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Country vs country: Japan and United States compared: Military stats

Definitions

  • Air force > Combat aircraft: Number of fighter aircrafts (fixed wing aircrafts with combat capability).
  • Army > Main battle tanks: Number of main battle tanks.
  • Budget: Annual defense budget in billion USD.
  • Global Peace Index: The Global Peace Index is comprised of 22 indicators in the three categories ongoing domestic or international conflicts; societal safety; and security and militarization. A low index value indicates a peaceful and safe country.
  • Military service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation.
  • Navy > Aircraft carriers: Number of aircraft carriers.
  • Navy > Corvette warships: Number of corvettes.
  • Navy > Nuclear submarines: Number of nuclear submarines.
  • Navy > Submarines: Number of patrol boats (includes minesweepers).
  • Paramilitary personnel: Paramilitary.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Personnel > Per capita: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of sevice obligation.
  • WMD > Missile: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of missile weapons of mass destruction
  • WMD > Nuclear: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of nuclear weapons
  • War deaths: Battle-related deaths are deaths in battle-related conflicts between warring parties in the conflict dyad (two conflict units that are parties to a conflict). Typically, battle-related deaths occur in warfare involving the armed forces of the warring parties. This includes traditional battlefield fighting, guerrilla activities, and all kinds of bombardments of military units, cities, and villages, etc. The targets are usually the military itself and its installations or state institutions and state representatives, but there is often substantial collateral damage in the form of civilians being killed in crossfire, in indiscriminate bombings, etc. All deaths--military as well as civilian--incurred in such situations, are counted as battle-related deaths."
  • Armed forces personnel: Total armed forces (2000)
  • Military expenditures: This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). For countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures on public security and police.
  • Military branches: This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces).
  • Expenditures > Percent of GDP: Current military expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
  • Armed forces personnel > Total: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organisation, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces."
  • Personnel: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces.
  • Navy > Frigates: Number of frigates.
  • Navy > Destroyers: Number of destroyers.
  • Navy > Cruisers: Number of cruisers.
  • Branches: The names of the ground, naval, air, marine, and other defense or security forces
  • Navy > Amphibious warfare ships: Number of amphibious warfare ships.
  • Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical weapons possession:

    Status of possession of chemical weapons of countries that either declared chemical weapon stockpiles, are suspected of secretly stockpiling them, or are running chemical weapons research programs.

  • Military expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilisation, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)"
  • Air force > Aircraft carriers > Total: Total amount of aircraft carriers possessed by each country. 
  • Navy > Helicopter carriers: Amount of helicopter carriers currently in service.
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Males: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Air force > Aircraft carriers > Commissioned:

    Amount of aircraft carriers in full service in each country. These numbers can also be interpreted as the amount of each country's commissioned aircraft carriers.   

  • Armed forces personnel per 1000: Total armed forces (2000). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males: The number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.
  • Expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Personnel per 1000: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Nuclear weapons > Non-Proliferation treaty sign date: Signed.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical Weapons Convention ratification: Date of ratification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC) of countries who either declared chemical weapon stockpiles, are suspected of secretly stockpiling them, or are running chemical weapons research programs.
  • Conscription: A description of the status of conscription in the nation in 1997.
  • Armed forces growth: Growth in the number of armed forces personnel from 1985 (index = 100) to 2000. 100 means no growth, 50 means it halved and 200 means it doubled.
  • Imports > USD: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services."
  • Defence spending > Percent of GDP: Defense expenditure as percentage of GDP. Figures are for the year 2010.
  • Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services.
  • Air force > Aircraft carriers > In reserve: Total amount of reserve aircraft carriers in each country.
  • WMD > Biological: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of biological weapons of mass destruction
  • Military expenditures > Percent of GDP: This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP). For countries with no military forces, this figure can include expenditures on public security and police.
  • Terrorism > 2002 Bali bombing deaths: Amount of citizens from each country who were killed in the 2002 Bali bombings. In all, 202 people were killed.
  • WMD > Overview: An overview of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of weapons of mass destruction
  • WMD > Chemical: A description of the nation's situation with regards to the possession and manufacture of chemical weapons of mass destruction
  • Weapon holdings per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Military spending > 2009 > USD billions: Defense expenditure of some countries in the year 2010.
  • Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services.
  • Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
  • Exports > USD: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services."
  • Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Males per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Terrorism > 2002 Bali bombing deaths per million people: Amount of citizens from each country who were killed in the 2002 Bali bombings. In all, 202 people were killed. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Conventional arms imports: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre).
  • Manpower > Military age: The minimum age at which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject to conscription.
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
  • Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates: Estimates of total development aid to Afghanistan over a four year period, in USD. Does not include charitable donations or other non-governmental donations. NOTE: The European Community is estimated to have given over $114 billion over the past four years. Other donations include the UN Development Programme pledging $7,268,507,000; Microsoft pledging $65,000,000; and $47,000,000.
  • Employment in arms > Production per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Iraq coalition forces > Troop strength: Number of coalition forces in Iraq. Earliest confirmed date of troop strength is Georgia, as of September 10, 2005. Latest confirmed date of troop strength is Denmark, as of March 23, 2006. NOTE: There are no reliable estimates on number of other coalition forces in Iraq, by country. An additional 1,850 troops are from Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia and Ukraine. Fiji is participating as part of the UN mission in Iraq. U.S. troop strength includes active and reserve and are as of March 2006.
  • Aid to Afghanistan > Gross disbursements as a percent of ODA: Percent of all gross disbursments of official development aid which goes to Afghanistan, 2003-2004. NOTE: The total percent to Afghanistan from all donor countries is 1.7%.
  • Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49: The total numbers of males aged 15-49. This statistic assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
  • Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Conventional arms imports per capita: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Allies of World War I > Personnel and casualties > Wounded in action per 1000: Troops of allied powers wounded in action in World War I. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Commitment to Development Index (security): The Commitment to Development Index (CDI) ranks the world’s richest countries on their commitment to policies that benefit the poorer nations. The security component of the CDI considers military actions that affect developing countries, favoring three aspects of the security-development nexus: 1. Financial and personnel contributions to peacekeeping operations and forcible humanitarian interventions. 2. Deployment of naval fleets to platrol sea lanes. 3. Collaboration with international security regimes that promote non-proliferation, disarmament and international rule of law. Finally, the CDI penalizes some exports of arms to nations, especially ones that are undemocratic and spend heavily on the military.
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Females per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching military age annually > Females: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching military age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 per 1000: The total numbers of males aged 15-49. This statistic assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.
  • Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended.
  • Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Allies of World War I > Personnel and casualties > Wounded in action: Troops of allied powers wounded in action in World War I.
  • Iraq coalition forces > Troop strength per million: Number of coalition forces in Iraq. Earliest confirmed date of troop strength is Georgia, as of September 10, 2005. Latest confirmed date of troop strength is Denmark, as of March 23, 2006. NOTE: There are no reliable estimates on number of other coalition forces in Iraq, by country. An additional 1,850 troops are from Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia/Herzegovina, Czech Republic, El Salvador, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia and Ukraine. Fiji is participating as part of the UN mission in Iraq. U.S. troop strength includes active and reserve and are as of March 2006. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Conventional arms imports > Per $ GDP: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre). Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Conscription status: Whether countries prescribe mandatory military services as of 1997.
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males > Per capita: The number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 > Per capita: The total numbers of males aged 15-49. This statistic assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Expenditure > % of central government expenditure: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates per capita: Estimates of total development aid to Afghanistan over a four year period, in USD. Does not include charitable donations or other non-governmental donations. NOTE: The European Community is estimated to have given over $114 billion over the past four years. Other donations include the UN Development Programme pledging $7,268,507,000; Microsoft pledging $65,000,000; and $47,000,000. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid > Per $ GDP: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 100,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Conventional arms imports, % of GDP: Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions) Refers to the voluntary transfer by the supplier (and thus excludes captured weapons and weapons obtained through defectors) of weapons with a military purpose destined for the armed forces, paramilitary forces or intelligence agencies of another country. These include major conventional weapons or systems in six categories: ships, aircraft, missiles, artillery, armoured vehicles and guidance and radar systems (excluded are trucks, services, ammunition, small arms, support items, components and component technology and towed or naval artillery under 100-millimetre calibre). Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid per capita: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita: Arms transfers cover the supply of military weapons through sales, aid, gifts, and those made through manufacturing licenses. Data cover major conventional weapons such as aircraft, armored vehicles, artillery, radar systems, missiles, and ships designed for military use. Excluded are transfers of other military equipment such as small arms and light weapons, trucks, small artillery, ammunition, support equipment, technology transfers, and other services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000: This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes that every individual is fit to serve. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Personnel > % of total labor force: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organization, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Labor force comprises all people who meet the International Labour Organization's definition of the economically active population.
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower > Fit for military service > Females per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Expenditure > % of GDP: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Military expenditure > % of GDP: Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilisation, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)"
  • Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid, % of GDP: Amount pledged by donor countries for reconstruction in Iraq, as of December 31, 2005. NOTES ON PLEDGES OF RECONSTRUCTION AID TABLE: The European Commission has pledged $518,119,988, which includes an additional January 2005 pledge of 200 million Euros (approximately $260 million), not yet formally committed to UNDG or World Bank Iraqi Trust Fund. Not incuded in this graph is $65,000,000 in additional pledges from Kuwait. "The World Bank, United Nations and CPA estimated Iraq will need $56 billion for reconstruction and stabilization efforts from 2004 to 2007, but that estimate is probably too low." -Brookings Institute. UPDATE ON 2003 MADRID CONFERENCE PLEDGES: Of the $13.5 billion pledged by donors other than the United States, $3.2 billion has been disbursed as of December 2005. The figure for the United States is derived from the IRRF 1 and 2. Status of the IRRF 2 as of January 6, 2006: $16.9 billion as been committed, and just over $10.1 billion has been expended. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males per 1000: The number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females per thousand people: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates, % of GDP: Estimates of total development aid to Afghanistan over a four year period, in USD. Does not include charitable donations or other non-governmental donations. NOTE: The European Community is estimated to have given over $114 billion over the past four years. Other donations include the UN Development Programme pledging $7,268,507,000; Microsoft pledging $65,000,000; and $47,000,000. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Manpower > Availability > Males per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Manpower > Availability > Females per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Defence minister: Name of defence minister.
  • Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates > Per $ GDP: Estimates of total development aid to Afghanistan over a four year period, in USD. Does not include charitable donations or other non-governmental donations. NOTE: The European Community is estimated to have given over $114 billion over the past four years. Other donations include the UN Development Programme pledging $7,268,507,000; Microsoft pledging $65,000,000; and $47,000,000. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 10,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Armed forces personnel > % of total labor force: Armed forces personnel are active duty military personnel, including paramilitary forces if the training, organisation, equipment, and control suggest they may be used to support or replace regular military forces. Labor force comprises all people who meet the International Labour Organisation's definition of the economically active population."
  • Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females: This entry is derived from Military > Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually, which gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
  • Manpower > Fit for military service > Males per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
STAT Japan United States HISTORY
Air force > Combat aircraft 374
Ranked 6th.
3,318
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than Japan
Army > Main battle tanks 902
Ranked 7th.
8,725
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than Japan
Budget 51.4 US$ BN
Ranked 3rd.
682 US$ BN
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Japan
Global Peace Index 1.29
Ranked 28th.
2.13
Ranked 4th. 64% more than Japan

Military service age and obligation 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; mandatory retirement at age 53 for senior enlisted personnel and at 62 years for senior service officers 18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; no conscription; maximum enlistment age 42 (Army), 27 (Air Force), 34 (Navy), 28 (Marines); service obligation 8 years, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines); DoD is eliminating prohibitions restricting women from assignments in units smaller than brigades or near combat units
Navy > Aircraft carriers 0.0
Ranked 8th.
10
Ranked 1st.
Navy > Corvette warships 24
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than United States
2
Ranked 8th.
Navy > Nuclear submarines 0.0
Ranked 5th.
71
Ranked 1st.
Navy > Submarines 16
Ranked 3rd. 8 times more than United States
2
Ranked 8th.
Paramilitary personnel 12,250
Ranked 49th. 11% more than United States
11,035
Ranked 1st.
Personnel > Per capita 2.13 per 1,000 people
Ranked 126th.
5.22 per 1,000 people
Ranked 70th. 2 times more than Japan

Service age and obligation 18 years of age for voluntary military service 18 years of age (17 years of age with parental consent) for male and female voluntary service; maximum enlistment age 42 (Army), 27 (Air Force), 34 (Navy), 28 (Marines); service obligation 8 years, including 2-5 years active duty (Army), 2 years active (Navy), 4 years active (Air Force, Marines)
WMD > Missile Japan does not have a ballistic missile development program, but its space program includes a number of technologies that could potentially be adapted to long-range missiles. The solid-fueled M-5 rocket system, first launched in 1995, includes technologies that could be adapted to develop intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) capabilities roughly similar to those of the U.S. MX Peacekeeper missile. Japan's two-stage H-2 rocket is capable of placing a two-ton payload into orbit, but the H-2 is not optimal for ballistic missile applications due to its reliance on cryogenic liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel. Japan lacks sophisticated command and control systems, as well as some guidance and warhead technology that would be necessary to develop operational missiles. Japan has partnered with the United States to research ballistic missile defenses (BMD), but has yet to make a final decision on future development and deployment. Many in Japan argue that a missile defense system would compliment the U.S. nuclear deterrent and defend against possible belligerents such as North Korea. Others argue that the system's costs outweigh the benefits, especially since the system's effectiveness is unproven. Missile defense also raises potential legal issues regarding Japanese legislation barring the military use of space. Japan is an active member of the MTCR and was involved in drafting the International Code of Conduct Against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (ICOC). The United States has the capability to produce highly sophisticated liquid- and solid-fueled missiles of all ranges. It currently deploys 500 Minuteman and 10 MX/Peacekeeper nuclear-tipped intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) at three bases in Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming. The number of warheads on Minuteman missiles was scheduled to be reduced from three to one by 2007 under the defunct START II agreement, but this plan may be revised to assign between 700 to 800 warheads to the 500 Minutemen missiles. Deactivation of the MX/Peacekeeper force began in October 2002 and will conclude in 2005, at the cost of $600 million. In 2004, the Defense Department retired 17 additional MX/Peacekeeper missiles as part of this plan, and the final 10 MX missiles will be withdrawn from alert status by October 1, 2005. These remaining missiles will not be destroyed as prescribed under START II, but will be retained as stipulated in the 2001 NPR for potential use as space launch vehicles, target vehicles, or for redeployment. The Minuteman missile force is also undergoing a $6.0 billion modernization program to improve the weapon's accuracy, reliability, and to extend its service life beyond 2020. A new, longer-range ICBM, to be ready in 2018, is being considered by the Pentagon. As of early 2005, the U.S. Navy had 14 operational Ohio-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBN), having reduced its level by one in 2004 to meet NPR specifications. The four oldest subs in the original class of 18 have been converted to carry non-nuclear cruise missiles. The 14 operational SSBNs carry a total of 336 Trident-1 and Trident-II submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM), each carrying between six and eight warheads, for an estimated total of 2,016. All SSBNs will be modified to carry the Trident II missiles, and the navy has extended the service life of the Trident-II from 30 to 49 years. The Pentagon is planning to introduce a new SSBN in 2029 when the oldest of the current subs will be retired. Previous predictions indicated that the U.S. Navy would station the 14 SSBNs evenly among the Atlantic and Pacific fleets; however, recent planning shifts have called for an SSBN fleet of 9 to be stationed in the Pacific with only 5 submarines in the Atlantic. Also, in 2004, the Navy initiated the Enhanced Effectiveness (E2) Reentry Body Program that would allow missiles to be targeted within 10-meter accuracy, expanding the list of potential targets to be attacked by W76 warheads. Finally, the Navy plans to resume SLBM flight tests in 2005 and plans to develop a submarine-launched intermediate-range ballistic missile (SLIRBM) that would carry nuclear and conventional payloads. The U.S. bomber force consists of 94 B-52 bombers stationed at Barksdale AFB in Louisiana and Minot AFB in North Dakota, and 21 B-2 bombers stationed at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri. The B-52 can deliver air-launched cruise missiles (ALCM), advanced cruise missiles (ACM), or gravity bombs. The B-2 carries only gravity bombs. It is estimated that 450 ALCMs are deployed as well as around 400 operational ACMs, which have a longer range, greater accuracy, and more difficult to intercept than an ALCM. The B-2s are scheduled to undergo upgrades allowing them to make mission and target changes in route. The U.S. Air Force intends to expedite the process of finding a replacement for its current bomber force, considering long- and mid-range options, unmanned aircraft, and new bombers. The United States is a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), whose goal is to control the transfer of nuclear-capable missiles and unmanned delivery systems capable of carrying all types of WMD.
WMD > Nuclear Japan's "Atomic Energy Basic Law" allows only peaceful nuclear activities, and its "Three Non-Nuclear Principles" pledge that Japan will not possess, produce, or permit the introduction of nuclear weapons into the country. Despite Japan's long-standing stance against nuclear weapons, there was an internal debate in the early 1970s about whether Japan should sign the NPT, in part due to concerns about assuring access to nuclear technology to meet national energy needs, and the discriminatory nature of the treaty. Some conservatives were also concerned that closing off the nuclear option might negatively impact future national security needs. Japan has played an active role in nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament, and has proposed a process for the total elimination of nuclear weapons. Japan ratified the CTBT in 1997 and has been a strong supporter of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). However, Japan's security relationship with the United States has tempered Tokyo's emphasis on disarmament. For example, Japan remains quiet about the possible presence of nuclear warheads on U.S. ships and military bases in Japan. Japan increasingly relies on nuclear power for its electricity needs, and has a highly developed civilian nuclear sector. Japan has a controversial program for recycling spent nuclear fuel that has produced large quantities of plutonium in the form of metal-oxide nuclear fuel. At the end of 2001, Japan had more than 30 metric tons of spent fuel stored at reprocessing plants in Britain and France, along with a domestic stockpile of 5 to 6 tons. These nuclear fuel stockpiles will ultimately return to Japan for use in domestic nuclear facilities. The original plan called for consumption of the stored fuel by 2010, but due to technical and safety issues, this timetable has been delayed and return of the stored fuel to Japan is proceeding slowly. Some argue this material could provide Japan with a latent nuclear weapons capability. In addition, the new facility under constructing in Rokkasho (Aomori Prefecture) will increase Japanese domestic reprocessing capacity and potentially produce an additional 5 tons of metal-oxide nuclear fuel per year. Although anti-nuclear sentiment among the Japanese public has far outweighed support for keeping a nuclear option open, several neighboring countries have expressed concerns about possible Japanese nuclear ambitions. Partly in response to these fears, the Japanese government completed an internal study in 1995 that reaffirmed previous conclusions that developing nuclear weapons would damage both Japan’s national security and regional security. However recent tension developing in the region, particularly in the Korean peninsula, has led to increased discussions in Japan about the once taboo subject of nuclear weapons development. Despite recent speculation that Japan may reconsider its nuclear options, the deep aversion to nuclear weapons among the Japanese public will likely make any move in this direction difficult. As one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the United States maintains a sizeable arsenal of nuclear weapons, including approximately 10,350 intact warheads, 5300 of which are considered active or operational. Approximately 4,530 strategic warheads are operational, 1,150 of which are deployed on land-based missile systems (Minuteman and Peacekeeper ICBMs), 1,050 on bombers (B-52 and B-2), and 2,016 on submarines (Ohio-class subs). 780 are tactical nuclear weapons (TNWs), and consist of an estimated 200 Tomahawk land attack cruise missiles (TLAM/N), and 580 B61 bombs. The remaining warheads are stockpiled. The only remaining U.S. weapons in forward deployment, aside from those on SSBNs, are approximately 480 of the 580 operational B61 bombs, located at eight bases in six European NATO countries. According to the May 2002 Treaty of Moscow (the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty, or SORT) between the United States and the Russian Federation, both countries are required to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals to 1,700-2,200 operationally deployed warheads by 2012. In June 2004, the US Department of Energy announced that "almost half" of these warheads would be retired for dismantlement by 2012. This statement suggests that the total stockpile of 10,350 warheards would be reduced to about 6,000 by this date. Over 5,000 warheads have been removed from deployment by the United States and placed in a "responsive reserve force" (active but not deployed or in overhaul). These "spares," or warheads on inactive status, have not been dismantled, in keeping with past practice under previous U.S. arms control agreements. The Bush administration has rejected U.S. ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, but calls for a continued moratorium on nuclear testing. The NPR calls for a reduction in the amount of time needed (now 18 months as mandated by Congress, but this could be reduced to as little as 12 months) to test a nuclear weapon, suggesting that the United States might decide to resume nuclear testing, although Bush administration officials deny that this is currently planned and explain the shortening of test-site readiness time as a logical extension of the U.S. decision to maintain a testing option. The NPR also calls for discussion on possible development of new, low-yield, bunker-busting TNW. A law barring research and development that could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield "bunker buster" nuclear weapon (warheads with a yield of 5 kilotons or less) was passed by Congress in 1994. In its FY2004 budget request, however, the Department of Defense requested a repeal of the 1994 law, suggesting that the U.S. government intends to proceed with development of new nuclear weapons. The repeal was approved by the Senate on 20 May 2003. The Bush administration has requested an additional $8.5 million in its 2006 budget in order to continue research of nuclear "bunker busters" under the Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP) Project. Congress rejected RNEP funding and resources for the Advanced Concepts Initiative, one that would develop mini-nukes or exotic designs, completely for FY2005. Weapons laboratories under the Department of Energy began research on the RNEP Project in 2003, and the study is expected to be complete in 2006. The United States used nuclear weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, making it the only country that has ever used nuclear weapons during a conflict. It ratified the NPT in March 1970.
War deaths 0.0
Ranked 62nd.
0.0
Ranked 73th.

Armed forces personnel 237,000
Ranked 20th.
1.37 million
Ranked 3rd. 6 times more than Japan
Military expenditures 1% of GDP
Ranked 46th.
4.6% of GDP
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Japan
Military branches Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jieitai, GSDF), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jieitai, MSDF), Air Self-Defense Force (Koukuu Jieitai, ASDF) United States Armed Forces: US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Coast Guard
Expenditures > Percent of GDP 0.8%
Ranked 78th.
4.06%
Ranked 22nd. 5 times more than Japan
Manpower fit for military service > Males age 16-49 None None
Armed forces personnel > Total 242,000
Ranked 22nd.
1.54 million
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Japan

Personnel 272,000
Ranked 23th.
1.55 million
Ranked 3rd. 6 times more than Japan

Navy > Frigates 36
Ranked 1st. 38% more than United States
26
Ranked 3rd.
Navy > Destroyers 10
Ranked 3rd.
62
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than Japan
Navy > Cruisers 0.0
Ranked 4th.
22
Ranked 1st.
Branches Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jietai, GSDF), Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jietai, MSDF), Air Self-Defense Force (Koku Jieitai, ASDF) US Army, US Navy (includes Marine Corps), US Air Force, US Coast Guard; note - Coast Guard administered in peacetime by the Department of Homeland Security, but in wartime reports to the Department of the Navy
Navy > Amphibious warfare ships 6
Ranked 5th.
30
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Japan
Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical weapons possession Probable Known
Military expenditure > Current LCU 4.77 trillion
Ranked 5th. 7 times more than United States
661.05 billion
Ranked 13th.

Air force > Aircraft carriers > Total 20
Ranked 3rd.
68
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan
Navy > Helicopter carriers 2
Ranked 4th.
9
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Japan
Manpower reaching military age annually > Males 623,365
Ranked 18th.
2.16 million
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Japan

Air force > Aircraft carriers > Commissioned 2
Ranked 4th.
19
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than Japan
Weapon holdings 3.31 million
Ranked 27th.
38.54 million
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than Japan
Armed forces personnel per 1000 1.87
Ranked 116th.
4.84
Ranked 57th. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males 622,168
Ranked 18th.
2.19 million
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than Japan

Manpower available for military service > Males age 16-49 None None
Expenditure > Current LCU 4867750000000 507089000000
Personnel per 1000 2.13
Ranked 125th.
5.23
Ranked 70th. 2 times more than Japan

Nuclear weapons > Non-Proliferation treaty sign date 3 Feb 1970 (L, M, W) 1 Jul 1968 (L, M, W)
Weapons of mass destruction > Chemical Weapons Convention ratification September 15, 1995 April 25, 1997
Conscription No <a href=/graph-T/mil_con>conscription</a> (<a href=/encyclopedia/artificial-intelligence>AI</a>). No <a href=/graph-T/mil_con>conscription</a>.
Armed forces growth -3%
Ranked 76th.
-37%
Ranked 107th. 12 times more than Japan
Imports > USD 578 million
Ranked 14th.
904 million
Ranked 7th. 56% more than Japan

Defence spending > Percent of GDP 0.9%
Ranked 14th.
4.3%
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than Japan
Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ 250 million constant 1990 US$
Ranked 26th.
387 million constant 1990 US$
Ranked 19th. 55% more than Japan

Air force > Aircraft carriers > In reserve 0.0
Ranked 9th.
1
Ranked 1st.
WMD > Biological Japan had an active biological weapons (BW) program prior to 1945. The focal point was the now infamous Unit 731 based at a laboratory complex in northeastern China during the Japanese occupation. Unit 731 experimented on Chinese civilians and Allied prisoners of war with various biological agents, including plague, cholera, and hemorrhagic fever. After World War II, the Japanese government abandoned its BW program. Japan signed the BWC in 1972 and ratified it in 1982. Japan has actively supported negotiation of a protocol to strengthen current BWC provisions. Since the 1995 Aum Shinrikyo's sarin attack and failed attempt to disperse anthrax, Japan has increased its focus on bio-terrorism defenses. Although Japan has a growing biotechnology industry, it is still small in comparison to its chemical industry. As a member of the Australia Group, Japan's biotech industry is subject to a comprehensive set of export controls. The U.S. offensive biological warfare (BW) program was launched in 1943 and terminated in 1969, by executive order. During this period, the U.S. weaponized a variety of pathogens and toxins for use against humans and plants. The anti-human agents it developed for weapons purposes were Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The anti-plant agents were the fungi that cause wheat rust and rice blast. In addition, U.S. military scientists conducted research on pathogens that cause smallpox, glanders, and plague, as well as several toxins, such as botulinum toxin, saxitoxin, and ricin. The entire U.S. BW stockpile was destroyed in 1969 and 1970; since that time, it has not had an offensive BW program. The U.S. ratified the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BWC) in March 1975 and had an important role in the process of developing confidence-building measures (CBMs) during several BWC review conferences. However, in 2001, the Bush administration rejected an effort by other signatories to conclude a protocol that would provide verification measures. Since then, the remaining parties to the BWC have conducted semiannual meetings to discuss, among other things, national measures for the implementation of biosecurity regulations and penal legislation, leading up to the Sixth Review Conference in 2006.[2] In addition, the United States has conducted an active biodefense program for many years in accordance with BWC provisions that permit the use of agents of types and in quantities appropriate for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes. These activities are reported each year to Congress and in an annual information exchange on biodefense activities under the BWC. A 4 September 2001 New York Times article identified previously undisclosed U.S. government biodefense projects involving a model of a germ bomb, a factory to make biological agents, and the development of more potent anthrax. The United States denied allegations that this research was anything other than defensive in nature and asserted that it did not violate any BWC provisions or CBMs. On 28 April 2004, President Bush outlined the administration's perspective on biological weapons by issuing National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD-33) called "Biodefense for the 21st Century", an initiative to strengthen the country's biodefense capabilities through programs in threat awareness, prevention and protection, surveillance and detection, and response and recovery. The Bush administration also faces criticism that financial resources have been redirected from non-biodefense research in order to fund additional biodefense research.
Expenditures 0.8% of GDP
Ranked 67th.
4.06% of GDP
Ranked 10th. 5 times more than Japan
Military expenditures > Percent of GDP 0.8% of GDP
Ranked 50th.
4.06% of GDP
Ranked 10th. 5 times more than Japan
Terrorism > 2002 Bali bombing deaths 2
Ranked 15th.
7
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Japan
WMD > Overview Japan's 1947 constitution, which renounces the right to use force or the threat of force as a means of settling international disputes, sets important limits on Japanese security policy. Japan does not have any weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs, although it has the technical capability to produce basic nuclear weapons and missiles in a relatively short time. The Japanese government is highly active in the international nonproliferation and disarmament arena, and party to all relevant multilateral treaties and regimes. As the only country to have suffered a nuclear weapons attack, Japan has been especially active in the field of nuclear nonproliferation and arms control. Japan ratified the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1976 and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1997. Before 1945, Japan developed and employed both chemical and biological weapons. Japan is now a state party to both the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). Japan is also a member of the Australia Group, the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), and the Zangger Committee. Japan has an active nuclear energy program, one of the world's leading chemical industries, a growing biotechnology sector, and an active commercial space program. The United States possesses a substantial nuclear weapons arsenal and associated delivery systems. The 2001 Nuclear Posture Review suggests that the United States may seek to develop, and possibly test, new types of nuclear weapons in the future. The United States destroyed its biological weapons by 1970 and is in the process of destroying its stockpile of chemical weapons. Some critics allege that elements of U.S. government biodefense research are in violation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC).
WMD > Chemical Japanese scientists began developing chemical weapons (CW) as early as 1917. The Japanese Army used CW after invading China in 1937, conducting an estimated 1,000 to 3,000 attacks. Japan reportedly produced five to seven million munitions containing agents such as phosgene, mustard, lewisite, hydrogen cyanide, and diphenyl cyanarsine. Although Japanese forces used many of these munitions between 1937 and 1945, a considerable amount was abandoned when Japanese forces retreated. After World War II, Japan pledged to not produce CW and participated in the negotiations for the CWC, which Japan signed in 1993 and ratified in 1995. Japan's CWC obligations include the responsibility for the disposal of abandoned CW (ACW) in China. The deadline for completion of the clean-up is 2007, but the scale of the program has led many to estimate that Japan will need an extension. Japan's chemical industry is the world's second largest, with about 16 percent of global chemical production. As a member of the Australia Group, Japan has developed comprehensive and well-enforced export controls on chemical weapons precursors and dual-use items. Since the 1995 Aum Shinrikyo sarin attack, Japanese spending on CW defense has increased. The U.S. chemical warfare (CW) program began with the establishment of the Chemical Warfare Service in June 1918. During World War I, the United States manufactured, stockpiled, and used chemical weapons. Chemical weapons development and production continued during and after World War II, but the production of unitary chemical munitions was terminated in 1969. During the Reagan administration, the production of binary chemical weapons was restarted, but was discontinued in 1990. Since then, the United States no longer has an active CW program. The United States ratified the Geneva Protocol in 1975, with the reservation that the treaty not apply to defoliants and riot control agents such as were used in Vietnam and Laos during the Vietnam War. Currently, the United States has what is believed to be the world's second largest stockpile of chemical weapons, including bombs, rockets, and artillery shells that are loaded with lewisite, mustard, sarin, soman, VX, or binary nerve agents. Under terms of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which the United States ratified in April 1997, the United States has committed to destroying all chemical stockpiles by April 2004. However in September 2003, the Pentagon announced that it would be unable to meet this deadline and would ask for an extension at the Fall 2003 CWC meeting. As of 28 December 2004, the Chemical Materials Agency of the U.S. Army announced that only 33.34% of the nation's stored chemical agent, including 70% of the remaining mustard agent stockpile, and 42% of the nation's chemical weapons munitions had been destroyed. Former chemical production facilities and recovered chemical warfare materials are also being destroyed under the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program (NSCMP). The NSCMP also destroyed 80% of the nation's original chemical weapons production facilities in 2003, 16 months ahead of schedule, and will meet the final deadline of 100% destruction by April 2007.
Weapon holdings per 1000 26.01
Ranked 90th.
135.24
Ranked 43th. 5 times more than Japan
Military spending > 2009 > USD billions 51 661
Manpower fit for military service > Females age 16-49 None None
Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ 3 million constant 1990 US$
Ranked 39th.
7.1 billion constant 1990 US$
Ranked 1st. 2367 times more than Japan

Employment in arms > Production 85,000
Ranked 9th.
2.32 million
Ranked 2nd. 27 times more than Japan
Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 22.23 million
Ranked 5th.
54.61 million
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than Japan
Exports > USD 32 million
Ranked 22nd.
6.16 billion
Ranked 1st. 192 times more than Japan

Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 27 million
Ranked 6th.
67.74 million
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower reaching military age annually > Males per thousand people 4.89
Ranked 213th.
6.89
Ranked 163th. 41% more than Japan

Terrorism > 2002 Bali bombing deaths per million people 0.0157
Ranked 21st.
0.0243
Ranked 19th. 55% more than Japan
Conventional arms imports $195.00 million
Ranked 27th.
$533.00 million
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower > Availability > Males 27.82 million
Ranked 10th.
72.72 million
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Japan

Manpower > Military age 18 years of age 18 years of age
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty > Signatures and Ratifications > Signature 24 SEP 1996 24 SEP 1996
Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49 683,147
Ranked 15th.
2.14 million
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males 623,365
Ranked 18th.
2.16 million
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower available for military service > Females age 16-49 26307003 None
Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita 1.96 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 48th. 49% more than United States
1.31 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 56th.

Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita 23.79 constant 1990 US$ per 1
Ranked 42nd.
23,956.65 constant 1990 US$ per 1
Ranked 5th. 1007 times more than Japan

Manpower fit for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000 174.02
Ranked 67th.
181.29
Ranked 50th. 4% more than Japan
Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 21.49 million
Ranked 6th.
54.7 million
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Japan
Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates $82.96 billion
Ranked 2nd.
$83.44 billion
Ranked 1st. 1% more than Japan
Military expenditures > Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Figures > Date of information 2005 2005
Employment in arms > Production per 1000 0.669
Ranked 33th.
8.14
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than Japan
Iraq coalition forces > Troop strength 600
Ranked 8th.
133,000
Ranked 1st. 222 times more than Japan
Manpower > Availability > Females 26.86 million
Ranked 10th.
71.64 million
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Japan

Manpower > Fit for military service > Males 22.96 million
Ranked 8th.
59.41 million
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Japan

Aid to Afghanistan > Gross disbursements as a percent of ODA 1.1%
Ranked 14th.
3.3%
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 29.39 million
Ranked 10th.
73.6 million
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Japan

Arms imports > Constant 1990 US$ > Per capita 1.96 constant 1990 US$ per c
Ranked 48th. 50% more than United States
1.31 constant 1990 US$ per c
Ranked 57th.

Manpower available for military service > Males age 18-49 per 1000 211.34
Ranked 106th.
224.89
Ranked 74th. 6% more than Japan
Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49 per 1000 5.09
Ranked 87th.
6.76
Ranked 70th. 33% more than Japan
Conventional arms imports per capita $1.58
Ranked 60th.
$2.14
Ranked 51st. 35% more than Japan
Allies of World War I > Personnel and casualties > Wounded in action per 1000 0.0071
Ranked 14th.
0.689
Ranked 11th. 97 times more than Japan
Commitment to Development Index (security) 4.5
Ranked 17th.
4.6
Ranked 16th. 2% more than Japan
Manpower reaching military age annually > Females per thousand people 4.64
Ranked 213th.
6.65
Ranked 159th. 43% more than Japan
Manpower reaching military age annually > Females 591,253
Ranked 18th.
2.06 million
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower > Fit for military service > Females 22.13 million
Ranked 9th.
59.19 million
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Japan

Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 per 1000 230.04
Ranked 126th.
249.05
Ranked 85th. 8% more than Japan

Manpower reaching military service age annually > Females age 18-49 650,157
Ranked 12th.
2.04 million
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 26.15 million
Ranked 5th.
67.07 million
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Japan
Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid $4.91 billion
Ranked 2nd.
$20.90 billion
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Japan
Manpower reaching military service age annually > Males age 18-49 per 1000 5.35
Ranked 139th.
7.12
Ranked 107th. 33% more than Japan
Allies of World War I > Personnel and casualties > Wounded in action 907
Ranked 14th.
205,690
Ranked 4th. 227 times more than Japan
Iraq coalition forces > Troop strength per million 4.7
Ranked 10th.
445.74
Ranked 1st. 95 times more than Japan
Conventional arms imports > Per $ GDP 0.052 per $1,000
Ranked 77th. 16% more than United States
0.045 per $1,000
Ranked 81st.
Conscription status No No(The United States abandoned the draft in 1973 under President Richard Nixon, ended the Selective Service registration requirement in 1975 under President Gerald Ford, and then re-instated the Selective Service registration requirement in 1980 under President Jimmy Carter. Today the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_Service_System">U.S. Selective Service System</a> remains as a contingency, should a military draft be re-introduced. For more information see the website.) Registration remains required.
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females > Per capita 4.64 per 1,000 people
Ranked 221st.
6.84 per 1,000 people
Ranked 168th. 48% more than Japan

Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males > Per capita 4.89 per 1,000 people
Ranked 221st.
7.2 per 1,000 people
Ranked 165th. 47% more than Japan

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Male 623365 2161727
Manpower > Availability > Males age 15-49 > Per capita 0.228 per capita
Ranked 150th.
0.251 per capita
Ranked 103th. 10% more than Japan

Expenditure > % of central government expenditure 6.42%
Ranked 32nd.
19.26%
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Japan

Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates per capita $649.35
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than United States
$279.63
Ranked 12th.
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Female 591253 2055685
Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid > Per $ GDP $106.28 per $100,000 of GDP
Ranked 6th.
$179.13 per $100,000 of GDP
Ranked 5th. 69% more than Japan
Manpower fit for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000 168.23
Ranked 66th.
181.58
Ranked 48th. 8% more than Japan
Conventional arms imports, % of GDP 0.00628%
Ranked 79th.
0.00927%
Ranked 75th. 48% more than Japan
Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid per capita $38.46
Ranked 4th.
$69.38
Ranked 3rd. 80% more than Japan
Arms > Exports > Constant 1990 US$ per capita 0.0238 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 41st.
24.03 constant 1990 US$
Ranked 5th. 1010 times more than Japan

Manpower available for military service > Females age 18-49 per 1000 204.69
Ranked 80th.
222.65
Ranked 51st. 9% more than Japan
Personnel > % of total labor force 0.41%
Ranked 127th.
0.99%
Ranked 83th. 2 times more than Japan

Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females per 1000 4.62
Ranked 196th.
6.84
Ranked 151st. 48% more than Japan

Manpower > Fit for military service > Females per 1000 173.32
Ranked 113th.
194.63
Ranked 73th. 12% more than Japan

Expenditure > % of GDP 0.97%
Ranked 90th.
4.08%
Ranked 11th. 4 times more than Japan

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Males per thousand people 4.9
Ranked 214th.
6.83
Ranked 165th. 39% more than Japan
Military expenditure > % of GDP 1.01%
Ranked 86th.
4.64%
Ranked 8th. 5 times more than Japan

Iraq pledges of reconstruction aid, % of GDP 0.113%
Ranked 5th.
0.15%
Ranked 2nd. 33% more than Japan
Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Males per 1000 4.87
Ranked 196th.
7.19
Ranked 148th. 48% more than Japan

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females per thousand people 4.64
Ranked 211th.
6.65
Ranked 158th. 43% more than Japan
Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates, % of GDP 1.9%
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than United States
0.627%
Ranked 12th.
Manpower > Availability > Males per 1000 217.85
Ranked 167th.
239.12
Ranked 119th. 10% more than Japan

Manpower > Availability > Females per 1000 210.36
Ranked 140th.
235.58
Ranked 92nd. 12% more than Japan

Defence minister Itsunori Onodera Chuck Hagel
Aid to Afghanistan > Total development aid > Estimates > Per $ GDP $179.43 per $10,000 of GDP
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than United States
$71.51 per $10,000 of GDP
Ranked 12th.
Armed forces personnel > % of total labor force 0.36%
Ranked 125th.
0.97%
Ranked 71st. 3 times more than Japan

Manpower > Reaching military age annually > Females 590,153
Ranked 18th.
2.08 million
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Japan

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually > Females 591,253
Ranked 18th.
2.06 million
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Japan
Manpower > Fit for military service > Males per 1000 179.81
Ranked 129th.
195.38
Ranked 85th. 9% more than Japan

SOURCES: Wikipedia: List of countries by level of military equipment (List); http://www.visionofhumanity.org/#/page/indexes/global-peace-index, Global Rankings. Vision of Humanity.; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Wikipedia: List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel (The list); World Development Indicators database; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; The Nuclear Threat Initiative; Uppsala Conflict Data Program, http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/.; IISS (International Institute for Strategic Studies). 2001. The Military Balance 2001-2002. 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Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Commitment to Development Index (Commitment to Development Index) (http://www.cgdev.org/doc/CDI%202012/CDI%20Postcard_2012.pdf); CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; 1. The War Office (2006) [1922]. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press; 2. Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press; 3. Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland.; US Department of Defense. The Brookings Institution Iraq Index, April 24, 2006. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Development Programme in Afghanistan, 2006. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. 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Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; US Department of Defense. The Brookings Institution Iraq Index, April 24, 2006. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; United Nations Development Programme in Afghanistan, 2006. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; Wikipedia: List of current defence ministers (States recognized by the United Nations)

Citation

"Military: Japan and United States compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Japan/United-States/Military