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Country vs country: Germany and Turkmenistan compared: Government stats

Definitions

  • Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
  • Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
  • Country name > Conventional short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
  • Flag description: A written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
  • Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
  • Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
  • Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
  • Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
  • Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
  • Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
  • Transnational Issues > Disputes > International: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
  • National holiday: The primary national day of celebration - often independence day.
  • Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
  • International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
  • National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
  • Country name > Local short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Judicial branch > Subordinate courts: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Constitutional form: Constitutional form of government.
  • Capital > Geographic coordinates: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses.
  • Capital city: The location of the seat of government.
  • Leaders > President > Profile: Government > Leaders > President > Profile
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Democracy and rights > Press freedom index: Compares countries by their degree of government censorship, according to the Press freedom index. This index, created by the non-governmental organization Reporters without borders (RWS), is ellaborated using data from an extensive annual survey sent to professional reporters throughout the world. The survey contains questions about the type and ownership of media present in the country, freedom of speech, violence exerted against reporters, election campaigns, access of political parties to the media, etc.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
  • Democracy > Female ministers: Women in government at ministerial level in 2000 (as % of total). Data were provided by states based on their definition of national executive and may therefore include women serving as ministers and vice ministers and those holding other ministerial positions, including parliamentary secretaries.
  • Democracy > Civil and political liberties: Civil and political liberties
    Units: Index Ranging from 7 (High Levels of Liberties) to 1 (Low
    Units: This is the average of two indicators - civil liberties and political liberties.

  • Leaders > President: Government > Leaders > President
  • International relations: Country international relations.
  • Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Country name > Local long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Basis of executive legitimacy: Basis of executive legitimacy.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Politics: Country politics.
  • Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press: Compares countries by freedom of the press. The lower the score, the more free the press of that country is. The scores are taken from the Freedom of the Press Index, elaborated by Freedom House, self-defined as "an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world". The data used in the index come from an annual survey of media independence in 197 countries and territories, assessing the degree of print, broadcast, and internet freedom in each of them.
  • Democracy > First female parliamentarian: Year first woman elected or appointed to parliament.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Executive branch > Election results: Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election (if any)
  • Country name > Former: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • UN membership date: Date of United Nations Membership
  • Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons > Stateless persons: This entry is derived from Government > Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons, which includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). Each country's refugee entry includes only countries of origin that are the source of refugee populations of 5,000 or more. The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women per million people: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses.
  • Legislative branch > Election results: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Legislative branch > Elections: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel: Date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state. Note that some countries had a “de facto” recognition in place long before the legal recognition.
  • Democracy > Female suffrage: Year in which women received the right to vote. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to vote.
  • International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.
  • Democracy > Female parliamentarians: Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total). Data are as of 8 March 2002. Where there are lower and upper houses, data refer to the weighted average of women's shares of seats in both houses.
  • Role of head of state: Head of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members: Members of the lower (or sole) house.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Republic establishment date: The date on which each country (or its precursor) changed its form of government to a republic. In a republic, the power resides in the country’s people, the government and legislature is elected and the country is ruled according to its laws.
  • Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state: Head(s) of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Democracy > Democratic institutions rating: Democratic institutions
    Units: Scale ranging from -10 (autocratic) to +10 (democratic)
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Democracy > Female candidacy: Year in which women received the right to stand for election. Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand for election on a universal and equal basis was recognized. Where two years are shown, the first refers to the first partial recognition of the right to stand for election.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage: Percentage of seats held by women in country's national parliament or legislative houses.
  • Executive branch > Chief of state: The name and title of any person or role roughly equivalent to a U.S. Chief of State. This means the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men per million people: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > Recognition of Israel notes: Notes and remarks about the date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state.
  • Trademarks > Residents per million: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador: Name of ambassador to the USA.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > %: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%). Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels.
    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).
    Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.
    Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.
    Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).
    Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.
    Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.
    Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn).
    Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.
    Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.
    Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
    Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa.
    Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics ...
    Full definition













  • Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Trademarks > Residents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trademarks > Residents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Capital city > Time difference: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Capital > Name: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Capital > Time difference: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Leaders > President > Summary: Government > Leaders > President > Summary
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth: Annual percentage growth of general government final consumption expenditure based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. General government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
  • Trademarks > Nonresidents: Trademark applications filed are applications for registration of a trademark with a national or regional trademark office. Trademarks are distinctive signs that identify goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademarks protect owners of the mark by ensuring exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services or to authorize its use in return for payment.
  • Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons > Stateless persons per thousand people: This entry is derived from Government > Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons, which includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). Each country's refugee entry includes only countries of origin that are the source of refugee populations of 5,000 or more. The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
STAT Germany Turkmenistan HISTORY
Administrative divisions 16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia)(Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat) 5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat) and 1 independent city*: Ahal Welayaty (Anew), Ashgabat*, Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 52 31 N, 13 24 E 37 57 N, 58 23 E
Constitution previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949; amended many times, last in 2012 adopted 18 May 1992; amended several times, last in 2008
Country name > Conventional short form Germany Turkmenistan
Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address Unit 5090, Box 1000, DPO AE09265 7070
Executive branch > Cabinet Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used in producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches; five white stars and a white crescent moon appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe; the green color and crescent moon represent Islam; the five stars symbolize the regions or welayats of Turkmenistan; the guls reflect the national identity of Turkmenistan where carpet-making has long been a part of traditional nomadic life
Government type federal republic defines itself as a secular democracy and a presidential republic; in actuality displays authoritarian presidential rule, with power concentrated within the presidential administration
Independence 18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor) 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Judicial branch Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat); Federal Court of Justice; Federal Administrative Court Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); High Commercial Court
Legal system civil law system civil law system with Islamic law influences
Legislative branch bicameral legislature consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat unicameral parliament known as the National Assembly (Mejlis)
Political parties and leaders Alliance '90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR]<br />Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]<br />Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]<br />Free Democratic Party or FDP [Philipp ROESLER]<br />Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]<br />Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL] Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, Chairman; Kasymguly BABAYEW, DPT Political Council First Secretary]<br />Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs or PIE [Orazmammet MAMMEDOW] (party registered 21 August 2012)<br />
Political pressure groups and leaders business associations and employers' organizations<br />trade unions; religious, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups none
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal 18 years of age; universal
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International none cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2005, but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled with Azerbaijan, Iran, and Kazakhstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed; bilateral talks continue with Azerbaijan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian
National holiday Unity Day, 3 October Independence Day, 27 October
Executive branch > Head of government Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005) President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007)
International organization participation ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC ADB, CIS (associate member, has not ratified the 1993 CIS charter although it participates in meetings and held the chairmanship of the CIS in 2012), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
Country name > Conventional long form Federal Republic of Germany none
Executive branch > Elections president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 19 February 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Parliament for a four-year term; Federal Parliament vote for Chancellor last held after 22 September 2013 (next to be held September 2017) president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term; election last held on 12 February 2012 (next to be held February 2017)
National anthem <strong>name: </strong>"Das Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN <strong>name: </strong>"Garassyz, Bitarap Turkmenistanyn" (Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> collective/Veli MUKHATOV
Country name > Local short form Deutschland Turkmenistan
Capital city > Name Berlin Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
Judicial branch > Subordinate courts Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts provincial, district, and city courts; High Commercial Court; military courts
Constitutional form Republic Republic
Capital > Geographic coordinates 52 31 N, 13 24 E 37 57 N, 58 23 E
Parliament > Seats held by women 204
Ranked 3rd. 10 times more than Turkmenistan
21
Ranked 108th.

Capital city Berlin Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
Leaders > President > Profile <p>Joachim Gauck, a human-rights campaigner and former East German dissident, became president in March 2012. </p> <p>The opposition Social Democrats and Greens nominated him after the resignation of President Christian Wulff in February over a housing loan scandal, and the governing centre-right coaltion parties agreed to support him. </p> <p>Mr Gauck stood for the largely ceremonial presidency in 2010, losing to the government&#039;s preferred candidate Mr Wulff. </p> <p>Mr Gauck, like the Christian Democrat chancellor, Angela Merkel, has a background in the Lutheran Church in East Germany - he was a pastor there, as was Mrs Merkel&#039;s father. </p> <p>An active anti-Communist from an early age whose father was exiled to a Soviet forced-labour camp for several years, Mr Gauck was a leader of the opposition New Forum in the last days of the East German dictatorship. </p> <p>He served in the first and last democratic East German parliament, which put him in charge of investigating the archives of the Stasi secret police. </p> <p>He continued this task after the reunification of Germany, earning the admiration of all but diehard Communists for his work in exposing the crimes of the Communist era. </p> <p>Mr Gauck describes himself as a &quot;liberal left conservative&quot;, and has expressed support for the policies of both Social-Democrat and Christian-Democrat coalition governments on a non-partisan basis. </p> <p>In recent years he has concentrated on campaigning against both left and right extremist threats to Germany&#039;s democratic system. </p> <p>Born in Rostock in 1940, Mr Gauck has four children by his wife, from whom he is separated. His partner since 2000 is the journalist Daniela Schadt, who will take on the ceremonial duties of First Lady. </p> <p>Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov secured a second five-year term in February 2012, winning more than 97% of the vote. In the election, Mr Berdymukhamedov faced several other candidates from his own party, all of whom expressed their support for him.</p> <p>The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) declined to send a mission to monitor the poll, saying there was little point given the limited freedoms and lack of political competition in the country.</p> <p>Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov took office as president after winning elections in February 2007 with 89% of the vote. </p> <p>There were six candidates in that poll, all from the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan. Exiled figures from the Turkmen opposition were banned from competing, and human rights groups and Western diplomats condemned the election as rigged. </p><p>Weeks later the president was chosen as chairman of the People&#039;s Council, Turkmenistan&#039;s highest legislative body. He was the only candidate. </p> <p>A former deputy prime minister, Mr Berdymukhamedov became acting president after authoritarian leader Saparmyrat Niyazov died in December 2006. Mr Niyazov had been in power since Soviet times. </p> <p>His nomination for the presidency surprised observers because under the constitution the post should have gone to People&#039;s Council chairman Ovezgeldy Atayev. However, after Mr Niyazov died Mr Atayev became the subject of a criminal investigation and was sacked. </p> <p>The new president promised to continue the policies of his predecessor but also to introduce reforms, including unlimited access to the internet, better education and higher pensions. </p> <p>Soon after coming to power, he restored pensions to more than 100,000 elderly citizens, reversing President Niyazov&#039;s decisions to withdraw them the previous year. </p> <p>He has dismantled aspects of his predecessor&#039;s personality cult, but in part only to introduce the beginnings of one of his own. Already, a new mosque was named after him in 2009, and bookshops are full of Mr Berdymukhamedov&#039;s own works.</p> <p>The promise of unlimited internet access has also proved to be a hollow one. By June 2010, only 1.6% of the population was estimated to have access to the internet.</p> <p>Once Mr Niyazov&#039;s personal dentist, Mr Berdymukhamedov became Turkmen health minister in 1997 and deputy premier in 2001. One of his tasks was to implement Mr Niyazov&#039;s closure of most medical facilities, which brought public health care to the point of collapse. </p> <p>Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov was born in 1957. </p>
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ 518.82 billion$
Ranked 1st. 484 times more than Turkmenistan
1.07 billion$
Ranked 97th.

Democracy and rights > Press freedom index 10.24
Ranked 21st.
79.14
Ranked 3rd. 8 times more than Germany
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 31.8%
Ranked 17th. 99% more than Turkmenistan
16%
Ranked 75th.

Democracy > Female ministers 35.9%
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than Turkmenistan
17.5%
Ranked 46th.
Democracy > Civil and political liberties 5.5
Ranked 17th.
0.0
Ranked 140th.
Leaders > President Joachim Gauck Kurbanguly Berdymukhamedov
International relations Germany is a major player in Europe and a proponent of European integration. It is the third biggest troop supplier in Afghanistan Turkmenistan exports most of its gas to Russia, but has been expanding export routes to China and Iran since 2009
Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68 judges appointed by the president; judge tenure NA
Country name > Local long form Bundesrepublik Deutschland none
Basis of executive legitimacy Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence Presidency is independent of legislature
Politics Angela Merkel of the conservative Christian Democrats won a third term as chancellor in 2013 Turkmenistan has become slightly less isolated since President Berdymukhamedov took power in 2007
Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press 17
Ranked 174th.
96
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Germany
Democracy > First female parliamentarian 1919 (elected) 1990 (elected)
Diplomatic representation from the US > FAX [49] (30) 8305-1215 [993] (12) 94-26-14
Executive branch > Election results Joachim GAUCK elected president; received 991 votes of the Federal Convention against 126 for Beate KLARSFELD and 3 for Olaf ROSE; Angela MERKEL reelected chancellor; vote by Federal Parliament 323 to 285 with four abstentions Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW reelected president; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW 97.1%, Annageldi YAZMYRADOW 1.1%, other candidates 1.8%
Country name > Former German Empire, German Republic, German Reich Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
UN membership date 18 Sep. 1973 2 Mar. 1992
Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons > Stateless persons 5,683
Ranked 22nd.
8,947
Ranked 16th. 57% more than Germany
Parliament > Seats held by women per million people 2.51
Ranked 111th.
4.11
Ranked 77th. 63% more than Germany

Parliament > Seats held by men 416
Ranked 13th. 4 times more than Turkmenistan
104
Ranked 93th.

Legislative branch > Election results Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 41.5%, SPD 25.7%, Left 8.6%, Greens 8.4%, FDP 4.8%, other 11%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 311, SPD 192, Left 64, Greens 63 100%
Legislative branch > Elections Bundestag - last held on 22 September 2013 (next to be held no later than autumn 2017); most all postwar German governments have been coalitions last held on 14 December 2008 (next to be held in December 2013)
Diplomatic representation from the US > Chief of mission Ambassador John B. EMERSON (since 7 August 2013) Ambassador Robert E. PATTERSON
Diplomatic representation from the US > Embassy Clayallee 170, 14191 Berlin No. 9 1984 Street (formerly Pushkin Street), Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 744000
Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel None
None
Democracy > Female suffrage 1918 1927
International law organization participation accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Democracy > Female parliamentarians 31%
Ranked 8th. 19% more than Turkmenistan
26%
Ranked 17th.
Role of head of state Ceremonial Executive
Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members 4
Ranked 107th.
5
Ranked 102nd. 25% more than Germany
Republic establishment date November 9, 1918 April 26, 1920
Leaders > Head of state > Term limit for head of state 5
Ranked 35th. The same as Turkmenistan
5
Ranked 116th.
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 6,291.01$
Ranked 12th. 28 times more than Turkmenistan
225.83$
Ranked 81st.

Democracy > Democratic institutions rating 10
Ranked 2nd.
-8
Ranked 134th.
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.186$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 43th. 40% more than Turkmenistan
0.133$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 86th.

Democracy > Female candidacy 1,918
Ranked 145th.
1,927
Ranked 125th. About the same as Germany
Date of transition to republican system of government > Republic since October 18, 1918 November 12, 1918
Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment January 15, 1992 July 2, 1996
FAX 49 993
Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage 32.9%
Ranked 26th. 96% more than Turkmenistan
16.8%
Ranked 98th.

Executive branch > Chief of state President Joachim GAUCK (since 23 March 2012) President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 February 2007)
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission Ambassador Niels Peter Georg AMMON (since 9 August 2011) Ambassador Mered Bairamovich ORAZOW
Parliament > Seats held by men per million people 5.13
Ranked 158th.
20.34
Ranked 78th. 4 times more than Germany

Foreign relations > Recognition of Israel notes Date full diplomatic relations established. Prior to this, Germany signed the Reparations agreement with Israel. Date full diplomatic relations established
Trademarks > Residents per million 758.35
Ranked 17th. 31 times more than Turkmenistan
24.5
Ranked 71st.

Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador Ammon, Peter Peter Ammon Orazov, Meret B. Meret B. Orazov
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU 417180000000 11828700000000
Diplomatic representation from the US > Telephone [49] (30) 48305-0 [993] (12) 94-00-45
Trademarks > Nonresidents per 1000 0.0405
Ranked 46th.
0.128
Ranked 54th. 3 times more than Germany

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > % 36.5%
Ranked 20th. 2 times more than Turkmenistan
16.8%
Ranked 104th.

Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery None None
Transnational Issues > Illicit drugs source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and Western European markets; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 298-4261 [1] (202) 280-1003
Trademarks > Residents 62,576
Ranked 5th. 574 times more than Turkmenistan
109
Ranked 75th.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita 6,291.01$ per capita
Ranked 12th. 28 times more than Turkmenistan
221.84$ per capita
Ranked 82nd.

Trademarks > Residents > Per capita 0.758 per 1,000 people
Ranked 17th. 30 times more than Turkmenistan
0.025 per 1,000 people
Ranked 69th.

Trademarks > Nonresidents > Per capita 0.041 per 1,000 people
Ranked 45th.
0.128 per 1,000 people
Ranked 51st. 3 times more than Germany

Capital city > Time difference UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Constant LCU 394104700000 3800000
Capital > Name Berlin Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)
Capital > Time difference UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
National symbol(s) golden eagle Akhal-Teke horse
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 298-4000 [1] (202) 588-1500
Leaders > President > Summary President Joachim Gauck President Berdymukhamedov is serving his second term
National anthem > Note adopted 1922, restored 1990; the anthem, also known as "Deutschlandlied" (Song of Germany), was abolished in 1945 because of the Nazi's use of the first verse, specifically the phrase, "Deutschland, Deutschland uber alles" (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism; since restoration in 1990, only the third verse is sung adopted 1997, lyrics revised 2008; following the death of the President Saparmurat NYYAZOW, the lyrics were altered to eliminate references to the former president
Foreign relations > Nepal > Date of Establishment April 4, 1958 October 17, 2005
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth 0.1%
Ranked 101st.
31.03%
Ranked 4th. 310 times more than Germany

Trademarks > Nonresidents 3,342
Ranked 16th. 6 times more than Turkmenistan
569
Ranked 71st.

Transnational Issues > Refugees and internally displaced persons > Stateless persons per thousand people 0.0694
Ranked 42nd.
1.73
Ranked 11th. 25 times more than Germany
National anthem > Name "Lied der Deutschen" (Song of the Germans) Bitarap Turkmenistanyn" (Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem)

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: Censorship by country (Censorship by country) ("Press Freedom Index 2013" , Reporters Without Borders, 30 January 2013); IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on women in government at the ministerial level. March. Geneva; Freedom House, Freedom in the World 2000-2001, New York: Freedom House, 2001; "2012 Freedom of the Press Data" , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva.; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wikipedia: International recognition of Israel (UN member states); IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 1995. Women in Parliaments 1945-1995: A World Statistical Survey. Geneva and IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2001. Correspondence on year women received the right to vote and to stand for election and year first woman was elected or appointed to parliament. March. Geneva; calculated on the basis of data on parliamentary seats from IPU (Inter-Parliamentary Union). 2002. Parline Database. March 2002; Wikipedia: Term of office (Terms of office by country); Wikipedia: List of countries by date of transition to republican system of government (List); World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Polity IV Project, University of Maryland, at Polity IV Project; Wikipedia: List of countries by date of transition to republican system of government; Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia; United Nations Statistics Division; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of ambassadors to the United States; Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) (www.ipu.org); Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Nepal; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.

Citation

"Government: Germany and Turkmenistan compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Germany/Turkmenistan/Government

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