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Tajikistan

Tajikistan Economy Stats

Overview:

Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, as many as a million Tajik citizens work abroad, almost all of them in Russia, supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, and its production is closely monitored, and in many cases controlled, by the government. In the wake of the National Bank of Tajikistan's admission in December 2007 that it had improperly lent money to investors in the cotton sector, the IMF canceled its program in Tajikistan. A reform agenda is underway, according to which over half a billion dollars in farmer debt is being forgiven, and IMF assistance has been reinstated. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002, including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Electricity output expanded with the completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - finished in 2009 with Russian investment. The smaller Sangtuda-2, built with Iranian investment, is scheduled for completion in 2012. The government of Tajikistan is pinning major hopes on the massive Roghun dam which, if finished according to Tajik plans, will be the tallest dam in the world. The World Bank has agreed to fund technical, economic, social, and environmental feasibility studies for Roghun. Favorable reports from these studies could create investor interest in the project, which is currently moving forward with domestic funding. In January 2010, the government began selling shares in Roghun to its population, ultimately raising over $180 million. According to numerous reports, many Tajik individuals and businesses were forced to buy shares. The coerced share sales finally ended in mid-2010 under intense criticism from donors, particularly the IMF. Tajikistan has received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and electricity transmission. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 linking Tajikistan with Afghanistan. While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, more than half of the population continues to live in poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped below 8% in 2005-08, as the effects of higher oil prices and then the international financial crisis began to register - mainly in the form of lower prices for key export commodities and lower remittances from Tajiks working abroad.

Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
STAT AMOUNT DATE RANK HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $2.11 billion 2013 137th out of 223
Budget surplus > + or deficit > - 1.4% of GDP 2012 26th out of 182
Exports $826.60 million 2012 154th out of 189
Exports per capita $103.21 2012 168th out of 189
GDP $6.99 billion 2012 135th out of 177
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 49.3% 2012 135th out of 189
GDP > Per capita $2,123.86 per capita 2010 87th out of 118
GDP > Per capita > PPP $2,200.00 2012 149th out of 188
GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $1,915.48 2010 145th out of 181
GDP per capita $872.34 2012 149th out of 177
Gross National Income $1.10 billion 2001 125th out of 158
Inflation rate > Consumer prices 5.8% 2012 64th out of 199
Population below poverty line 39.6% 2012 4th out of 17
Tourist arrivals > Per capita 0.64 per 1,000 people 2001 167th out of 167
Unemployment rate 2.5% 2012 107th out of 112

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Tourism Organisation, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics and data files.

Citation

"Tajikistan Economy Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Tajikistan/Economy

NationMaster

Tajikistan Economy Profiles (Subcategories)

Adjusted savings 3 International tourism 9
Aid 5 Labor force 3
Balance of payments 34 Long-term debt 4
Bank and trade-related lending 4 Merchandise 4
Budget 15 Merchandise imports 4
Changes in net 4 Micro 4
Commercial service 4 National accounts 100
Commercial service imports 4 Natural gas 8
Companies 27 Net capital account 4
Currency 11 Net current transfers 4
Current account balance 5 Net current transfers from abroad 6
Current transfers 4 Net errors and omissions 4
Debt 95 Net financial flows 24
Economic aid 3 Net income 4
Electricity 8 Net income from abroad 6
Exports 3 Net incurrence of liabilities 3
External balance on goods and services 7 Net trade in goods 4
External debt 215 Net trade in goods and services 4
Final 20 Official development assistance and official aid 4
Financial sector 24 Oil 10
Foreign aid 43 Portfolio investment 8
Foreign direct investment 9 Poverty 17
GDP 42 Poverty and inequality 16
GDP per capita 4 Private nonguaranteed debt 4
GNI 12 Public and publicly guaranteed debt service 6
Goods 4 Public and publicly guaranteed (PPG) debt 3
Goods imports 4 Purchasing power parity 11
Government 7 Reserves 6
Government debt 8 Retail 3
Government spending 5 Royalty and license fees 8
Gross capital formation 10 Savings 44
Gross domestic savings 6 Service 4
Gross fixed capital formation 10 Service imports 4
Gross national expenditure 9 Services 10
Gross savings 6 Spending 73
Gross value added at factor cost 9 Stock of direct foreign investment 4
High-technology 4 Tax 71
Household final 23 Total 9
IBRD loans and IDA credits 4 Total debt service 6
Income 24 Tourism 21
Income distribution 4 Tourism expenditures 5
Income payments 4 Tourism receipts 5
Income receipts 4 Tourist arrivals by region of origin 7
Inequality 8 Trade 707
Inflation 7 Trademark applications 4
Innovation 17 Use of IMF credit 4
Interest payments 3 Welfare 5
  • Tajikistan ranked first for tax > tax payments > number amongst Muslim countries in 2013.
  • Tajikistan ranked first for GDP > composition, by end use > household consumption amongst Landlocked countries in 2013.
  • Tajikistan ranked first for inflation amongst Cold countries in 2009.
  • Tajikistan ranked second last for GDP amongst Former Soviet republics in 2012.
  • Tajikistan has ranked last for spending > general government final consumption expenditure > constant LCU since 1996.
  • Tajikistan has ranked last for tax > taxes on income, profits and capital gains > current LCU per capita since 1998.