The federal government of Canada has the authority to create laws on criminality, regulations in investigation and crime prosecution. Provinces take care of law enforcement although police jurisdiction is left to federal agencies and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Crime rate in Canada continues to go down with the homicide rate declining to the lowest level in the last 46 years. The crime severity rate also went down by three percent. Observers claim that one of the reasons for this decline is the tightening of crime laws by conservative legislators.
Besides, citizens do not possess legal rights to possess firearms in Canada. Purchasing a gun takes two months. There is no compulsory licensing for owners of guns. A private citizen in Canada can only apply for a firearms license by having third party references, go through a safety training program and pass the required background checks. These verifications cover criminal, drug addiction and mental health histories. Civilians are not permitted to own automatic firearms, modified handguns, shotguns, automatic rifles, and several types of semi-automatic assault rifles.
The CAF is considered a separate institution from the Department of National Defence headed by the Chief of Defence Staff. The Canadian Armed Forces’ mandate is to defend the country’s sovereignty and protect its citizens. It also seeks to contribute to global peace and security in collaboration with its international allies. Some of CAF units and personnel are deployed abroad for this purpose. Canada owns the responsibility of securing the entire North American territory along with the United States of America. This is a joint endeavour of the North American Aerospace Defence Command which monitors and preserves continental airspace and bodies of water.
Branches of Service
Three major branches of service of the military are the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force.
As the land component, the Canadian Army is made up of combat-ready forces and conducts land surveillance operations. The army supports civil authorities in preserving public order and security. It renders assistance in times of natural calamities and various emergencies. The Canadian Army consists of roughly 70,000 full-time soldiers, 30,000 reservists, and 5,000 rangers.
The Royal Navy is tasked with protecting nautical entryway, sea resources and carries out search and rescue missions. The navy has 8,400 permanent and 5,100 part-time sailors. On the other hand, the Royal Canadian Air Force secures the country’s airspace, supports rescue undertakings and airlifts troops, armaments and supplies. There are approximately 13,000 regular and 2,000 reserve personnel.
National, Regional & Domestic Security
Protection of natural borders is the primary duty of the Canadian Armed Forces. During the Cold War, the major concentration of national defence policy was to neutralize possible Soviet military threats. Most of the land and air forces were deployed in Europe from the fifties until the early part of the nineties. With the end of the international tension, the focus moved to the Middle East where the Canadian armed forces were involved in military operations particularly in Afghanistan beginning 2002. Canadian naval personnel also served with the United States Navy in the waters off south western Asia.
Since 2006, the defence policy of Canada was called the First Defence Strategy in which the CAF is equipped and familiarized in performing six principal missions in North America and other parts of the world. The armed forces also participated in diplomatic activities like involvement in bilateral/multilateral forums such as the System of Cooperation among American Air Forces, military exercises, foreign visits, joint training programs, and deployment of military attaches all over the world.
In the past, members of the Canadian Armed Forces were called on to help maintain peace within the country’s territories. For the duration of the 1970 October Crisis, the federal government invoked the War Measures Act. Canadian soldiers spread out in Ottawa and Quebec to maintain security because of the significant rise in kidnapping and bombing incidents. In 1990, troops were sent to a Quebec community west of Montréal to help resolve an Aboriginal-Canadian land dispute, during the Oka Crisis. From time to time, the military also assists the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in dealing with international drug smuggling syndicates and entry of illegal immigrants.
Canada may have a large land area but the population is comparatively small. It is quite ironic that it has a small number of armed forces. That is why a reserve force was activated like the Canadian Rangers primarily to patrol the northern areas and distant parts of the East and West coasts. The 4,000 volunteers number more than 4,000 and are mostly Arctic or Aboriginal-Canadians.
The First Defence Strategy signalled the start of CAF’s modernization program. In 2008, the armed forces leadership began procuring sophisticated equipment as well as improving training and preparedness. The Canadian Special Operations regiment was also established. Additional funds were channelled towards recruitment because the numbers of soldiers declined in the eighties. The armed forces acquired more arms and equipment like artillery, battle tanks, unmanned air vehicles, aircraft transport (C-130), and armoured vehicle fleets.
Notwithstanding these efforts, the commitment of Canada to multi-lateral efforts showed through its total support for peacekeeping efforts. The country became prominent for its peacekeeping role in the 20th and 21st centuries. However, starting 1995, the participation of the CAF in United Nations’ peacekeeping functions started to decrease because it concentrated on NATO operations.
This website helps me get every single piece of information except for immigration on Canada.
Actually, O Canada was written in French and translated into English. And several English translations have existed and been used over the years. Ask any middled-aged or older Canadian how things have changed in his or her lifetme.
I need to see a demographic transition model of Canada. But I can see that not many people visit this site...
Can I know the statistics for Canada's media exports?
Percentage and countries included will be great. Thanks.
In response to Lauren
- Canada ranks 10th for per capita GDP
, which stands at US$29002.91 per person according to the latest 2005 reports.
In response to Tealander
- Canada's Dominion Lands Act
of 1872 was done away in 1918, when when a new system was set up, designed to help World War I veterans settle more easily.
Hi Nate, the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry reports
that Indian exports to Canada have increased from C$ 280 million in 1992 to C$ 1326 million in 2003 (January to November): a five-fold increase. Canadian exports to India have marginally increased from C$ 529 million in 1992 to C$ 658 million in 2003 (January to November). The trade balance has been in India's favor since 1993: it was C$ 76 million in 1993 and was C$ 668 million in 2003 (January to November). However, despite the significant increase, India's share in Canada's imports is still less than 0.5%.
Canada's investment in India is mainly in the areas of: power & energy, equipment & services; oil and gas; environment products & services; telecommunications & information technology; and the financial sector, including insurance.
At one time the largest recipient of aid from Canada (through the Canadian International Development Agency), this is today negligible. This is partly because Canada has itself cut back its aid programme (which now constitutes less than about 0.3% of its GDP) and partly because, in 2003, the Government of India took a decision to decline bilateral aid from several countries, including Canada.
Hi Matthew, see: http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Ontario.
Hi Teresa, see: http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Gay-rights#Canada.