The Technology Achievement Index is calculated from indicators in four categories: creation of technology; diffusion of recent innovations; diffusion of old innovations; and human skills.
The indicators for creation of technology are patents granted per capita and royalty and license fees received from abroad per capita.
Diffusion of recent innovations is calculated from the number of Internet hosts per capita and the share of high- and medium-technology exports as a percentage of all exports.
Indicators for diffusion of old technology are telephones (land line and cellular) per capita and electricity consumption per capita.
Human skills are calculated based on the average number of years of schooling and the gross enrolment ratio at the tertiary level in science, mathematics and engineering.