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Country vs country: Netherlands and Tonga compared: Government stats

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Definitions

  • Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
  • Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
  • Country name > Conventional short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
  • Flag description: A written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
  • Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
  • Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
  • Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
  • Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
  • Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
  • Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
  • Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
  • Transnational Issues > Disputes > International: This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
  • Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Leaders > Prime minister: Government > Leaders > Prime minister
  • National holiday: The primary national day of celebration - often independence day.
  • International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
  • Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
  • Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
  • National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
  • Country name > Local short form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Judicial branch > Subordinate courts: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Capital > Geographic coordinates: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Constitutional form: Constitutional form of government.
  • Leaders > Head of state: Government > Leaders > Head of state
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Country name > Local long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
  • Democracy and rights > Press freedom index: Compares countries by their degree of government censorship, according to the Press freedom index. This index, created by the non-governmental organization Reporters without borders (RWS), is ellaborated using data from an extensive annual survey sent to professional reporters throughout the world. The survey contains questions about the type and ownership of media present in the country, freedom of speech, violence exerted against reporters, election campaigns, access of political parties to the media, etc.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Time required to start a business > Days: Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Capital city: The location of the seat of government.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament: Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber occupied by women.
  • International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.
  • Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency (years). Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • International relations: Country international relations.
  • Basis of executive legitimacy: Basis of executive legitimacy.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel: Date on which Israel was officially recognized as a state. Note that some countries had a “de facto” recognition in place long before the legal recognition.
  • Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office: This entry is derived from Government > Judicial branch, which includes three subfields. The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a country's highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, and the types of cases heard by the court, which commonly are based on civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional law. A number of countries have separate constitutional courts. The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing judges, and a brief description of the process. The selection process can be indicative of the independence of a country's court system from other branches of its government. Also included in this subfield are judges' tenures, which can range from a few years, to a specified retirement age, to lifelong appointments. The subordinate courts subfield lists the courts lower in the hierarchy of a country's court system. A few countries with federal-style governments, such as Brazil, Canada, and the US, in addition to their federal court, have separate state- or province-level court systems, though generally the two systems interact.
  • Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level: Year women first voted at national level.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses.
  • Parliament > Seats held by men per million people: Number of seats held by men in country's naitonal parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press: Compares countries by freedom of the press. The lower the score, the more free the press of that country is. The scores are taken from the Freedom of the Press Index, elaborated by Freedom House, self-defined as "an independent watchdog organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom around the world". The data used in the index come from an annual survey of media independence in 197 countries and territories, assessing the degree of print, broadcast, and internet freedom in each of them.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong: Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit."
  • Role of head of state: Head of state.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Leaders > Prime minister > Profile: Government > Leaders > Prime minister > Profile
  • UN membership date: Date of United Nations Membership
  • Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage: Percentage of seats held by women in country's national parliament or legislative houses.
  • Parliament > Seats held by women per million people: Number of seats held by women in country's parliament or legislative houses. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Executive branch > Chief of state: The name and title of any person or role roughly equivalent to a U.S. Chief of State. This means the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government
  • Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million: Time required to start a business (days). Time required to start a business is the number of calendar days needed to complete the procedures to legally operate a business. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China: The date on which each country established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China.
  • Politics: Country politics.
  • National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
  • Leaders > Head of state > Profile: Government > Leaders > Head of state > Profile
  • Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador: Name of ambassador to the USA.
  • Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members: Members of the lower (or sole) house.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million: Time required to get electricity (days). Time required to get electricity is the number of days to obtain a permanent electricity connection. The measure captures the median duration that the electricity utility and experts indicate is necessary in practice, rather than required by law, to complete a procedure. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Time to resolve insolvency > Years: Time to resolve insolvency is the number of years from the filing for insolvency in court until the resolution of distressed assets.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer.
  • Procedures to register property > Number: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers.
  • Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000: International IDEA has chosen to use not only the reported registration rate to calculate turnout percentages, but also the voting age population (VAP) which includes all citizens above the legal voting age. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Capital > Name: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Capital > Time difference: This entry is derived from Government > Capital, which gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Legislative branch > Elections: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Time required to build a warehouse > Days: Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen.
  • Time required to register property > Days: Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Capital city > Time difference: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Legislative branch > Election results: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment.
  • Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number: Procedures to register property (number). Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property.
  • Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number: Start-up procedures to register a business (number). Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production.
  • Executive branch > Note: This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > %: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%). Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
  • Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million: Start-up procedures are those required to start a business, including interactions to obtain necessary permits and licenses and to complete all inscriptions, verifications, and notifications to start operations. Data are for businesses with specific characteristics of ownership, size, and type of production. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Leaders > Prime minister > Summary: Government > Leaders > Prime minister > Summary
  • Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Kosovo: Date on which Kosovo was officially recognized as a state.
  • Procedures to register property > Number per million: Number of procedures to register property is the number of procedures required for a businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Leaders > Head of state > Summary: Government > Leaders > Head of state > Summary
  • Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million: Time required to enforce a contract (days). Time required to enforce a contract is the number of calendar days from the filing of the lawsuit in court until the final determination and, in appropriate cases, payment. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million: Time required to register property (days). Time required to register property is the number of calendar days needed for businesses to secure rights to property. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million: Procedures to enforce a contract (number). Number of procedures to enforce a contract are the number of independent actions, mandated by law or courts, that demand interaction between the parties of a contract or between them and the judge or court officer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX: This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
  • Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million: Procedures to build a warehouse (number). Number of procedures to build a warehouse is the number of interactions of a company's employees or managers with external parties, including government agency staff, public inspectors, notaries, land registry and cadastre staff, and technical experts apart from architects and engineers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million: Time required to build a warehouse (days). Time required to build a warehouse is the number of calendar days needed to complete the required procedures for building a warehouse. If a procedure can be speeded up at additional cost, the fastest procedure, independent of cost, is chosen. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
STAT Netherlands Tonga HISTORY
Administrative divisions 12 provinces (provincies, singular - provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Fryslan (Friesland), Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant (North Brabant), Noord-Holland (North Holland), Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland (Zealand), Zuid-Holland (South Holland) 5 island divisions; 'Eua, Ha'apai, Ongo Niua, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Capital city > Geographic coordinates 52 21 08 S, 175 12 W
Constitution previous 1597, 1798; latest adopted 24 August 1815 (substantially revised in 1848); amended many times, last in 2010 adopted 4 November 1875; amended many times, last in 2013
Country name > Conventional short form Netherlands Tonga
Executive branch > Cabinet Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch Cabinet is nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar to the flag of Luxembourg, which uses a lighter blue and is longer; the colors were those of WILLIAM I, Prince of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against Spanish sovereignty in the latter half of the 16th century; originally the upper band was orange, but because it tended to fade to red over time, the red shade was eventually made the permanent color; the banner is perhaps the oldest tricolor in continuous use red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner; the cross reflects the deep-rooted Christianity in Tonga; red represents the blood of Christ and his sacrifice; white signifies purity
Government type constitutional monarchy constitutional monarchy
Independence 23 January 1579 (the northern provinces of the Low Countries conclude the Union of Utrecht breaking with Spain; on 26 July 1581 they formally declared their independence with an Act of Abjuration; however, it was not until 30 January 1648 and the Peace of Westphalia that Spain recognized this independence) 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Hoge Raad (justices are nominated for life by the monarch) Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (Chief Justice and high court justices from overseas chosen and approved by Privy Council)
Legal system civil law system based on the French system; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General English common law
Legislative branch bicameral States General or Staten Generaal consists of the First Chamber or Eerste Kamer unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea
Political parties and leaders Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA]<br />Christian Union or CU [Arie SLOB]<br />Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD]<br />Green Left or GL [Bram VAN OJIK]<br />Labor Party or PvdA [Diederik SAMSOM]<br />Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS]<br />Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME]<br />People's Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Halbe ZIJLSTRA]<br />Reformed Political Party of SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ]<br />Socialist Party of SP [Emile ROEMER]<br />plus a few minor parties Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands [Samuela 'Akilisi POHIVA]<br />People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO]<br />Sustainable Nation-Building Party [Sione FONUA]<br />Tonga Democratic Labor Party [NA]<br />Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM [NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Christian Trade Union Federation or CNV [Jaap SMIT]<br />Confederation of Netherlands Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]<br />Federation for Small and Medium-sized businesses or MKB [Hans BIESHEUVEL]<br />Netherlands Trade Union Federation or FNV [Ton HEERTS]<br />Social Economic Council or SER [Wiebe DRAIJER]<br />Trade Union Federation of Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Reginald VISSER] Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]<br />Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal 21 years of age; universal
Transnational Issues > Disputes > International none none
Country name > Conventional long form Kingdom of the Netherlands Kingdom of Tonga
Leaders > Prime minister Mark Rutte Lord Tu&#039;ivakano
National holiday Queen's Day (Birthday of deceased Queen-Mother JULIANA and accession to the throne of her oldest daughter BEATRIX), 30 April (1909 and 1980) Emancipation Day, 4 June
International organization participation ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Executive branch > Head of government Prime Minister Mark RUTTE (since 14 October 2010); Deputy Prime Minister Lodewijk ASSCHER (since 5 November 2012) Prime Minister Lord Siale'ataonga TU'IVAKANO (since 22 December 2010)
Executive branch > Elections the monarchy is hereditary; following Second Chamber elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime ministers appointed by the monarch the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of parliament and appointed by the monarch
National anthem <strong>name: </strong>"Het Wilhelmus" (The William)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Philips VAN MARNIX van Sint Aldegonde (presumed)/unknown <strong>name: </strong>"Ko e fasi `o e tu"i `o e `Otu Tonga" (Song of the King of the Tonga Islands)<br /><strong>lyrics/music:</strong> Uelingatoni Ngu TUPOUMALOHI/Karl Gustavus SCHMITT
Country name > Local short form Nederland Tonga
Capital city > Name Amsterdam Nuku'alofa
Judicial branch > Subordinate courts courts of appeal; district courts, each with up to 5 subdistrict courts Supreme Court; Magistrate's Courts; Land Courts
Capital > Geographic coordinates 52 21 N, 4 55 E 21 08 S, 175 12 W
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days 4
Ranked 180th.
16
Ranked 92nd. 4 times more than Netherlands

Constitutional form Constitutional monarchy Constitutional monarchy
Leaders > Head of state King Willem-Alexander King George Tupou VI
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ 149.92 billion$
Ranked 8th. 5693 times more than Tonga
26.33 million$
Ranked 158th.

Country name > Local long form Koninkrijk der Nederlanden Pule'anga Tonga
Democracy and rights > Press freedom index 6.48
Ranked 33th.
26.7
Ranked 111th. 4 times more than Netherlands
Red tape > Time required to register property > Days 2.5
Ranked 180th.
112
Ranked 15th. 45 times more than Netherlands

Time required to start a business > Days 10 days
Ranked 158th.
32 days
Ranked 96th. 3 times more than Netherlands

Capital city Amsterdam Nuku'alofa
Parliament > Seats held by women 58
Ranked 45th. 58 times more than Tonga
1
Ranked 176th.

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament 36.7%
Ranked 7th. 11 times more than Tonga
3.3%
Ranked 160th.

International law organization participation accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
Red tape > Time to resolve insolvency > Years 1.1
Ranked 157th.
2.7
Ranked 76th. 2 times more than Netherlands

Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days 143
Ranked 38th. 3 times more than Tonga
42
Ranked 163th.

Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 14
Ranked 97th. 8% more than Tonga
13
Ranked 104th.

Democracy > Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment 0.976
Ranked 74th. 3% more than Tonga
0.951
Ranked 107th.

International relations The Netherlands plays a central role in the European Union and Dutch forces have been active in UN peacekeeping efforts It relies on food imports from New Zealand, which is also home to many Tongan ex-pats
Basis of executive legitimacy Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Israel None
None
Judicial branch > Judge selection and term of office justices appointed by the monarch from a list provided by the Second Chamber of the States General; justices appointed for life or until mandatory retirement at age 70 judge appointments and tenures made by the King in Privy Council, judge appointments subject to consent of the Legislative Assembly
Democracy and rights > Year women first voted at national level 1919 1960
FAX 31 1
Parliament > Seats held by men 92
Ranked 106th. 3 times more than Tonga
27
Ranked 173th.

Parliament > Seats held by men per million people 5.47
Ranked 155th.
253.95
Ranked 11th. 46 times more than Netherlands

Democracy and rights > Freedom of the press 12
Ranked 190th.
29
Ranked 132nd. 2 times more than Netherlands
Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 26
Ranked 184th.
37
Ranked 103th. 42% more than Netherlands

Diplomatic representation in the US > Chief of mission Ambassador Rudolf Simon BEKINK (since 20 July 2012) Ambassador Mahe'uli'uli Sandhurst TUPOUNIUA
Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days 157
Ranked 86th. 2 times more than Tonga
69
Ranked 175th.

Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong 6
Ranked 83th.
7
Ranked 50th. 17% more than Netherlands

Role of head of state Ceremonial Executive
Leaders > Prime minister > Profile <p>Mark Rutte won a second term in October 2012 when his liberal People&#039;s Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) formed a coalition with the centre-left Labour Party after narrowly beating it in parliamentary elections.</p> <p>The VVD won 41 seats in the 150-member lower house - a lead of just two seats over Labour - in the September vote.</p> <p>Mr Rutte&#039;s previous cabinet - a minority coalition with the centre-right Christian Democratic Appeal - had collapsed after only two years in office.</p> <p>It resigned in April 2012 when populist politician Geert Wilders&#039; eurosceptic, anti-immigration Freedom Party, which had been propping up the government without joining it, refused to back a tough austerity package.</p> <p>The cuts were intended to comply with EU deficit targets.</p> <p>Mark Rutte&#039;s new cabinet was seen as more pro-austerity and pro-EU than his last one.</p> <p>The new coalition warned that tough measures would be needed to weather the financial crisis and secure the Netherlands&#039; economic future.</p> <p>The Freedom Party, which had held the balance of power in the previous parliament, suffered heavy losses in the September 2012 poll and came a distant third, tying with the left-wing Socialist Party.</p> <p>Lord Tu&#039;ivakano became the country&#039;s first prime minister to be elected by parliament rather than appointed by the king in December 2010. </p> <p>Tu&#039;ivakano, a former speaker of Parliament, won 14 votes - two more than pro-democracy leader Akalisi Pohiva - in the ballot among the 26 members of the Tongan house of representatives. </p> <p>Tu&#039;ivakano, the minister for education and training in the former government, replaced Feleti Seveli. </p> <p>Under Tonga&#039;s new constitution, voters directly elected 17 seats in parliament, while nine were reserved for nobles. </p> <p>Previously, the tiny Pacific kingdom was run by a parliament dominated by a clique of nobles selected by the king, who also chose the prime minister and cabinet. </p> <p>The swing towards democracy followed riots in the capital Nuku&#039;alofa in 2006, which claimed eight lives and destroyed much of the business centre as people protested against the slow pace of political reform. </p>
UN membership date 10 Dec. 1945 14 Sep. 1999
Parliament > Seats held by women > Percentage 38.67%
Ranked 14th. 11 times more than Tonga
3.57%
Ranked 172nd.

Parliament > Seats held by women per million people 3.45
Ranked 89th.
9.41
Ranked 45th. 3 times more than Netherlands

Executive branch > Chief of state King WILLEM-ALEXANDER (since 30 April 2013) King TUPOU VI (since 18 March 2012)
Red tape > Time required to start a business > Days per million 0.298
Ranked 162nd.
152.47
Ranked 13th. 511 times more than Netherlands

Foreign relations > Date of establishment of relations with China May 18, 1972 November 2, 1998
Politics A left-right coalition government was formed in November 2012, after months of deadlock over plans to cut the budget deficit Tonga is a former British protectorate and the only monarchy in the Pacific
National symbol(s) lion red cross on white field; arms equal length
Leaders > Head of state > Profile <p>King Willem-Alexander became the first Dutch male monarch in more than a century in April 2013 when his mother Beatrix abdicated to end a 33-year reign. </p> <p>The generational change in the House of Orange-Nassau gave the Netherlands a moment of celebration and pageantry at a time of recession brought on by the European economic crisis. </p> <p>The much-loved Beatrix ended her reign in a nationally televised signing ceremony as thousands of orange-clad people cheered outside. Her retirement followed in the tradition of her mother and grandmother.</p> <p>Willem-Alexander&#039;s popular Argentine-born wife became Queen Maxima and their eldest daughter, Catharina-Amalia, became Princess of Orange and first in line to the throne.</p> <p>The king, a water management specialist, has said he will bring a less formal touch to the monarchy.</p> <p>George Tupou VI succeeded to the throne on the death of his elder brother, the bachelor George Tupou V, in March 2012. </p> <p>The new King was Tonga&#039;s High Commissioner (ambassador) to Australia from 2008, having served as prime minister in 2000-2006. He quit as prime minister in the face of violent pro-democracy protests in February 2006, and was succeeded by Tonga&#039;s first non-royal and non-aristocratic head of government, Feleti Sevele.</p> <p>The late King George Tupou V ushered in parliamentary democracy in 2010, ending centuries of feudal dominance of government.</p>
Foreign relations > Diplomatic representation in the US > Ambassador Jones-Bos, Renée Renée Jones-Bos Tupou, Sonatane Tu'a Taumoepeau Sonatane Tu'a Taumoepeau Tupou
Legislature (parliament) > Term of office for lower house members 4
Ranked 174th.
5
Ranked 35th. 25% more than Netherlands
Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.298
Ranked 134th.
38.12
Ranked 12th. 128 times more than Netherlands

Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.298
Ranked 123th.
38.12
Ranked 11th. 128 times more than Netherlands

Red tape > Time required to get electricity > Days per million 8.53
Ranked 104th.
400.22
Ranked 13th. 47 times more than Netherlands

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 9,186.07$
Ranked 6th. 35 times more than Tonga
262.48$
Ranked 86th.

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 6
Ranked 149th. 50% more than Tonga
4
Ranked 161st.

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.24$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 16th. 71% more than Tonga
0.14$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 89th.

Constitutional monarchy > Current constitutional monarchies > Last constitution established 1815 1970
Time to resolve insolvency > Years 1.7 years
Ranked 125th.
2.7 years
Ranked 86th. 59% more than Netherlands

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number 22
Ranked 147th.
30
Ranked 99th. 36% more than Netherlands

Procedures to register property > Number 2
Ranked 164th.
4
Ranked 132nd. Twice as much as Netherlands

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number 18
Ranked 73th. 20% more than Tonga
15
Ranked 106th.
Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours 250 hours
Ranked 85th. 52% more than Tonga
164 hours
Ranked 116th.

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population 12.28 million
Ranked 40th. 236 times more than Tonga
52,065
Ranked 152nd.
General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita 9,186.08$ per capita
Ranked 6th. 36 times more than Tonga
258.2$ per capita
Ranked 87th.

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number > Per capita 1.1 per 1 million people
Ranked 110th.
146.42 per 1 million people
Ranked 5th. 133 times more than Netherlands
Procedures to register property > Number > Per capita 0.122 per 1 million people
Ranked 145th.
39.04 per 1 million people
Ranked 10th. 320 times more than Netherlands

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number > Per capita 1.34 per 1 million people
Ranked 128th.
292.83 per 1 million people
Ranked 11th. 218 times more than Netherlands

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number > Per capita 0.366 per 1 million people
Ranked 129th.
39.04 per 1 million people
Ranked 12th. 107 times more than Netherlands

Democracy > Parliamentary elections > Voting age population per 1000 756.56
Ranked 30th. 45% more than Tonga
522.26
Ranked 94th.
Capital > Name Amsterdam Nuku'alofa
Capital > Time difference UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Legislative branch > Elections First Chamber - last held on May 2011 (next to be held in May 2015); Second Chamber - last held on 12 September 2012 (next to be held by September 2016) last held on 25 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014)
Diplomatic representation in the US > Telephone [1] (202) 244-5300, [1] 877-388-2443 [1] (800) 345-6541
Time required to build a warehouse > Days 184 days
Ranked 86th. 2 times more than Tonga
81 days
Ranked 156th.

Time required to register property > Days 5 days
Ranked 158th.
108 days
Ranked 38th. 22 times more than Netherlands

Time required to enforce a contract > Days 408 days
Ranked 105th.
510 days
Ranked 77th. 25% more than Netherlands

Capital city > Time difference 1 UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Diplomatic representation in the US > Chancery None None
Legislative branch > Election results First Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VVD 16, PvdA 14, CDA 11, PVV 10, SP 8, D66 5, GL 5, other 6; Second Chamber - percent of vote by party - VVD 26.6%, PvdA 24.8%, PVV, 10.1%, SP 9.7%, CDA 8.5%, D66 8.0%, CU 3.1%, GL 6.7%, other 2.5%; seats by party - VVD 41, PvdA 38, PVV 15, SP 15, CDA 13, D66 12, CU 5, GL 4, other 7 Peoples Representatives: percent of vote - independents 67.3%, Democratic Party 28.5%, other 4.2%; seats - Democratic Party 12, independents 5
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days 514
Ranked 108th. 47% more than Tonga
350
Ranked 169th.

Red tape > Procedures to register property > Number 5
Ranked 133th. 25% more than Tonga
4
Ranked 146th.

Red tape > Start-up procedures to register a business > Number 4
Ranked 166th. The same as Tonga
4
Ranked 155th.

National anthem > Note adopted 1932, in use since the 17th century, making it the oldest national anthem in the world; also known as "Wilhelmus van Nassouwe" (William of Nassau), it is in the form of an acrostic, where the first letter of each stanza spells the name of the leader of the Dutch Revolt in use since 1875; the anthem is more commonly known as "Fasi Fakafonua" (National Song)
Executive branch > Note there is also a Council of State composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides consultations to the cabinet on legislative and administrative policy there is also a Privy Council that advises the monarch
Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments > % 38.7%
Ranked 15th. 11 times more than Tonga
3.6%
Ranked 174th.

Start-up procedures to register a business > Number per million 0.367
Ranked 127th.
39.36
Ranked 12th. 107 times more than Netherlands

Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 1.1
Ranked 110th.
147.61
Ranked 7th. 134 times more than Netherlands
National anthem > Name "Het Wilhelmus" (The William) "Ko e fasi `o e tu"i `o e `Otu Tonga" (Song of the King of the Tonga Islands)
Diplomatic representation in the US > Consulate(s) general Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York San Francisco
Foreign relations > Croatia > Date of Establishment February 11, 1992 December 20, 1993
FAX > Consulate(s) general Amsterdam San Francisco
Leaders > Prime minister > Summary Mark Rutte won a fresh mandate in September 2012 Lord Tu&#039;ivakano is a former speaker of Parliament
Foreign relations > Date of recognition of Kosovo None
None
Procedures to register property > Number per million 0.122
Ranked 144th.
39.36
Ranked 10th. 322 times more than Netherlands

Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 1.35
Ranked 127th.
295.23
Ranked 11th. 219 times more than Netherlands

General government final > Consumption expenditure > Current LCU 120547000000 51915000
Leaders > Head of state > Summary King Willem-Alexander with former queen Beatrix and Queen Maxima George Tupou VI became king following the death of his brother
Red tape > Time required to enforce a contract > Days per million 30.65
Ranked 128th.
3,335.21
Ranked 15th. 109 times more than Netherlands

Red tape > Time required to register property > Days per million 0.328
Ranked 163th.
1,067.27
Ranked 4th. 3254 times more than Netherlands

Red tape > Procedures to enforce a contract > Number per million 1.55
Ranked 138th.
352.58
Ranked 10th. 227 times more than Netherlands

Diplomatic representation in the US > FAX [1] (202) 362-3430 [1] (917) 369-1024
Red tape > Procedures to build a warehouse > Number per million 0.835
Ranked 125th.
123.88
Ranked 9th. 148 times more than Netherlands

Red tape > Time required to build a warehouse > Days per million 9.36
Ranked 127th.
657.51
Ranked 14th. 70 times more than Netherlands

Executive branch > A note there is also a Council of <a href=/encyclopedia/U.S.-State><a href=/encyclopedia/U.S.-State>State</a></a> composed of the monarch, heir apparent, and councilors that provides consultations to the prime minister on legislative and administrative policy there is also a <a href=/encyclopedia/Privy-Council-of-Sweden><a href=/encyclopedia/Privy-Council-of-Sweden>Privy Council</a></a> that consists of the monarch, the <a href=/encyclopedia/United-States-Cabinet>Cabinet</a>, and two governors

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/).; Wikipedia: List of countries by system of government (Alphabetical list of countries); World Development Indicators database; Wikipedia: Censorship by country (Censorship by country) ("Press Freedom Index 2013" , Reporters Without Borders, 30 January 2013); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Source: Millennium Development Goals Database | United Nations Statistics Division; Wikipedia: International recognition of Israel (UN member states); Wikipedia: Women's suffrage (Summary); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; "2012 Freedom of the Press Data" , Freedom House, 1 May 2012; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; United Nations Statistics Division; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank, Doing Business project (http://www.doingbusiness.org/). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dates_of_establishment_of_diplomatic_relations_with_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China; Wikipedia: List of ambassadors to the United States; Wikipedia: Term of office (Terms of office by country); World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Constitutional monarchy; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003; Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 2003. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) (www.ipu.org); Wikipedia: Foreign relations of Croatia; Wikipedia: International recognition of Kosovo (United Nations member states); CIA World Factbook, December 2003

Citation

"Government: Netherlands and Tonga compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Netherlands/Tonga/Government

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