You can find Antarctica within the Antarctic Region in the Southern Hemisphere. It is the fifth biggest continent in land area next to Asia, Africa, North and South America. Almost 100 percent of Antarctica is wrapped in ice which is roughly 1.9 kilometers in depth and extends to nearly all areas except for the northernmost portion of the peninsula. It is the coldest but also the driest continent in the world.
Antarctica is exposed to the strongest winds and is said to be a desert with a yearly rainfall of only eight inches along the coastline and less in the interiors. The temperature in this continent goes down to -89 degrees centigrade. There are no permanent inhabitants in Antarctica but at least 1,000 individuals man various research facilities all over this area. Cold-adapted organisms can survive which include some forms of plants and vegetation (Tundra), algae, fungi, and bacteria. Mammals like penguins, seals, nematodes, and mites also inhabit Antarctica.
Scientists and leaders of different governments have called for sustained global cooperation to preserve Antarctica. During the 15th Meeting of National Administrators of Antarctic Programs this year in Buenos Aires (Argentina), participants reached an agreement to tackle the continent's major challenges including the struggle against climate change. In the closing stages of the discussions, there were calls for the increase in the utilization of alternative sources of energy to cut down the use of fossil fuels, enhance management of Antarctic residuals and regulate non-native species of fauna to help sustain the Antarctic ecosystem. There is no governing body in Antarctica although some countries claim dominion in a few regions. However, the legitimacy of these claims has not been recognized across the world.