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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan Economy Stats

Overview:

geographically the largest of the former Soviet republics, excluding Russia, possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals, such as uranium, copper, and zinc. It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. In 2002 Kazakhstan became the first country in the former Soviet Union to receive an investment-grade credit rating, and from 2000 through 2007, Kazakhstan's economy grew more than 9% per year. Extractive industries, particularly hydrocarbons and mining, have been the engines of this growth. However, geographic limitations and decaying infrastructure present serious obstacles. Landlocked, with restricted access to the high seas, Kazakhstan relies on its neighbors to export it products, especially oil and gas. Although its Caspian Sea ports and rail lines carrying oil have been upgraded, civil aviation has been neglected. Telecoms are improving, but require considerable investment, as does the information technology base. Supply and distribution of electricity can be erratic. At the end of 2007, global financial markets froze up and the loss of capital inflows to Kazakhstani banks caused a credit crunch. The subsequent and sharp fall of oil and commodity prices in 2008 aggravated the economic situation, and Kazakhstan plunged into recession. While the global financial crisis took a significant toll on Kazakhstan's economy, it has rebounded well. In response to the crisis, Kazakhstan's government devalued the tenge (Kazakhstan's currency) to stabilize market pressures and injected $19 billion in economic stimulus. Rising commodity prices have helped revive Kazakhstan's economy, which registered 7% growth in 2010. Barring a dramatic decline in oil prices, strong growth is expected to continue in 2011. Despite solid macroeconomic indicators, the government realizes that its economy suffers from an overreliance on oil and extractive industries, the so-called "Dutch disease." In response, Kazakhstan has embarked on an ambitious diversification program, aimed at developing targeted sectors like transport, pharmaceuticals, telecommunications, petrochemicals and food processing.

Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Currency > Least valued currency unit > Exchange rate to 1 US dollar: Exchange rate of some of the least valued currencies in the world with regards to the US Dollars, as of Jan 23, 2011.
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
STAT AMOUNT DATE RANK HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $39.19 billion 2013 57th out of 223
Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -2.9% of GDP 2012 95th out of 182
Currency > Least valued currency unit > Exchange rate to 1 US dollar 147.29 2011 15th out of 17
Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 12 CIA 2014 140th out of 153
Exports $86.93 billion 2012 42nd out of 189
GDP $200.48 billion 2012 47th out of 177
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 56.9% 2011 5th out of 7
GDP > Per capita $11,004.30 per capita 2007 72nd out of 183
GDP > Per capita > PPP $13,500.00 2012 70th out of 188
GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $12,111.53 2010 70th out of 181
GDP per capita $11,935.43 2012 52nd out of 177
Gross National Income $20.08 billion 2001 53th out of 158
Inflation rate > Consumer prices 5.1% 2012 74th out of 199
Population below poverty line 5.3% 2011 30th out of 31
Unemployment rate 5.3% 2012 85th out of 112

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Xe Currency Converter; Wikipedia: List of countries by public debt (List) (Public debt , The World Factbook , United States Central Intelligence Agency , accessed on March 21, 2013.); World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011

Citation

"Kazakhstan Economy Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Kazakhstan/Economy

NationMaster

Kazakhstan Economy Profiles (Subcategories)

Adjusted savings 3 International tourism 14
Aid 5 Labor force 3
Balance of payments 34 Long-term debt 4
Bank and trade-related lending 4 Market capitalization of listed companies 4
Budget 10 Merchandise 4
Changes in net 4 Merchandise imports 4
Commercial service 4 Micro 4
Commercial service imports 4 National accounts 97
Companies 39 Natural gas 8
Consumption 12 Net capital account 4
Currency 11 Net current transfers 4
Current account balance 5 Net current transfers from abroad 5
Current transfers 4 Net errors and omissions 4
Debt 70 Net financial flows 20
Economic aid 3 Net income 4
Electricity 8 Net income from abroad 5
Entrepreneurship 12 Net incurrence of liabilities 3
Exports 3 Net trade in goods 4
External balance on goods and services 7 Net trade in goods and services 4
External debt 215 Official development assistance and official aid 4
Final 11 Oil 10
Financial sector 30 Portfolio investment 12
Foreign aid 43 Poverty 23
Foreign direct investment 10 Poverty and inequality 14
GDP 42 Private nonguaranteed debt 4
GDP per capita 4 Public and publicly guaranteed debt service 6
GNI 12 Public and publicly guaranteed (PPG) debt 3
Gold 4 Purchasing power parity 11
Goods 4 Reserves 6
Goods imports 4 Retail 3
Government 13 Royalty and license fees 8
Government debt 8 Savings 42
Government spending 5 Service 4
Gross capital formation 10 Service imports 4
Gross domestic savings 5 Services 10
Gross fixed capital formation 10 Spending 73
Gross national expenditure 9 Stock of direct foreign investment 6
Gross savings 6 Stocks traded 5
Gross value added at factor cost 9 Tax 70
High-technology 4 Total 9
Household final 23 Total debt service 6
IBRD loans and IDA credits 4 Tourism 21
Income 24 Tourism expenditures 5
Income distribution 4 Tourism receipts 5
Income payments 4 Tourist arrivals by region of origin 8
Income receipts 4 Trade 1427
Inequality 8 Trademark applications 4
Inflation 9 Use of IMF credit 4
Innovation 25 Welfare 5
Interest payments 3
  • Kazakhstan ranked third for GDP amongst Landlocked countries in 2012.
  • Kazakhstan ranked first for balance of payments > capital and financial account > foreign direct investment > net inflows > boP > current US amongst Muslim countries in 2009.
  • Kazakhstan ranked first for GDP per capita amongst South and Central Asia in 2012.
  • Kazakhstan ranked second for exports amongst Former Soviet republics in 2012.
  • Kazakhstan ranked #7 for GDP > composition by sector > industry amongst Cold countries in 2012.