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Country vs country: Spain and United States compared: Education stats

chris.lockyer781

Author: chris.lockyer781

The news has been filled lately with the tensions between Russia and the rest of the world. With Russia positioning its troops in the Crimea section of Ukraine and threatening to invade Eastern Ukraine, many have begun to talk in cold war terms and speak of a renewed military conflict between the US and Russia. As tensions rise it is important to look at the current position vis-à-vis the two military powers to see how they compare.

According to the best military analysis, the United States and Russia rank #1 and #2 respectively in military power today. When comparing military power one must take several factors into account. Of significant importance is the population of both countries ready to fight. The US has a population of roughly 316 million with 120 million fit for military service and over 4 million reaching military age each year. Russia on the other hand has a population of only 145 million with only 46 million ready for military service and 1.3 million reaching military age each year. From a population standpoint, the US is a much better position.

From there, one must look at two things: 1) would a conflict involve most land forces or be fought primarily in the air and sea and 2) would the conflict be limited in nature or total war?

Russia and the United States have taken divergent paths to military might. The US dominates the air with far more bases, fighter jets and bombers than Russia but Russia is superior on the ground with more tanks, artillery and land vehicles. At sea, the countries are more evenly matched, but here the US has the edge with more destroyers, submarines and aircraft carriers. It must also be mentioned that the US military spending also dwarfs that of Russia, 612 billion to just 77 billion. That means that in a conflict the US would be in a much better position to ramp up production for new or replacement weaponry.

Of course, all of the conventional military comparisons mean nothing if a conflict between the two powers fought a total war that led to a nuclear exchange. Although both countries have reduced the levels of their nuclear arsenals over the past two decades, both still have thousands of nuclear warheads. Use of nuclear weapons would negate any real or perceived strengths in other military areas, although some military strategists argue that with is population spread out over a greater distance and its population centers smaller and more dispersed, fewer Russian people would be affected by a nuclear war. They would however remain in a world dramatically altered.

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Definitions

  • Average years of schooling of adults: Average years of schooling of adults is the years of formal schooling received, on average, by adults over age 15. (Data Source: Barro-Lee Data Set www.worldbank.org/html/prdmg/grthweb/ddbarle2.htm)
  • Children out of school, primary: Children out of school, primary. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Total is the total number of primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
  • Children out of school, primary, female: Children out of school, primary, female. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Female is the total number of female primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
  • Children out of school, primary, female per 1000: Children out of school, primary, female. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Female is the total number of female primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Compulsary education duration: Number of years students are required to be enrolled in school for all levels of education. For instance, compulsary education lasts for 12 years in the United States.
  • High school > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
  • Literacy > Female: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Literacy > Total population: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Preschool enrollment rate: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music."
  • Primary education, duration > Years: Primary education, duration (years). Duration of primary is the number of grades (years) in primary education.
  • Primary education, teachers per 1000: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, primary: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Primary is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers.
  • Secondary education, duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years). Duration of secondary education is the number of grades (years) in secondary education (ISCED 2 & 3).
  • Tertiary enrollment: Gross enrolment ratio, tertiary level is the sum of all tertiary level students enrolled at the start of the school year, expressed as a percentage of the mid-year population in the 5 year age group after the official secondary school leaving age.
  • Elementary school > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
  • Children out of school, primary per 1000: Children out of school, primary. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Total is the total number of primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Literacy > Definition: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • Duration of compulsory education: Duration of compulsory education is the number of grades (or years) that a child must legally be enrolled in school.
  • Literacy > Male: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
  • College and university > Share of total education spending: Percentage of government education funding that goes to post-secondary education.
  • Primary school starting age > Years: Primary school starting age (years). Entrance age of primary is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
  • College and university > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
  • Secondary education > Teachers > Per capita: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Spending > Proportion: Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Expressed as a proportion of GNI."
  • Secondary education, pupils: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • School life expectancy > Total: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • Spending per student > College and university: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Child care (preschool) > Duration: Number of years students study at the pre-primary (preschool) level. It should be noted that not all countries require pre-primary education.
  • High school teachers: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Secondary education, general pupils: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • Secondary school starting age > Years: Secondary school starting age (years). Entrance age of 2A lower secondary is the age at which students would enter lower secondary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
  • Primary education, pupils: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions.
  • Elementary school teachers: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Spending > USD: Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment."
  • Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary > Teachers > Women: Number of female teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education. Post-secondary non-tertiary education serves to broaden the knowledge of participants, who have already gained an upper secondary qualification.
  • College and university > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index for college and university enrollment. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled.
  • Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • Public spending per student > Primary level: Public expenditure per student, primary level is the total reported current spending by the government on primary education, divided by the total number of pupils in primary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
  • Primary teacher salary > Starting: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999.
  • Primary education, teachers: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
  • Enrolment ratio > Secondary level: Net enrolment ratio, secondary level, is the ratio of the number of children of official secondary school age enrolled in school to the number of children of official secondary school age in the population.
  • Mathematical literacy: Mathematical literacy mean value of performance scale 15 years old 2000
  • Secondary education, vocational pupils: Secondary education, vocational pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. Technical/vocational programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in technical/vocational programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
  • Child care (preschool) > Starting age: Average age at which students begin pre-primary (preschool) education.
  • Government spending on education > Proportion of GDP: Percentage of public funding for education out of country's total GDP.
  • College and university > Private school share: Percentage of post-secondary students who attend a private school, college, or university.
  • Elementary school > Enrolled students: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
  • Spending per secondary school student: Secondary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity.
  • College and university > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female: Percentage of country's college and university professors that are female.
  • Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary per million: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary. Pupil-teacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Elementary (primary school) > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female: Percentage of country's elementary, or primary, teachers that are female.
  • Child care (preschool) > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for pre-primary (preschool) education.
  • Secondary education, pupils per 1000: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Secondary education, vocational pupils per 1000: Secondary education, vocational pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. Technical/vocational programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in technical/vocational programmes at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • High school > Upper secondary school duration: Number of years students study at the upper secondary (high school) level.
  • High school > Lower secondary school duration: Number of years students study at the lower secondary (middle school) level.
  • Tertiary > Students studying abroad: Total number of post-secondary students who were studying abroad during given year.
  • Scientific literacy: Scientific literacy mean value of performance scale 15 years old (2000)
  • Spending per student > High school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Reading literacy: Reading literacy mean value of performance scale (15 years old, 2000)
  • High school > Private school share: Percentage of secondary students who attend a private school.
  • Elementary (primary school) > Starting age: Average age at which students begin primary education.
  • Services, etc., value added > Current US$: Services, etc., value added (current US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Spending per student > Elementary school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
  • Elementary (primary) school) > Proportion spent on all staff salaries: Percentage of public funding for primary education that goes to school staff salaries.
  • High school > Share of total education spending: Percentage of government education funding that goes to secondary education.
  • Teacher student ratio > Elementary school: Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Homeschooling legal status: Legal status of homeschooling.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Overall reading skills: Overall.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • High school > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for all levels of secondary education.
  • High school > Lower secondary starting age: Average age at which students begin lower secondary (middle school) education.
  • Spending on education > Proportion spent on all staff salaries: Percentage of public funding for education that goes to school staff salaries.
  • Tertiary > Students studying abroad proportion: The number of students from a given country studying abroad in a given year, expressed as a percentage of total tertiary enrollment in that country. Ratios greater than 100 % are possible, because those currently studying abroad do not count towards total enrollment.
  • Public spending per student > Tertiary level: Public expenditure per student, tertiary level is the total reported current spending by the government on tertiary education, divided by the total number of pupils in tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
  • High school > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index for secondary level enrollment. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled.
  • Elementary (primary) school) > Share of total education spending: Percentage of government education funding that goes to primary education.
  • Children out of school > Primary: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
  • Class size > Age 13: The average number of 13-year-old students per class.
  • Secondary education, general pupils per 1000: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • High school > Proportion spent on all staff salaries: Percentage of public funding for secondary education that goes to school staff salaries.
  • Duration of education > Primary level: Duration of primary education is the number of grades (or years) in primary education.
  • Inequality adjusted index: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • High school > Population with at least high school education > Men: Gender Inequality Index.
  • Spending per primary school student: Primary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity.
  • Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pupils-teacher ratio > Primary level: Pupil-teacher ratio, primary level is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary education. Cross-country comparisons may be affected by such factors as the composition of teachers by part- and full-time employment.
  • High School > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female: Percentage of country's high school, or secondary, teachers that are female.
  • School enrolment rate > 1st grade: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
  • Services, etc., value added > Current US$ per capita: Services, etc., value added (current US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Teacher student ratio > High school: Secondary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • International Baccalaureate schools: Number of schools of any level teaching the curriculum of the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO).
  • High school> Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries: Percentage of public funding for secondary education that goes to teachers' salaries.
  • Elementary (primary school) > Duration: Number of years students study at the primary level.
  • Elementary school graduate rate: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • High school > Population with at least high school education > Women: Population with at least high school education > Women.
  • School life expectancy > Male: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • Teachers as percentage of labor force: The percentage share of the total labor force who are classroom, academic staff, and other teachers. Data for 1999.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Overall: Overall.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Scouting > Members: Members of boy or girl scout groups which are members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM).
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Services, etc., value added (constant 2000 US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Universities > Top 200: Number of universities in the top 200
  • Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Primary education > Pupils: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
  • Elementary (primary) school > Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries: Percentage of public funding for primary education that goes to teachers' salaries.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Integrate and interpret: Integrate and interpret.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Literacy > Reading performance > Reflect and evaluate: Reflect and evaluate.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Duration of education > Secondary level: Duration of secondary education is the number of grades (or years) in general secondary education.
  • Outcomes > Secondary education > Duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years) is the number of grades (years) in secondary school."
  • Pupil-teacher ratio > Primary: Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant LCU: Services, etc., value added (constant LCU). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Secondary education, teachers: Secondary education, teachers. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and part-time. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. face-to-face and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
  • Secondary education > General pupils: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training.
  • Scouting > Genders admitted: Admits boys/girls.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Non-continuous texts: Non-continuous texts.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Elementary (primary) school) > Private school share: Percentage of primary students who attend a private school.
  • High school > Upper Secondary > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for upper secondary (high school) education.
  • High school starting age > Years: Secondary school starting age is the age at which students would enter secondary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade."
  • Elementary school repeaters > All: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • Elementary (primary) school > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index in primary, or elementary, school. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled. 
  • School enrolment rate > 5th grade: Persistence to grade 5 (percentage of cohort reaching grade 5) is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • Tertiary > Students studying abroad per thousand people: Total number of post-secondary students who were studying abroad during given year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Public spending per student > Secondary level: Public expenditure per student, secondary level is the total reported current spending by the government on secondary education, divided by the total number of pupils in secondary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
  • Scientific and technical journal articles per million: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Literacy > Reading performance > Continuous texts: Continuous texts.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Literacy > Reading performance > Access and retrieve: Access and retrieve.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD: Research and development (R&D;) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D; is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

    The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D; by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D; expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad.
  • Participation > Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education: Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools.
  • Children out of school > Primary > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Schools connected to the Internet: Schools connected to the Internet are the share of primary and secondary schools in the country that have access to the Internet.
  • Secondary education > Teachers: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Researchers in R&D > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; (per million people). Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
  • Participation > Secondary education > General pupils: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training."
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant LCU per capita: Services, etc., value added (constant LCU). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Expected duration of education for all students: Expected years of schooling for a 5-year-old under current conditions, excluding education for children under 5. Data for 2000.
  • Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$: Services, etc., value added (constant 2000 US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Universities > Top 200 per million: Number of universities in the top 200. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Primary education, pupils per 1000: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Children out of school, primary, male: Children out of school, primary, male. Out-of-school children of primary school age. Male is the total number of male primary-school-age children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
  • Primary education > Duration > Years: Primary duration refers to the number of years of full-time equivalent duration in primary education in the school system according to ISCED.
  • School life expectancy > Female: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CD-ROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
  • High school > Lower Secondary > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for lower secondary (middle school) education.
  • Elementary (primary) school > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for primary education.
  • Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries: Percentage of public education funding for all levels that goes to teachers' salaries.
  • High school > Upper secondary starting age: Average age at which students begin upper secondary (high school) education.
  • Education enrolment by level > Secondary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Education enrolment by level > Primary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Education enrolment by level > Primary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Children out of school > Primary per 1000: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Research and Development > RandD > Investment in knowledge > Investment in knowledge per million: Investment in knowledge is defined and calculated as the sum of expenditure on R&D;, on total higher education (public and private) and on software. Simple summation of the three components would lead to overestimation of the investment in knowledge owing to overlaps (R&D; and software, R&D; and education, software and education). Therefore, data reported here have been adjusted to exclude the overlaps between components.

    Note that as the term is used here, "investment” has a broader connotation than its usual meaning in economic statistics. It includes current expenditures, such as on education and R&D;, as well as capital outlays, such as purchases of software and construction of school buildings. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Outcomes > Primary education > Duration > Years: Primary duration refers to the number of years of full-time equivalent duration in primary education in the school system according to ISCED.
  • Private school enrolment > Secondary level: Private sector enrolment share, secondary level is the share of students in general secondary education who attend a privately managed school, regardless of whether or not the school receives subsidies from the government.
  • Female enrolment share > Secondary level: Girls' enrolment share, secondary level is the number of girls enrolled in secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in secondary school.
  • Private school enrolment > Primary level: Private sector enrolment share, primary level is the share of primary school pupils who attend a privately managed school, regardless of whether or not the school receives subsidies from the government.
  • Primary teacher salary > After 15 years: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999.
  • Compulsary education starting age: Age at which children must be enrolled in school.
  • Students from households with computer > Age 13: Percentage of 13-year-old students who come from households with at least one computer.
  • Primary education > Teachers: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers.
  • Research and Development > RandD > Investment in knowledge > Investment in knowledge: Investment in knowledge is defined and calculated as the sum of expenditure on R&D;, on total higher education (public and private) and on software. Simple summation of the three components would lead to overestimation of the investment in knowledge owing to overlaps (R&D; and software, R&D; and education, software and education). Therefore, data reported here have been adjusted to exclude the overlaps between components.

    Note that as the term is used here, "investment” has a broader connotation than its usual meaning in economic statistics. It includes current expenditures, such as on education and R&D;, as well as capital outlays, such as purchases of software and construction of school buildings.
  • Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million: Research and development (R&D;) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D; is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

    The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D; by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D; expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Expenditure on education > Change in expenditure on education > Expenditure in tertiary education: The indicator shows direct public and private expenditure on educational institutions in relation to the number of full-time equivalent students enrolled in these institutions. Public subsidies for students’ living expenses have been excluded to ensure international comparability of the data.

    Expenditure on education per student is obtained by dividing the total expenditure on educational institutions by the number of full-time equivalents students. Only those educational institutions and programmes are taken into account for which both enrolment and expenditure data are available.
  • Pupils-teacher ratio > Secondary level: Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary level is the average number of pupils per teacher in secondary education. Cross-country comparisons may be affected by such factors as the composition of teachers by part- and full-time employment.
  • Participation > Children out of school > Elementary > Female: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
  • Education enrolment by level > Secondary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Children out of school > Primary > Female > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Young longtext readers: Share of 15-year-olds who are frequent longtext readers(2000)
  • Primary education > Pupils > Per capita: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Primary education > Teachers > Per capita: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Primary education > Pupils per 1000: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Share of university qualifications awarded to females: Percentage share of tertiary level A qualifications as first degree awarded to females. Data for 2000.
  • Young shorttext readers: Share of 15-year-olds who are frequent shorttext (particularly comics) readers (2000)
  • Children out of school > Primary > Male > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Primary teacher salary > Starting per 1000: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Proportion of 15 year-olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 15 year-olds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Universities > Top 200 > Per $ GDP: Number of universities in the top 200 Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 billion $ gross domestic product.
  • Elementary school repeaters > Female: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
  • Teacher qualifications > Years experience > Age 13: The average number of years of teaching experience, for teachers of students aged 13.
  • Participation > Children out of school > Elementary: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
  • Ratio of female to male enrollments in tertiary education: Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
  • Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment: Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
  • Secondary education > General pupils > Per capita: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Share of university qualifications awarded to females > First degree: Percentage share of tertiary level A qualifications as first degree awarded to females. Data for 2000.
  • Outcomes > Tertiary attainment > Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64: For each age group shown, those who have completed tertiary education are shown as a percentage of all persons in that age group. Tertiary education includes both tertiary-type "A programmes”, which are largely theoretically-based and designed to provide qualifications for entry to advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements, as well as tertiary-type "B programmes” which are classified at the same level of competencies as tertiary-type A programmes but are more occupationally-oriented and lead to direct labour market access. The tertiary attainment profiles are based on the percentage of the population aged 25 to 64 that has completed that level of education.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning foreign languages: Intended instruction time spent studying modern foreign languages, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Proportion of 18 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 18 year-olds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of 20 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 20 year-olds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Elementary school graduate rate > Male: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • Elementary school graduate rate > Female: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
  • Students from households with more than 25 books > Age 13: Percentage of 13 year-old students who come from households owning more than 25 books.
  • Spending per secondary school student > Per $ GDP: Secondary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Expected duration of education for females: Expected years of schooling for a female 5-year-old under current conditions, excluding education for children under 5. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning vocational skills: Intended instruction time spent studying vocational skills, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Primary teacher salary per hour > After 15 years: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary level education, per hour after 15 years experience and typical training. Expressed in equivalent US dollars converted using Purchasing Power Parities (PPP's). Data for 1999.
  • Students from households with computer > Age 13 per million: Percentage of 13-year-old students who come from households with at least one computer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Students from households with more than 25 books > Age 13 per million: Percentage of 13 year-old students who come from households owning more than 25 books. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Participation > Secondary education > Pupils: Secondary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
  • Secondary education > General pupils per 1000: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Primary education > Teachers per 1000: Primary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education: Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools.
  • Secondary education > Teachers per 1000: Secondary education teachers includes full-time and part-time teachers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Proportion of 20 year olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 20 year-olds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of 17 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 17 year-olds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Children out of school > Primary > Male: Children out of school are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning science: Intended instruction time spent studying science, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Proportion of 19 year olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 19 year-olds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Share of university qualifications awarded to females > Advanced research degree: Percentage share of advanced research degrees awarded to females. Data for 2000.
  • Expected duration of education for males: Expected years of schooling for a male 5-year-old under current conditions, excluding education for children under 5. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of 17 year olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 17 year-olds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning arts: Intended instruction time spent studying arts, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Female enrolment share > Primary level: Girls' enrolment share, primary level is the number of girls enrolled in primary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in primary school.
  • Students whose mothers have secondary education > Age 13: Percentage of 13-year-old students whose mothers have at least secondary education.
  • Teacher qualifications > Share with special training > Age 13: Of those teachers who teach students aged 13, the percentage who have specialised teacher training.
  • Education spending > % of GDP: Government Education Expenditure (% of GDP, 2000-2002)
  • Students from households with dictionary > Age 13: The percentage of 13-year-old students who come from a household with a dictionary.
  • Proportion of 18 year olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 18 year-olds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Share of vocational tertiary qualifications awarded to females > First degree: Percentage share of tertiary level B qualifications as first degree awarded to females. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of 19 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 19 year-olds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning mathematics: Intended instruction time spent practicing mathematics, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Proportion of primary education time spent learning technology: Intended instruction time spent studying technology, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
  • Spending per primary school student > Per $ GDP: Primary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product.
  • Literacy and Attainment > Educational attainment: completed tertiary > Tertiary > Population 25+ years > % > Over 24 year olds: Percentage of population older than 24 years that has completed tertiary education.
STAT Spain United States HISTORY
Average years of schooling of adults 7.3
Ranked 34th.
12
Ranked 1st. 64% more than Spain
Children out of school, primary 7,575
Ranked 75th.
1.76 million
Ranked 3rd. 232 times more than Spain

Children out of school, primary, female 2,020
Ranked 78th.
780,465
Ranked 3rd. 386 times more than Spain

Children out of school, primary, female per 1000 0.0437
Ranked 102nd.
2.5
Ranked 48th. 57 times more than Spain

Compulsary education duration 11
Ranked 36th.
12
Ranked 14th. 9% more than Spain

High school > Gender ratio 105.83
Ranked 26th. 6% more than United States
99.5
Ranked 59th.

Literacy > Female 97.2%
Ranked 42nd.
99%
Ranked 17th. 2% more than Spain

Literacy > Total population 97.9%
Ranked 41st.
99%
Ranked 20th. 1% more than Spain

Preschool enrollment rate 106.72
Ranked 55th. 8% more than United States
98.77
Ranked 94th.

Primary education, duration > Years 6
Ranked 75th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 53th.

Primary education, teachers per 1000 4.84
Ranked 59th.
5.49
Ranked 49th. 13% more than Spain

Pupil-teacher ratio, primary 12.4
Ranked 109th.
14.29
Ranked 98th. 15% more than Spain

Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary 11.05
Ranked 74th.
14.49
Ranked 56th. 31% more than Spain

Secondary education, duration > Years 6
Ranked 115th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 102nd.

Tertiary enrollment 59.4%
Ranked 10th.
72.6%
Ranked 1st. 22% more than Spain
Elementary school > Gender ratio 98.93
Ranked 55th.
100.68
Ranked 17th. 2% more than Spain

Children out of school, primary per 1000 0.164
Ranked 112th.
5.64
Ranked 47th. 34 times more than Spain

Literacy > Definition age 15 and over can read and write age 15 and over can read and write
Duration of compulsory education 11 years
Ranked 26th.
12 years
Ranked 10th. 9% more than Spain
Literacy > Male 98.7%
Ranked 42nd.
99%
Ranked 28th. About the same as Spain

College and university > Share of total education spending 23.43%
Ranked 33th.
25.65%
Ranked 26th. 9% more than Spain

Primary school starting age > Years 6
Ranked 106th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 77th.

College and university > Gender ratio 123.68
Ranked 47th.
140.06
Ranked 29th. 13% more than Spain

Girls to boys ratio > Primary level enrolment 0.98
Ranked 66th.
0.99
Ranked 49th. 1% more than Spain

Secondary education > Teachers > Per capita 6.49 per 1,000 people
Ranked 50th. 18% more than United States
5.5 per 1,000 people
Ranked 65th.

Spending > Proportion 3.9
Ranked 87th.
4.79
Ranked 54th. 23% more than Spain

Secondary education, pupils 3.25 million
Ranked 23th.
24.21 million
Ranked 4th. 7 times more than Spain

School life expectancy > Total 15.3 years
Ranked 13th. 1% more than United States
15.2 years
Ranked 14th.
Spending per student > College and university 24.99
Ranked 31st. 13% more than United States
22.04
Ranked 37th.

Child care (preschool) > Duration 3
Ranked 72nd. The same as United States
3
Ranked 47th.

High school teachers 284,084
Ranked 12th.
1.72 million
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Spain

Secondary education, general pupils 2.68 million
Ranked 24th.
24.21 million
Ranked 3rd. 9 times more than Spain

Secondary school starting age > Years 12
Ranked 80th. The same as United States
12
Ranked 59th.

Primary education, pupils 2.77 million
Ranked 38th.
24.43 million
Ranked 5th. 9 times more than Spain

Elementary school teachers 211,320
Ranked 19th.
1.8 million
Ranked 2nd. 9 times more than Spain

Spending > USD 61 billion
Ranked 10th.
684.04 billion
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than Spain

Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary > Teachers > Women 0.0
Ranked 37th.
25,000
Ranked 1st.

College and university > Gender parity index 1.23
Ranked 42nd.
1.41
Ranked 33th. 15% more than Spain

Scientific and technical journal articles 16,826
Ranked 9th.
211,233
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Spain

Public spending per student > Primary level 18.8
Ranked 18th. 5% more than United States
17.9
Ranked 21st.
Primary teacher salary > Starting $24,464.00
Ranked 7th.
$25,707.00
Ranked 5th. 5% more than Spain
Primary education, teachers 223,644
Ranked 17th.
1.71 million
Ranked 5th. 8 times more than Spain

Enrolment ratio > Secondary level 93.7%
Ranked 4th. 6% more than United States
88.1%
Ranked 17th.
Mathematical literacy 476
Ranked 21st.
493
Ranked 18th. 4% more than Spain
Secondary education, vocational pupils 566,815
Ranked 17th.
0.0
Ranked 96th.

Child care (preschool) > Starting age 3
Ranked 134th. The same as United States
3
Ranked 103th.

Government spending on education > Proportion of GDP 4.97%
Ranked 57th.
5.62%
Ranked 39th. 13% more than Spain

College and university > Private school share 14.75%
Ranked 75th.
27.95%
Ranked 46th. 90% more than Spain

Elementary school > Enrolled students 2.63 million
Ranked 39th.
24.68 million
Ranked 3rd. 9 times more than Spain

Spending per secondary school student $4,274.00 per student
Ranked 16th.
$7,764.00 per student
Ranked 3rd. 82% more than Spain
Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level 1.84 million
Ranked 21st.
16.61 million
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than Spain

College and university > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female 40%
Ranked 35th.
47%
Ranked 7th. 18% more than Spain
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary per million 0.239
Ranked 87th. 5 times more than United States
0.0465
Ranked 96th.

Elementary (primary school) > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female 75%
Ranked 51st.
87%
Ranked 8th. 16% more than Spain
Child care (preschool) > Students per teacher 12.05
Ranked 84th.
14.96
Ranked 64th. 24% more than Spain

Secondary education, pupils per 1000 70.34
Ranked 105th.
77.71
Ranked 76th. 10% more than Spain

Secondary education, vocational pupils per 1000 12.28
Ranked 49th.
0.0
Ranked 96th.

High school > Upper secondary school duration 2
Ranked 173th.
3
Ranked 73th. 50% more than Spain

High school > Lower secondary school duration 4
Ranked 47th. 33% more than United States
3
Ranked 105th.

Tertiary > Students studying abroad 25,884.4
Ranked 34th.
56,943.33
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Spain

Scientific literacy 491
Ranked 19th.
499
Ranked 14th. 2% more than Spain
Spending per student > High school 24.13
Ranked 22nd.
24.56
Ranked 18th. 2% more than Spain

Reading literacy 493
Ranked 18th.
504
Ranked 15th. 2% more than Spain
High school > Private school share 27.31%
Ranked 28th. 3 times more than United States
8.27%
Ranked 86th.

Elementary (primary school) > Starting age 6
Ranked 105th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 77th.

Services, etc., value added > Current US$ $893.61 billion
Ranked 9th.
$11.51 trillion
Ranked 1st. 13 times more than Spain

Spending per student > Elementary school 19.88
Ranked 25th.
22.35
Ranked 18th. 12% more than Spain

Education enrolment ratio > Net > Primary level 99%
Ranked 17th. 5% more than United States
94%
Ranked 71st.

Elementary (primary) school) > Proportion spent on all staff salaries 80.72%
Ranked 50th.
81.55%
Ranked 48th. 1% more than Spain

High school > Share of total education spending 36.97%
Ranked 41st. 4% more than United States
35.42%
Ranked 52nd.

Teacher student ratio > Elementary school 12.42
Ranked 112th.
13.69
Ranked 102nd. 10% more than Spain

Homeschooling legal status Neither legal nor illegal, as Constitution recognises freedom of education, but national education law stipulates that compulsive education must be met through school attendance. Legal under regulating conditions, varies by state.
Literacy > Reading performance > Overall reading skills 481
Ranked 31st.
500
Ranked 15th. 4% more than Spain
High school > Students per teacher 11.05
Ranked 75th.
14.49
Ranked 57th. 31% more than Spain

High school > Lower secondary starting age 12
Ranked 81st. The same as United States
12
Ranked 61st.

Spending on education > Proportion spent on all staff salaries 80.2%
Ranked 27th. 4% more than United States
77.19%
Ranked 38th.

Tertiary > Students studying abroad proportion 1.33%
Ranked 106th. 5 times more than United States
0.271%
Ranked 124th.

Education expenditure of government > As percentage of total government 11%
Ranked 62nd.
15.3%
Ranked 38th. 39% more than Spain

Public spending per student > Tertiary level 19.8
Ranked 62nd.
23.9
Ranked 8th. 21% more than Spain
High school > Gender parity index 1.01
Ranked 47th. About the same as United States
1.01
Ranked 68th.

Elementary (primary) school) > Share of total education spending 25.54%
Ranked 72nd.
32.42%
Ranked 47th. 27% more than Spain

Education expenditure of government > As percentage of GNI 4.3%
Ranked 65th.
5.9%
Ranked 23th. 37% more than Spain

Children out of school > Primary 12,671
Ranked 71st.
1.62 million
Ranked 2nd. 128 times more than Spain

Class size > Age 13 21.9 students
Ranked 8th. 20% more than United States
18.3 students
Ranked 15th.
Girls to boys ratio > Tertiary level enrolment 1.22
Ranked 43th.
1.4
Ranked 22nd. 15% more than Spain

Secondary education, general pupils per 1000 58.07
Ranked 99th.
77.71
Ranked 47th. 34% more than Spain

Education enrolment by level > Primary level 2.49 million
Ranked 50th.
24.85 million
Ranked 4th. 10 times more than Spain

High school > Proportion spent on all staff salaries 83.69%
Ranked 35th. 3% more than United States
81.55%
Ranked 40th.

Duration of education > Primary level 6
Ranked 70th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 51st.
Inequality adjusted index 0.823
Ranked 22nd.
0.941
Ranked 3rd. 14% more than Spain
High school > Population with at least high school education > Men 69.7%
Ranked 62nd.
94.3%
Ranked 22nd. 35% more than Spain

Spending per primary school student $3,267.00 per student
Ranked 15th.
$6,043.00 per student
Ranked 4th. 85% more than Spain
Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level per 1000 44.55
Ranked 23th.
57.75
Ranked 4th. 30% more than Spain

Pupils-teacher ratio > Primary level 14.3
Ranked 119th.
15.4
Ranked 115th. 8% more than Spain
High School > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female 55%
Ranked 37th.
61%
Ranked 19th. 11% more than Spain
School enrolment rate > 1st grade 105.18
Ranked 50th.
105.99
Ranked 46th. 1% more than Spain

Services, etc., value added > Current US$ per capita $19,396.30
Ranked 20th.
$36,945.60
Ranked 5th. 90% more than Spain

Teacher student ratio > High school 10.8
Ranked 70th.
14.38
Ranked 51st. 33% more than Spain

International Baccalaureate schools 74
Ranked 8th.
1,489
Ranked 1st. 20 times more than Spain
High school> Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries 75.12%
Ranked 15th. 37% more than United States
54.76%
Ranked 39th.

Elementary (primary school) > Duration 6
Ranked 81st. The same as United States
6
Ranked 59th.

Elementary school graduate rate 99.86
Ranked 2nd. 5% more than United States
95.34
Ranked 40th.

High school > Population with at least high school education > Women 63.3%
Ranked 67th.
94.7%
Ranked 14th. 50% more than Spain

School life expectancy > Male 15 years
Ranked 15th. 1% more than United States
14.8 years
Ranked 17th.
Teachers as percentage of labor force 5.2%
Ranked 6th. 24% more than United States
4.2%
Ranked 17th.
Literacy > Reading performance > Overall 481
Ranked 31st.
500
Ranked 15th. 4% more than Spain
Scouting > Members 59,408
Ranked 26th.
2.99 million
Ranked 3rd. 50 times more than Spain
Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $16,332.08
Ranked 17th.
$33,005.49
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Spain

School life expectancy > Primary to tertiary 16 years
Ranked 17th. The same as United States
16 years
Ranked 15th.
Universities > Top 200 1
Ranked 25th.
54
Ranked 1st. 54 times more than Spain
Education enrolment by level > Secondary level 3.05 million
Ranked 30th.
23.85 million
Ranked 4th. 8 times more than Spain

Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level > Per capita 44.55 per 1,000 people
Ranked 23th.
57.61 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th. 29% more than Spain

Primary education > Pupils 2.5 million
Ranked 46th.
24.56 million
Ranked 4th. 10 times more than Spain

Elementary (primary) school > Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries 70.72%
Ranked 25th. 29% more than United States
54.76%
Ranked 41st.

Literacy > Reading performance > Integrate and interpret 481
Ranked 33th.
495
Ranked 20th. 3% more than Spain
Literacy > Reading performance > Reflect and evaluate 483
Ranked 28th.
512
Ranked 8th. 6% more than Spain
Duration of education > Secondary level 6
Ranked 93th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 81st.
Outcomes > Secondary education > Duration > Years 6
Ranked 98th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 86th.

Pupil-teacher ratio > Primary 13.93
Ranked 125th.
14.21
Ranked 120th. 2% more than Spain

Services, etc., value added > Constant LCU 605.05 billion
Ranked 53th.
11.23 trillion
Ranked 13th. 19 times more than Spain

Girls to boys ratio > Secondary level enrolment 1.05
Ranked 38th. 3% more than United States
1.02
Ranked 54th.

Secondary education, teachers 293,861
Ranked 13th.
1.67 million
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Spain

Secondary education > General pupils 2.63 million
Ranked 27th.
24.19 million
Ranked 3rd. 9 times more than Spain

Scouting > Genders admitted both both for Venturing, boys only for non-Venturing
Literacy > Reading performance > Non-continuous texts 473
Ranked 31st.
503
Ranked 14th. 6% more than Spain
Elementary (primary) school) > Private school share 32.62%
Ranked 23th. 4 times more than United States
8.72%
Ranked 80th.

High school > Upper Secondary > Students per teacher 11.35
Ranked 56th.
14.46
Ranked 37th. 27% more than Spain

High school starting age > Years 12
Ranked 75th. The same as United States
12
Ranked 55th.

Elementary school repeaters > All 0.0
Ranked 119th.
0.0
Ranked 116th.

Elementary (primary) school > Gender parity index 0.994
Ranked 40th. About the same as United States
0.991
Ranked 69th.

School enrolment rate > 5th grade 99.82
Ranked 6th. 6% more than United States
94.45
Ranked 30th.

Tertiary > Students studying abroad per thousand people 0.561
Ranked 139th. 3 times more than United States
0.183
Ranked 178th.

Public spending per student > Secondary level 25.5
Ranked 21st. 14% more than United States
22.4
Ranked 28th.
Scientific and technical journal articles per million 400.58
Ranked 23th.
728.12
Ranked 13th. 82% more than Spain

Literacy > Reading performance > Continuous texts 484
Ranked 29th.
500
Ranked 13th. 3% more than Spain
Literacy > Reading performance > Access and retrieve 480
Ranked 31st.
492
Ranked 25th. 3% more than Spain
Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD 1.12%
Ranked 23th.
2.68%
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Spain
Participation > Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education 102.59%
Ranked 17th. 2% more than United States
100.09%
Ranked 51st.

Children out of school > Primary > Per capita 0.297 per 1,000 people
Ranked 112th.
5.52 per 1,000 people
Ranked 57th. 19 times more than Spain

Schools connected to the Internet 94%
Ranked 14th.
100%
Ranked 2nd. 6% more than Spain

Secondary education > Teachers 276,928
Ranked 17th.
1.62 million
Ranked 3rd. 6 times more than Spain

Researchers in R&D > Per million people 2,922.35
Ranked 18th.
4,673.21
Ranked 8th. 60% more than Spain

Participation > Secondary education > General pupils 2.57 million
Ranked 24th.
24.69 million
Ranked 2nd. 10 times more than Spain

Services, etc., value added > Constant LCU per capita 13,132.95
Ranked 84th.
36,028.94
Ranked 52nd. 3 times more than Spain

Expected duration of education for all students 17.5 years
Ranked 9th. 5% more than United States
16.7 years
Ranked 14th.
Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ $752.43 billion
Ranked 7th.
$10.28 trillion
Ranked 1st. 14 times more than Spain

Universities > Top 200 per million 0.023
Ranked 24th.
0.183
Ranked 17th. 8 times more than Spain
Primary education, pupils per 1000 60.05
Ranked 121st.
78.41
Ranked 97th. 31% more than Spain

Children out of school, primary, male 5,555
Ranked 66th.
976,866
Ranked 3rd. 176 times more than Spain

Primary education > Duration > Years 6 years
Ranked 74th. The same as United States
6 years
Ranked 54th.

School life expectancy > Female 15.6 years
Ranked 14th.
15.7 years
Ranked 11th. 1% more than Spain
Education enrolment ratio > Net > Primary level > Women 99%
Ranked 17th. 5% more than United States
94%
Ranked 66th.

High school > Lower Secondary > Students per teacher 10.88
Ranked 65th.
14.52
Ranked 47th. 33% more than Spain

Elementary (primary) school > Students per teacher 12.4
Ranked 110th.
14.29
Ranked 100th. 15% more than Spain

Proportion of education spending on teachers' salaries 68.1%
Ranked 13th. 42% more than United States
47.8%
Ranked 32nd.

High school > Upper secondary starting age 16
Ranked 33th. 7% more than United States
15
Ranked 90th.

Education enrolment by level > Secondary level per 1000 73.89
Ranked 110th.
82.94
Ranked 90th. 12% more than Spain

Education enrolment by level > Primary level > Per capita 0.06 per capita
Ranked 143th.
0.086 per capita
Ranked 119th. 43% more than Spain

Education enrolment by level > Primary level per 1000 60.23
Ranked 146th.
86.39
Ranked 118th. 43% more than Spain

Children out of school > Primary per 1000 0.297
Ranked 111th.
5.54
Ranked 58th. 19 times more than Spain

Research and Development > RandD > Investment in knowledge > Investment in knowledge per million 0.0562%
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United States
0.0212%
Ranked 18th.
Outcomes > Primary education > Duration > Years 6
Ranked 68th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 49th.

Private school enrolment > Secondary level 30
Ranked 23th. 3 times more than United States
9.6
Ranked 12th.
Female enrolment share > Secondary level 50%
Ranked 52nd. 2% more than United States
49%
Ranked 73th.
Private school enrolment > Primary level 33.4
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United States
11.6
Ranked 33th.
Primary teacher salary > After 15 years $28,614.00
Ranked 9th.
$34,705.00
Ranked 5th. 21% more than Spain
Compulsary education starting age 6
Ranked 88th. The same as United States
6
Ranked 66th.

Students from households with computer > Age 13 40%
Ranked 17th.
54%
Ranked 13th. 35% more than Spain
Primary education > Teachers 179,271
Ranked 24th.
1.73 million
Ranked 3rd. 10 times more than Spain

Research and Development > RandD > Investment in knowledge > Investment in knowledge 2.58%
Ranked 14th.
6.49%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Spain
Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million 0.0244%
Ranked 25th. 3 times more than United States
0.00874%
Ranked 28th.
Expenditure on education > Change in expenditure on education > Expenditure in tertiary education 114.14 Index of change, year 200
Ranked 21st.
117.74 Index of change, year 200
Ranked 15th. 3% more than Spain
Pupils-teacher ratio > Secondary level 8.5
Ranked 116th.
14.9
Ranked 79th. 75% more than Spain
Participation > Children out of school > Elementary > Female 2,638
Ranked 76th.
769,923
Ranked 4th. 292 times more than Spain

Education enrolment by level > Secondary level > Per capita 73.89 per 1,000 people
Ranked 109th.
82.72 per 1,000 people
Ranked 88th. 12% more than Spain

Education enrolment by level > Percentage girls > Primary level 48.33%
Ranked 92nd.
48.86%
Ranked 40th. 1% more than Spain

Education enrolment by level > Percentage girls > Secondary level 50.01%
Ranked 56th. 3% more than United States
48.72%
Ranked 92nd.

Children out of school > Primary > Female > Per capita 0.227 per 1,000 people
Ranked 105th.
3.5 per 1,000 people
Ranked 47th. 15 times more than Spain

Young longtext readers 23.1%
Ranked 13th.
28.4%
Ranked 6th. 23% more than Spain
Education enrolment by level > Percentage girls > Tertiary level 53.14%
Ranked 61st.
56.64%
Ranked 34th. 7% more than Spain

Primary education > Pupils > Per capita 0.059 per capita
Ranked 147th.
0.084 per capita
Ranked 115th. 42% more than Spain

Primary education > Teachers > Per capita 4.2 per 1,000 people
Ranked 87th.
5.88 per 1,000 people
Ranked 44th. 40% more than Spain

Primary education > Pupils per 1000 58.5
Ranked 146th.
83.88
Ranked 115th. 43% more than Spain

Share of university qualifications awarded to females 59%
Ranked 7th. 4% more than United States
57%
Ranked 12th.
Young shorttext readers 17.7%
Ranked 18th. 61% more than United States
11%
Ranked 24th.
Children out of school > Primary > Male > Per capita 0.07 per 1,000 people
Ranked 112th.
2.02 per 1,000 people
Ranked 67th. 29 times more than Spain

Primary teacher salary > Starting per 1000 $0.61
Ranked 15th. 7 times more than United States
$0.09
Ranked 22nd.
Proportion of 15 year-olds in secondary education 100%
Ranked 4th. 10% more than United States
91%
Ranked 23th.
Universities > Top 200 > Per $ GDP 0.001 per $1 billion of GDP
Ranked 29th.
0.005 per $1 billion of GDP
Ranked 17th. 5 times more than Spain
Elementary school repeaters > Female 0.0
Ranked 115th.
0.0
Ranked 112th.

Teacher qualifications > Years experience > Age 13 25.8 years experience
Ranked 13th.
27 years experience
Ranked 10th. 5% more than Spain
Education enrolment ratio > Net > Primary level > Men 100%
Ranked 7th. 8% more than United States
93%
Ranked 66th.

Participation > Children out of school > Elementary 3,890
Ranked 86th.
1.71 million
Ranked 4th. 441 times more than Spain

Ratio of female to male enrollments in tertiary education 122.38
Ranked 50th.
139.19
Ranked 29th. 14% more than Spain

Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment 105.82
Ranked 33th. 4% more than United States
101.63
Ranked 58th.

Secondary education > General pupils > Per capita 61.5 per 1,000 people
Ranked 97th.
82.36 per 1,000 people
Ranked 51st. 34% more than Spain

Share of university qualifications awarded to females > First degree 59%
Ranked 7th. 4% more than United States
57%
Ranked 12th.
Outcomes > Tertiary attainment > Tertiary attainment for age group 55-64 15.29%
Ranked 20th.
37.67%
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Spain
Proportion of primary education time spent learning foreign languages 11 7
Proportion of 18 year olds in tertiary education 27%
Ranked 6th.
35%
Ranked 3rd. 30% more than Spain
Proportion of 20 year olds in tertiary education 38%
Ranked 4th. The same as United States
38%
Ranked 5th.
Elementary school graduate rate > Male 100
Ranked 4th. The same as United States
100
Ranked 3rd.

Elementary school graduate rate > Female 99.71
Ranked 14th. 14% more than United States
87.47
Ranked 48th.

Students from households with more than 25 books > Age 13 76%
Ranked 14th. 1% more than United States
75%
Ranked 16th.
Spending per secondary school student > Per $ GDP $0.00 per student per $1,000
Ranked 14th. 7 times more than United States
$0.00 per student per $1,000
Ranked 21st.
Expected duration of education for females 17.9 years
Ranked 10th. 5% more than United States
17.1 years
Ranked 12th.
Proportion of primary education time spent learning vocational skills n 5
Primary teacher salary per hour > After 15 years $36.00 per hour
Ranked 9th. The same as United States
$36.00 per hour
Ranked 10th.
School life expectancy > Primary to tertiary > Female 17 years
Ranked 10th. 6% more than United States
16 years
Ranked 25th.
Students from households with computer > Age 13 per million 0.968%
Ranked 21st. 5 times more than United States
0.188%
Ranked 27th.
Students from households with more than 25 books > Age 13 per million 1.84%
Ranked 22nd. 7 times more than United States
0.261%
Ranked 28th.
Participation > Secondary education > Pupils 3.11 million
Ranked 23th.
24.43 million
Ranked 3rd. 8 times more than Spain

Secondary education > General pupils per 1000 61.5
Ranked 98th.
82.6
Ranked 48th. 34% more than Spain

Primary education > Teachers per 1000 4.2
Ranked 87th.
5.9
Ranked 45th. 41% more than Spain

Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education 106.99%
Ranked 27th.
108.83%
Ranked 20th. 2% more than Spain

Secondary education > Teachers per 1000 6.49
Ranked 49th. 18% more than United States
5.52
Ranked 66th.

Proportion of 20 year olds in secondary education 13%
Ranked 14th. 7 times more than United States
2%
Ranked 25th.
Proportion of 17 year olds in tertiary education 0.0
Ranked 17th.
2%
Ranked 11th.
Children out of school > Primary > Male 2,989
Ranked 78th.
593,372
Ranked 5th. 199 times more than Spain

Proportion of primary education time spent learning science 10%
Ranked 23th.
14%
Ranked 9th. 40% more than Spain
Proportion of 19 year olds in secondary education 21%
Ranked 17th. 4 times more than United States
6%
Ranked 26th.
Share of university qualifications awarded to females > Advanced research degree 44%
Ranked 8th. The same as United States
44%
Ranked 9th.
Expected duration of education for males 17.1 years
Ranked 11th. 6% more than United States
16.2 years
Ranked 18th.
Proportion of 17 year olds in secondary education 78%
Ranked 19th.
79%
Ranked 17th. 1% more than Spain
Proportion of primary education time spent learning arts 12 7
Female enrolment share > Primary level 48.4%
Ranked 82nd.
48.7%
Ranked 42nd. 1% more than Spain
Students whose mothers have secondary education > Age 13 22% 75%
Teacher qualifications > Share with special training > Age 13 10%
Ranked 24th.
97%
Ranked 6th. 10 times more than Spain
Education spending > % of GDP 4.5%
Ranked 71st.
5.7%
Ranked 38th. 27% more than Spain
Students from households with dictionary > Age 13 99%
Ranked 1st. 4% more than United States
95%
Ranked 17th.
Proportion of 18 year olds in secondary education 38%
Ranked 19th. 58% more than United States
24%
Ranked 25th.
Share of vocational tertiary qualifications awarded to females > First degree 52% awarded to females
Ranked 21st.
60% awarded to females
Ranked 14th. 15% more than Spain
Proportion of 19 year olds in tertiary education 35%
Ranked 7th.
41%
Ranked 3rd. 17% more than Spain
Proportion of primary education time spent learning mathematics 13%
Ranked 15th.
16%
Ranked 3rd. 23% more than Spain
Proportion of primary education time spent learning technology 5 3
Spending per primary school student > Per $ GDP $0.00 per student per $1,000
Ranked 15th. 7 times more than United States
$0.00 per student per $1,000
Ranked 21st.
Literacy and Attainment > Educational attainment: completed tertiary > Tertiary > Population 25+ years > % > Over 24 year olds 26.94%
Ranked 14th.
40.66%
Ranked 3rd. 51% more than Spain

SOURCES: UNESCO; UNESCO Institute for Statistics; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; Source: UNESCO UIS Data | UNESCO Institute for Statistics; World Development Indicators database; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's Statistical Yearbook, and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics online database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute of Statistics; OECD; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2001); United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; World Bank national accounts data; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling_international_status_and_statistics; Wikipedia: List of countries by student performance (Reading); UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; "Efficiency and Equity in Schools around the World" by Eric A. Hanushek and Javier A. Luque, April 2002; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Development Programme. Source tables; United Nations Development Programme. Source tables; Source: UNESCO UIS Data | UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; http://www.ibo.org/facts/schoolstats/progsbycountry.cfm; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; "WOSM MEMBERSHIP as at 31st December 2012". World Organization of the Scout Movement. August 2013.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; The Times, 2005; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; Wikipedia: List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members (Table of World Organization of the Scout Movement members); UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; OECD Country statistical profiles 2009; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; The Times, 2005. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; OECD Country statistical profiles 2009. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; "Efficiency and Equity in Schools around the World" by Eric A. Hanushek and Javier A. Luque, April 2002. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Human Development Programme; http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=UNESCO&f=series%3aEA_56_Ag25t99, Educational attainment: completed tertiary

Citation

"Education: Spain and United States compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Spain/United-States/Education

6

The news has been filled lately with the tensions between Russia and the rest of the world. With Russia positioning its troops in the Crimea section of Ukraine and threatening to invade Eastern Ukraine, many have begun to talk in cold war terms and speak of a renewed military conflict between the US and Russia. As tensions rise it is important to look at the current position vis-à-vis the two military powers to see how they compare.

According to the best military analysis, the United States and Russia rank #1 and #2 respectively in military power today. When comparing military power one must take several factors into account. Of significant importance is the population of both countries ready to fight. The US has a population of roughly 316 million with 120 million fit for military service and over 4 million reaching military age each year. Russia on the other hand has a population of only 145 million with only 46 million ready for military service and 1.3 million reaching military age each year. From a population standpoint, the US is a much better position.

From there, one must look at two things: 1) would a conflict involve most land forces or be fought primarily in the air and sea and 2) would the conflict be limited in nature or total war?

Russia and the United States have taken divergent paths to military might. The US dominates the air with far more bases, fighter jets and bombers than Russia but Russia is superior on the ground with more tanks, artillery and land vehicles. At sea, the countries are more evenly matched, but here the US has the edge with more destroyers, submarines and aircraft carriers. It must also be mentioned that the US military spending also dwarfs that of Russia, 612 billion to just 77 billion. That means that in a conflict the US would be in a much better position to ramp up production for new or replacement weaponry.

Of course, all of the conventional military comparisons mean nothing if a conflict between the two powers fought a total war that led to a nuclear exchange. Although both countries have reduced the levels of their nuclear arsenals over the past two decades, both still have thousands of nuclear warheads. Use of nuclear weapons would negate any real or perceived strengths in other military areas, although some military strategists argue that with is population spread out over a greater distance and its population centers smaller and more dispersed, fewer Russian people would be affected by a nuclear war. They would however remain in a world dramatically altered.

Posted on 28 Mar 2014

chris.lockyer781

chris.lockyer781

393 Stat enthusiast

3

The primary objective of the American