligerents such as North Korea. Others argue that the system's costs outweigh the benefits, especially since the system's effectiveness is unproven. Missile defense also raises potential legal issues regarding Japanese legislation barring the military use of space. Japan is an active member of the MTCR and was involved in drafting the International Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (ICOC).
WMD > Nuclear China's nuclear weapons program began in 1955 and culminated in a successful nuclear test in 1964. Since then, China has conducted 45 nuclear tests, including tests of thermonuclear weapons and a neutron bomb. The series of nuclear tests in 1995-96 prior to China's signature of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) may have resulted in a smaller and lighter warhead design for the new generation of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) now under development. China is estimated to have about 400 strategic and tactical nuclear weapons, and stocks of fissile material sufficient to produce a much larger arsenal. China joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1984 and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1992 as a nuclear weapon state. China provided nuclear reactors and technology to several countries in the 1980s and early 1990s, including design information and fissile material that reportedly helped Pakistan develop nuclear weapons. Since the early 1990s, China has improved its export controls, including the promulgation of regulations on nuclear and nuclear dual-use exports and has pledged to halt exports of nuclear technology to un-safeguarded facilities. In 2002 China ratified the IAEA Additional Protocol, the first and only nuclear weapons state to do so. Japan's "Atomic Energy Basic Law" allows only peaceful nuclear activities, and its "Three Non-Nuclear Principles" pledge that Japan will not possess, produce, or permit the introduction of nuclear weapons into the country. Despite Japan's long-standing stance against nuclear weapons, there was an internal debate in the early 1970s about whether Japan should sign the NPT, in part due to concerns about assuring access to nuclear technology to meet national energy needs, and the discriminatory nature of the treaty. Some conservatives were also concerned that closing off the nuclear option might negatively impact future national security needs. Japan has played an active role in nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament, and has proposed a process for the total elimination of nuclear weapons. Japan ratified the CTBT in 1997 and has been a strong supporter of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). However, Japan's security relationship with the United States has tempered Tokyo's emphasis on disarmament. For example, Japan remains quiet about the possible presence of nuclear warheads on U.S. ships and military bases in Japan. Japan increasingly relies on nuclear power for its electricity needs, and has a highly developed civilian nuclear sector. Japan has a controversial program for recycling spent nuclear fuel that has produced large quantities of plutonium in the form of metal-oxide nuclear fuel. At the end of 2001, Japan had more than 30 metric tons of spent fuel stored at reprocessing plants in Britain and France, along with a domestic stockpile of 5 to 6 tons. These nuclear fuel stockpiles will ultimately return to Japan for use in domestic nuclear facilities. The original plan called for consumption of the stored fuel by 2010, but due to technical and safety issues, this timetable has been delayed and return of the stored fuel to Japan is proceeding slowly. Some argue this material could provide Japan with a latent nuclear weapons capability. In addition, the new facility under constructing in Rokkasho (Aomori Prefecture) will increase Japanese domestic reprocessing capacity and potentially produce an additional 5 tons of metal-oxide nuclear fuel per year. Although anti-nuclear sentiment among the Japanese public has far outweighed support for keeping a nuclear option open, several neighboring countries have expressed concerns about possible Japanese nuclear ambitions. Partly in response to these fears, the Japanese government completed an internal study in 1995 that reaffirmed previous conclusions that developing nuclear weapons would damage both Japan’s national security and regional security. However recent tension developing in the region, particularly in the Korean peninsula, has led to increased discussions in Japan about the once taboo subject of nuclear weapons development. Despite recent speculation that Japan may reconsider its nuclear options, the deep aversion to nuclear weapons among the Japanese public will likely make any move in this direction difficult.
War deaths 0.0
Ranked 78th.
0.0
Ranked 62nd.

Navy > Submarines 40
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan
16
Ranked 3rd.
Expenditures > Percent of GDP 4.3%
Ranked 14th. 5 times more than Japan
0.8%
Ranked 78th.

Armed forces personnel 2.81 million
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than Japan
237,000
Ranked 20th.
Air force > Aircraft carriers > Commissioned 1
Ranked 6th.
2
Ranked 4th. Twice as much as China
Navy > Frigates 48
Ranked 1st. 33% more than Japan
36
Ranked 1st.
Navy > Nuclear submarines 3
Ranked 1st.
0.0
Ranked 5th.
Weapon holdings 34.28 million
Ranked 2nd. 10 times more than Japan
3.31 million
Ranked 27th.
Navy > Destroyers 27
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan
10
Ranked 3rd.
Personnel > Per capita 2.88 per 1,000 people
Ranked 107th. 35% more than Japan
2.13 per 1,000 people
Ranked 126th.

Expenditures > Dollar figure per capita $52.07
Ranked 27th.
$358.80
Ranked 8th. 7 times more than China

Manpower available for military service > Males age 16-49 None None
Personnel 3.75 million
Ranked 1st. 14 times more than Japan
272,000
Ranked 23th.

Air force > Aircraft carriers > Total 1
Ranked 13th.
20
Ranked 3rd. 20 times more than China
Navy > Amphibious warfare ships 27
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than Japan
6
Ranked 5th.
Navy > Cruisers 0.0
Ranked 28th.
0.0
Ranked 4th.
Armed forces personnel > Total 2.88 million
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than Japan
242,000
Ranked 22nd.

Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical Weapons Convention ratification April 4, 1997 September 15, 1995
Conscription Selective <a href=/graph-T/mil_con>conscription</a> (FWCC). No <a href=/graph-T/mil_con>conscription</a> (<a href=/encyclopedia/artificial-intelligence>AI</a>).
Air force > Aircraft carriers > In reserve 0.0
Ranked 4th.
0.0
Ranked 9th.
Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical weapons possession Probable Probable
Expenditures > Dollar figure $67.49 billion
Ranked 1st. 47% more than Japan
$45.84 billion
Ranked 2nd.

Military expenditure > Current LCU 686 billion
Ranked 12th.
4.77 trillion
Ranked 5th. 7 times more than China

Branches People's Liberation Army (PLA): Ground Forces, Navy (includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (includes airborne forces), and Second Artillery Corps (strategic missile force); People's Armed Police (PAP); PLA Reserve Force Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jietai, GSDF), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jietai, MSDF), Air Self-Defense Force (Koku Jieitai, ASDF)
Armed forces growth -28%
Ranked 98th. 9 times more than Japan
-3%
Ranked 76th.
Military expenditures > Percent of GDP 4.3% of GDP
Ranked 12th. 5 times more than Japan
0.8% of GDP
Ranked 50th.
Weapon holdings per 1000 26.95
Ranked 88th. 4% more than Japan
26.01
Ranked 90th.
Armed forces personnel per 1000 2.23
Ranked 108th. 19% more than Japan
1.87
Ranked 116th.
Conventional arms imports $2.24 billion
Ranked 2nd. 11 times more than Japan
$195.00 million
Ranked 27th.
Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ 2.7 billion constant 1990 US$
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than Japan
250 million constant 1990 US$
Ranked 26th.

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males 10.41 million
Ranked 2nd. 17 times more than Japan
623,365
Ranked 18th.
Expenditures 4.3% of GDP
Ranked 14th. 5 times more than Japan
0.8% of GDP
Ranked 67th.
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males 10.76 million
Ranked 2nd. 17 times more than Japan
622,168
Ranked 18th.

WMD > Chemical China ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in December 1996, declaring two former chemical weapons (CW) production facilities that may have produced mustard gas and Lewisite. Since 1997, China has hosted 14 on-site inspections by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Although China claims that it no longer possesses any CW stockpiles, the U.S. government believes that China has not revealed the full scope of its program. China has signed a bilateral agreement with Japan to destroy CW that Japan abandoned in Chinese territory during World War II. Japanese scientists began developing chemical weapons (CW) as early as 1917. The Japanese Army used CW after invading China in 1937, conducting an estimated 1,000 to 3,000 attacks. Japan reportedly produced five to seven million munitions containing agents such as phosgene, mustard, lewisite, hydrogen cyanide, and diphenyl cyanarsine. Although Japanese forces used many of these munitions between 1937 and 1945, a considerable amount was abandoned when Japanese forces retreated. After World War II, Japan pledged to not produce CW and participated in the negotiations for the CWC, which Japan signed in 1993 and ratified in 1995. Japan's CWC obligations include the responsibility for the disposal of abandoned CW (ACW) in China. The deadline for completion of the clean-up is 2007, but the scale of the program has led many to estimate that Japan will need an extension. Japan's chemical industry is the world's second largest, with about 16 percent of global chemical production. As a member of the Australia Group, Japan has developed comprehensive and well-enforced export controls on chemical weapons precursors and dual-use items. Since the 1995 Aum Shinrikyo sarin attack, Japanese spending on CW defense has increased.
WMD > Biological China ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in December 1996, declaring two former chemical weapons (CW) production facilities that may have produced mustard gas and Lewisite. Since 1997, China has hosted 14 on-site inspections by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Although China claims that it no longer possesses any CW stockpiles, the U.S. government believes that China has not revealed the full scope of its program. China has signed a bilateral agreement with Japan to destroy CW that Japan abandoned in Chinese territory during World War II. Japan had an active biological weapons (BW) program prior to 1945. The focal point was the now infamous Unit 731 based at a laboratory complex in northeastern China during the Japanese occupation. Unit 731 experimented on Chinese civilians and Allied prisoners of war with various biological agents, including plague, cholera, and hemorrhagic fever. After World War II, the Japanese government abandoned its BW program. Japan signed the BWC in 1972 and ratified it in 1982. Japan has actively supported negotiation of a protocol to strengthen current BWC provisions. Since the 1995 Aum Shinrikyo's sarin attack and failed attempt to disperse anthrax, Japan has increased its focus on bio-terrorism defenses. Although Japan has a growing biotechnology industry, it is still small in comparison to its chemical industry. As a member of the Australia Group, Japan's biotech industry is subject to a comprehensive set of export controls.
Military spending > 2009 > USD billions 100 51
Defence spending > Percent of GDP 2%
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Japan
0.9%
Ranked 14th.
Expenditures > Dollar figure > Per $ GDP $34.94 per 1,000 $ of GDP
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than Japan
$10.00 per 1,000 $ of GDP
Ranked 66th.

Manpower reaching military age annually > Males 10.41 million
Ranked 2nd. 17 times more than Japan
623,365
Ranked 18th.

Manpower fit for military service > Females age 16-49 None None
Personnel per 1000 2.88
Ranked 107th. 35% more than Japan
2.13
Ranked 125th.

Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 342.96 million
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
27 million
Ranked 6th.
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 375.52 million
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
29.39 million
Ranked 10th.

Expenditure > Current LCU 363000000000 4867750000000
Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 281.24 million
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
22.23 million
Ranked 5th.
Manpower available for military service > Females age 16-49 363789674 26307003
Employment in arms > Production 2.5 million
Ranked 1st. 29 times more than Japan
85,000
Ranked 9th.
Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ 129 million constant 1990 US$
Ranked 13th. 43 times more than Japan
3 million constant 1990 US$
Ranked 39th.

Military expenditures > Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Figures > Date of information 2005 est. 2005
Expenditures > Dollar figure > Per capita $52.07 per capita
Ranked 27th.
$358.80 per capita
Ranked 8th. 7 times more than China

Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000 213.4
Ranked 13th. 23% more than Japan
174.02
Ranked 67th.
Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita 2.07 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 47th. 6% more than Japan
1.96 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 48th.

Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males per 1000 8.12
Ranked 136th. 67% more than Japan
4.87
Ranked 196th.

Manpower > Military age 18 years of age 18 years of age
Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 324.7 million
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than Japan
26.15 million
Ranked 5th.
Manpower > Availability > Females 354.31 million
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
26.86 million
Ranked 10th.

Manpower > Availability > Males 375.01 million
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
27.82 million
Ranked 10th.

Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 269.03 million
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
21.49 million
Ranked 6th.
Exports > USD 428 million
Ranked 9th. 13 times more than Japan
32 million
Ranked 22nd.

Imports > USD 1.24 billion
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Japan
578 million
Ranked 14th.

Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita 98.89 constant 1990 US$ per 1
Ranked 33th. 4 times more than Japan
23.79 constant 1990 US$ per 1
Ranked 42nd.

Conventional arms imports per capita $1.97
Ranked 52nd. 25% more than Japan
$1.58
Ranked 60th.
Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49 per 1000 9.33
Ranked 44th. 83% more than Japan
5.09
Ranked 87th.
Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000 260.23
Ranked 18th. 23% more than Japan
211.34
Ranked 106th.
Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita 0.0989 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 33th. 4 times more than Japan
0.0238 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 41st.

Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita 2.07 constant 1990 US$ per c
Ranked 47th. 6% more than Japan
1.96 constant 1990 US$ per c
Ranked 48th.

Manpower reaching military age annually > Females per thousand people 6.83
Ranked 156th. 47% more than Japan
4.64
Ranked 213th.
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females 9.13 million
Ranked 2nd. 15 times more than Japan
591,253
Ranked 18th.
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 > Per capita 0.293 per capita
Ranked 20th. 29% more than Japan
0.228 per capita
Ranked 150th.

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty > Signatures and Ratifications > Signature 24 SEP 1996 24 SEP 1996
Manpower > Availability > Females per 1000 267.48
Ranked 34th. 27% more than Japan
210.36
Ranked 140th.

Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females 9.71 million
Ranked 2nd. 16 times more than Japan
590,153
Ranked 18th.

Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females per 1000 7.33
Ranked 142nd. 59% more than Japan
4.62
Ranked 196th.

Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 206 million
Ranked 1st. 8 times more than Japan
25.41 million
Ranked 5th.

Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49 per 1000 10.01
Ranked 57th. 87% more than Japan
5.35
Ranked 139th.
Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000 246.38
Ranked 20th. 20% more than Japan
204.69
Ranked 80th.
Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid $25.00 million
Ranked 17th.
$4.91 billion
Ranked 2nd. 197 times more than China
Conventional arms imports > Per $ GDP 0.308 per $1,000
Ranked 49th. 6 times more than Japan
0.052 per $1,000
Ranked 77th.
Employment in arms > Production per 1000 1.97
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Japan
0.669
Ranked 33th.
Expenditure > % of central government expenditure 18.22%
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than Japan
6.42%
Ranked 32nd.
Manpower > Availability > Males per 1000 283.1
Ranked 25th. 30% more than Japan
217.85
Ranked 167th.

Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000 204.13
Ranked 21st. 21% more than Japan
168.23
Ranked 66th.
Conventional arms imports, % of GDP 0.627%
Ranked 20th. 100 times more than Japan
0.00628%
Ranked 79th.
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males > Per capita 8.09 per 1,000 people
Ranked 152nd. 66% more than Japan
4.89 per 1,000 people
Ranked 221st.

Armed forces personnel > % of total labor force 0.37%
Ranked 124th. 3% more than Japan
0.36%
Ranked 125th.

Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49 13.19 million
Ranked 1st. 19 times more than Japan
683,147
Ranked 15th.
Military expenditure > % of GDP 2.01%
Ranked 43th. Twice as much as Japan
1.01%
Ranked 86th.

Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females > Per capita 7.3 per 1,000 people
Ranked 160th. 57% more than Japan
4.64 per 1,000 people
Ranked 221st.

Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid > Per $ GDP $1.52 per $100,000 of GDP
Ranked 33th.
$106.28 per $100,000 of GDP
Ranked 6th. 70 times more than China
Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49 12.3 million
Ranked 1st. 19 times more than Japan
650,157
Ranked 12th.
Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid per capita $0.02
Ranked 36th.
$38.46
Ranked 4th. 2027 times more than China
Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid, % of GDP 0.000716%
Ranked 35th.
0.113%
Ranked 5th. 158 times more than China
Manpower > Fit for military service > Females 295.95 million
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
22.13 million
Ranked 9th.

Expenditures > Dollar figure, % of GDP 3.49%
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than Japan
0.985%
Ranked 64th.

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Male 10406544 623365
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Female 9131990 591253
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 per 1000 288.04
Ranked 19th. 25% more than Japan
230.04
Ranked 126th.

Manpower > Fit for military service > Males 313.32 million
Ranked 1st. 14 times more than Japan
22.96 million
Ranked 8th.

Personnel > % of total labor force 0.48%
Ranked 120th. 17% more than Japan
0.41%
Ranked 127th.

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males per thousand people 7.71
Ranked 143th. 57% more than Japan
4.9
Ranked 214th.
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females per thousand people 6.83
Ranked 155th. 47% more than Japan
4.64
Ranked 211th.
Manpower > Fit for military service > Females per 1000 223.42
Ranked 29th. 29% more than Japan
173.32
Ranked 113th.

Manpower reaching military age annually > Males per thousand people 7.7
Ranked 144th. 58% more than Japan
4.89
Ranked 213th.

Manpower reaching military age annually > Females 9.13 million
Ranked 2nd. 15 times more than Japan
591,253
Ranked 18th.
Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 > Per capita 0.161 per capita
Ranked 102nd.
0.197 per capita
Ranked 58th. 22% more than China

Manpower > Fit for military service > Males per 1000 236.53
Ranked 20th. 32% more than Japan
179.81
Ranked 129th.

Expenditure > % of GDP 1.98%
Ranked 39th. 2 times more than Japan
0.97%
Ranked 90th.

Manpower > Fit for military service > Males age 15-49 per 1000 158.01
Ranked 95th.
198.84
Ranked 48th. 26% more than China

SOURCES: Wikipedia: List of countries by level of military equipment (List); http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/global-peace-index, Global Rankings. Vision of Humanity.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Wikipedia: List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel (The list); All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; The Nuclear Threat Initiative; Uppsala Conflict Data Program, http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/.; IISS (International Institute for Strategic Studies). 2001. The Military Balance 2001-2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Wikipedia: List of aircraft carriers in service (List of countries by aircraft carriers); Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC); World Development Indicators database; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of aircraft carriers by country (Number of aircraft carriers by operating nation); International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance.; Wikipedia: Chemical weapon proliferation; Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997. Data collected from the nations concerned, unless otherwise indicated. Acronyms: Amnesty International (AI); European Council of Conscripts Organizations (ECCO); Friends World Committee for Consultation (FWCC); International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHFHR); National Interreligious Service Board for Conscientious Objectors (NISBCO); Service, Peace and Justice in Latin America (SERPAJ); War Resisters International (WRI); World Council of Churches (WCC); Wikipedia: Chemical warfare (Efforts to eradicate chemical weapons); Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security.; calculated on the basis of data on armed forces from IISS (International Institute for Strategic Studies). 2001. The Military Balance 2001-2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; IISS (International Institute for Strategic Studies). 2001. The Military Balance 2001-2002. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; SIPRI (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute). 2005. SIPRI Arms Transfers. Database. 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Citation

"Military: China and Japan compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/China/Japan/Military

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The Japan Self-Defense Force (JSDF) is, according to the Japanese constitution, designed only for minimal self defense capability. Brought up after World War II, the JSDF was supposed to tell the world that Japan will no longer attempt to threaten world peace. In theory, the laws prohibiting Japan to export and acquire powerful weapons should minimize its military might. In truth, Japan possesses one of the world’s most powerful armed forces. In fact, by 2012, Japanese defense budget was the 5th biggest all over the world, and by 2013, hawkish Prime Minister Shinzo Abe ordered a full-scale rearmament of Japan.

This massive rearmament is brought about by the threat coming from two countries: North Korea and China, with the much bigger threat coming from the latter. Recently, China has been more physically assertive of its claimed territories, including the Japanese-controlled Senkaku islands (known as Diaoyu in China).

Of course, economically and militarily, China is ahead of Japan. The former has a greater number of conventional weapons and personnel, but Japan hopes to counter these with more sophisticated weapons supplied by its ally the United States. Japan has announced its desire to acquire the 5th generation stealth fighter, the F-35, which is deemed to be superior to anything in the Chinese arsenal.

In an event of a conflict between the two great Asian power, China would probably not have the upper hand. This is due to the fact that the US is obliged by law to come to Japan’s aid should war take place.

Posted on 06 Apr 2014

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