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Finland

Finland Economic growth Stats

Definitions

  • Evolution of GDP > Real GDP growth: In order to calculate the growth rate of GDP free of the direct effects of inflation, data at fixed, or constant, prices should be used. Price relativities change over time, and the 1993 System of National Accounts recommends that the fixed prices used should be representative of the periods for which the growth rates are calculated, which means that new fixed prices should be introduced frequently, typically every year. The growth rates of GDP between successive periods are linked together to form chain volume indices. All OECD countries derive their "volume" estimates in this way, except for Korea, and Mexico.. These two like many non-OECD countries, only revise their fixed weights every five or ten years. Such practices tend to lead to biased growth rates, usually upward.

    The growth rates for OECD total are averages of the growth rates of individual countries weighted by the relative size of each country’s GDP in US dollars. Conversion to US dollars is done using purchasing power parities so that each country is weighted by the relative size of its real GDP.
  • Evolution of GDP > Real GDP growth per million: In order to calculate the growth rate of GDP free of the direct effects of inflation, data at fixed, or constant, prices should be used. Price relativities change over time, and the 1993 System of National Accounts recommends that the fixed prices used should be representative of the periods for which the growth rates are calculated, which means that new fixed prices should be introduced frequently, typically every year. The growth rates of GDP between successive periods are linked together to form chain volume indices. All OECD countries derive their "volume" estimates in this way, except for Korea, and Mexico.. These two like many non-OECD countries, only revise their fixed weights every five or ten years. Such practices tend to lead to biased growth rates, usually upward.

    The growth rates for OECD total are averages of the growth rates of individual countries weighted by the relative size of each country’s GDP in US dollars. Conversion to US dollars is done using purchasing power parities so that each country is weighted by the relative size of its real GDP. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Household saving > Household net saving rates: In the national accounts, saving is estimated by subtracting household consumption expenditure from household disposable income plus the change in net equity of households in pension funds (since this component is also a determinant of household disposable income but with an opposite sign).

    Household disposable income consists essentially of income from employment and from the operation of unincorporated enterprises, plus receipts of interest, dividends and social benefits minus payments of income taxes, interest and social security contributions. Note that enterprise income includes imputed rents paid by owner-occupiers of dwellings.

    Household consumption expenditure consists mainly of cash outlays for consumer goods and services but it also includes the imputed expenditures that owner occupiers pay, as occupiers, to themselves as owners of their dwellings.

    Households include households plus non-profit institutions serving households.

    The household saving rate is calculated as the ratio of household saving to household disposable income (plus the change in net equity of households in pension funds).
  • Inflation > GDP deflator: The GDP deflator is an implicit, not an explicit deflator. It is derived by dividing an index of GDP measured in current prices by a chain volume index of GDP (see Evolution of GDP), both, typically. derived using the expenditure approach (see Size of GDP). It is therefore a weighted average of the price indices of:

    goods and services consumed by households;

    expenditure by government on goods, services and salaries;

    fixed capital assets;

    changes in inventories;

    exports of goods and services;

    imports of goods and services (minus).

    While the CPI measures the price changes of goods and services consumed by households, the GDP deflator measures the price changes of goods and services produced by a country, including exports, and also includes a component to reflect price changes in imports. Hence, the treatment of exports and imports merits special attention. The GDP deflator will go up, indicating more inflation, if the prices of exports rise but although higher inflation is usually thought of as a bad thing, it may actually be beneficial to a country if the prices of its exports rise, since it is non-residents who pay the higher prices; although this may be coupled with a fall in the value of the country’s currency. Conversely, price rises in imports will reduce the GDP deflator, although, following the same reasoning this may not necessarily be a good thing for residents.
  • Inflation > GDP deflator per million: The GDP deflator is an implicit, not an explicit deflator. It is derived by dividing an index of GDP measured in current prices by a chain volume index of GDP (see Evolution of GDP), both, typically. derived using the expenditure approach (see Size of GDP). It is therefore a weighted average of the price indices of:

    goods and services consumed by households;

    expenditure by government on goods, services and salaries;

    fixed capital assets;

    changes in inventories;

    exports of goods and services;

    imports of goods and services (minus).

    While the CPI measures the price changes of goods and services consumed by households, the GDP deflator measures the price changes of goods and services produced by a country, including exports, and also includes a component to reflect price changes in imports. Hence, the treatment of exports and imports merits special attention. The GDP deflator will go up, indicating more inflation, if the prices of exports rise but although higher inflation is usually thought of as a bad thing, it may actually be beneficial to a country if the prices of its exports rise, since it is non-residents who pay the higher prices; although this may be coupled with a fall in the value of the country’s currency. Conversely, price rises in imports will reduce the GDP deflator, although, following the same reasoning this may not necessarily be a good thing for residents. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Investment rates > Gross fixed capital formation > Housing: Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) reflects the acquisition, less disposal, of fixed assets, i.e. products which are expected to be used in production for several years. Acquisitions include both purchases of assets (new or second-hand) and the construction of assets by producers for their own use. Disposals include sales of assets for scrap as well as sales of used assets in a working condition to other producers: New Zealand, Mexico and some Central European countries import substantial quantities of used assets.

    Fixed assets consist of machinery and equipment; dwellings and other buildings; roads, bridges, airfields and dams; orchards and tree plantations; improvements to land such as fencing, leveling and draining; draught animals and other animals that are kept for the milk and wool that they produce; computer software and databases; entertainment, literary or artistic originals, and expenditures on mineral exploration. What all these things have in common is that they contribute to future production. This may not be obvious in the case of dwellings but, in the national accounts, flats and houses are considered to produce housing services which are consumed by owners or tenants over the life of the building.

    In calculating the shares, gross fixed capital formation and GDP are both valued at current market prices.
  • Investment rates > Gross fixed capital formation > Machinery and equipment: Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) reflects the acquisition, less disposal, of fixed assets, i.e. products which are expected to be used in production for several years. Acquisitions include both purchases of assets (new or second-hand) and the construction of assets by producers for their own use. Disposals include sales of assets for scrap as well as sales of used assets in a working condition to other producers: New Zealand, Mexico and some Central European countries import substantial quantities of used assets.

    Fixed assets consist of machinery and equipment; dwellings and other buildings; roads, bridges, airfields and dams; orchards and tree plantations; improvements to land such as fencing, leveling and draining; draught animals and other animals that are kept for the milk and wool that they produce; computer software and databases; entertainment, literary or artistic originals, and expenditures on mineral exploration. What all these things have in common is that they contribute to future production. This may not be obvious in the case of dwellings but, in the national accounts, flats and houses are considered to produce housing services which are consumed by owners or tenants over the life of the building.

    In calculating the shares, gross fixed capital formation and GDP are both valued at current market prices.
  • Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
STAT AMOUNT DATE RANK HISTORY
Evolution of GDP > Real GDP growth 4.52% 1993 7th out of 30
Evolution of GDP > Real GDP growth per million 0.892% 1993 5th out of 30
Household saving > Household net saving rates -2.03468345 2009
Inflation > GDP deflator 2.95% 2009 12th out of 30
Inflation > GDP deflator per million 0.552% 2009 5th out of 30
Investment rates > Gross fixed capital formation > Housing 5.75% 2009 13th out of 27
Investment rates > Gross fixed capital formation > Machinery and equipment 5.36% 2009 25th out of 27
Per capita -8.45 2009 154th out of 163

SOURCES: OECD Country statistical profiles 2009; OECD Country statistical profiles 2009. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

Citation

"Finland Economic growth Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Finland/Economy/Economic-growth