×

Country vs country: Spain and United States compared: Education

Author: chris.lockyer781

Author: chris.lockyer781

The news has been filled lately with the tensions between Russia and the rest of the world. With Russia positioning its troops in the Crimea section of Ukraine and threatening to invade Eastern Ukraine, many have begun to talk in cold war terms and speak of a renewed military conflict between the US and Russia. As tensions rise it is important to look at the current position vis-à-vis the two military powers to see how they compare.

According to the best military analysis, the United States and Russia rank #1 and #2 respectively in military power today. When comparing military power one must take several factors into account. Of significant importance is the population of both countries ready to fight. The US has a population of roughly 316 million with 120 million fit for military service and over 4 million reaching military age each year. Russia on the other hand has a population of only 145 million with only 46 million ready for military service and 1.3 million reaching military age each year. From a population standpoint, the US is a much better position.

From there, one must look at two things: 1) would a conflict involve most land forces or be fought primarily in the air and sea and 2) would the conflict be limited in nature or total war?

Russia and the United States have taken divergent paths to military might. The US dominates the air with far more bases, fighter jets and bombers than Russia but Russia is superior on the ground with more tanks, artillery and land vehicles. At sea, the countries are more evenly matched, but here the US has the edge with more destroyers, submarines and aircraft carriers. It must also be mentioned that the US military spending also dwarfs that of Russia, 612 billion to just 77 billion. That means that in a conflict the US would be in a much better position to ramp up production for new or replacement weaponry.

Of course, all of the conventional military comparisons mean nothing if a conflict between the two powers fought a total war that led to a nuclear exchange. Although both countries have reduced the levels of their nuclear arsenals over the past two decades, both still have thousands of nuclear warheads. Use of nuclear weapons would negate any real or perceived strengths in other military areas, although some military strategists argue that with is population spread out over a greater distance and its population centers smaller and more dispersed, fewer Russian people would be affected by a nuclear war. They would however remain in a world dramatically altered.

Definitions

  • Class size > Age 13: The average number of 13-year-old students per class.
  • Enrolment ratio > Secondary level: Net enrolment ratio, secondary level, is the ratio of the number of children of official secondary school age enrolled in school to the number of children of official secondary school age in the population.
  • High school > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
  • Literacy > Definition: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Literacy > Female: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Literacy > Male: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Literacy > Total population: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Mathematical literacy: Mathematical literacy mean value of performance scale 15 years old 2000
  • Preschool enrollment rate: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music."
  • Primary teacher salary > Starting: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999.
  • Reading literacy: Reading literacy mean value of performance scale (15 years old, 2000)
  • School life expectancy > Male: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • School life expectancy > Total: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • Scientific literacy: Scientific literacy mean value of performance scale 15 years old (2000)
  • Tertiary enrollment: Gross enrolment ratio, tertiary level is the sum of all tertiary level students enrolled at the start of the school year, expressed as a percentage of the mid-year population in the 5 year age group after the official secondary school leaving age.
STAT Spain United States HISTORY
Class size > Age 13 21.9 students
Ranked 8th. 20% more than United States
18.3 students
Ranked 15th.

Enrolment ratio > Secondary level 93.7%
Ranked 4th. 6% more than United States
88.1%
Ranked 17th.

High school > Gender ratio 105.83
Ranked 26th. 6% more than United States
99.5
Ranked 59th.

Literacy > Definition age 15 and over can read and write age 15 and over can read and write

Literacy > Female 97.2%
Ranked 42nd.
99%
Ranked 17th. 2% more than Spain

Literacy > Male 98.7%
Ranked 42nd.
99%
Ranked 28th. About the same as Spain

Literacy > Total population 97.9%
Ranked 41st.
99%
Ranked 20th. 1% more than Spain

Mathematical literacy 476
Ranked 21st.
493
Ranked 18th. 4% more than Spain

Preschool enrollment rate 106.72
Ranked 55th. 8% more than United States
98.77
Ranked 94th.

Primary teacher salary > Starting $24,464
Ranked 7th.
$25,707
Ranked 5th. 5% more than Spain

Reading literacy 493
Ranked 18th.
504
Ranked 15th. 2% more than Spain

School life expectancy > Male 15 years
Ranked 15th. 1% more than United States
14.8 years
Ranked 17th.

School life expectancy > Total 15.3 years
Ranked 13th. 1% more than United States
15.2 years
Ranked 14th.

Scientific literacy 491
Ranked 19th.
499
Ranked 14th. 2% more than Spain

Tertiary enrollment 59.4%
Ranked 10th.
72.6%
Ranked 1st. 22% more than Spain

SOURCES: "Efficiency and Equity in Schools around the World" by Eric A. Hanushek and Javier A. Luque, April 2002; UNESCO; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; OECD; UNESCO Institute of Statistics; UNESCO Institute for Statistics

Citation

"Education: Spain and United States compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Spain/United-States/Education

6

The news has been filled lately with the tensions between Russia and the rest of the world. With Russia positioning its troops in the Crimea section of Ukraine and threatening to invade Eastern Ukraine, many have begun to talk in cold war terms and speak of a renewed military conflict between the US and Russia. As tensions rise it is important to look at the current position vis-à-vis the two military powers to see how they compare.

According to the best military analysis, the United States and Russia rank #1 and #2 respectively in military power today. When comparing military power one must take several factors into account. Of significant importance is the population of both countries ready to fight. The US has a population of roughly 316 million with 120 million fit for military service and over 4 million reaching military age each year. Russia on the other hand has a population of only 145 million with only 46 million ready for military service and 1.3 million reaching military age each year. From a population standpoint, the US is a much better position.

From there, one must look at two things: 1) would a conflict involve most land forces or be fought primarily in the air and sea and 2) would the conflict be limited in nature or total war?

Russia and the United States have taken divergent paths to military might. The US dominates the air with far more bases, fighter jets and bombers than Russia but Russia is superior on the ground with more tanks, artillery and land vehicles. At sea, the countries are more evenly matched, but here the US has the edge with more destroyers, submarines and aircraft carriers. It must also be mentioned that the US military spending also dwarfs that of Russia, 612 billion to just 77 billion. That means that in a conflict the US would be in a much better position to ramp up production for new or replacement weaponry.

Of course, all of the conventional military comparisons mean nothing if a conflict between the two powers fought a total war that led to a nuclear exchange. Although both countries have reduced the levels of their nuclear arsenals over the past two decades, both still have thousands of nuclear warheads. Use of nuclear weapons would negate any real or perceived strengths in other military areas, although some military strategists argue that with is population spread out over a greater distance and its population centers smaller and more dispersed, fewer Russian people would be affected by a nuclear war. They would however remain in a world dramatically altered.

Posted on 28 Mar 2014

chris.lockyer781

chris.lockyer781

378

3

The primary objective of the American Educational System is to empower the youth and guide them towards wisdom. On the other hand, the Spanish Education System’s model is based on the development of effective reading and writing skills for a more meaningful learning process.

State education in Spain is the principal responsibility of the government’s Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. However, the 17 autonomous regions maintain some responsibility for their respective systems to include higher education. Spain’s Law on Quality of Education focuses on compulsory and free schooling for children of six to 16 tears. The program also includes education for students with special needs. All youngsters get fundamental vocational training for secondary education. Even if Spain is a very religious country, spiritual instructions remain optional. Spain is currently at number 26 in the world education rankings of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)

The United States educational system was ranked number 14 by the PISA. It was also number 17 in another assessment of education systems of 50 countries. In the United States, education is predominantly a responsibility of state and local governments along with public and private organizations. These institutions take care of establishing schools and colleges, develop curricula, and establish requirements for enrolment and graduation. The structure of education finance in this country indicates the principal role of these echelons of government. Out of the ballpark figure of $1.15 trillion allocated nationwide for education at all levels for the previous school year, a significant portion came from state, local, and private sector sources. This is true particularly for elementary and secondary levels where roughly 87 percent of funds are obtained from non-Federal sources.

Formal education in the US lasts for 12 years although obligatory schooling stops when the child reaches 16 years old. This is the requirement in almost all states. All citizens are given free access to public schools.

Posted on 14 Apr 2014

Luke.Metcalfe

Luke.Metcalfe

131

Contribute an insight

captcha

Was this page useful for you?