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Education > Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million: Countries Compared

DEFINITION: Research and development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.

CONTENTS

# COUNTRY AMOUNT DATE GRAPH
1 Iceland 8.7% 2009
2 Luxembourg 3.29% 2009
3 Finland 0.639% 2009
High income OECD countries average (profile) 0.598% 2009
4 Denmark 0.46% 2009
5 Sweden 0.39% 2009
6 Switzerland 0.374% 2009
7 Norway 0.325% 2009
8 Ireland 0.318% 2009
9 Austria 0.317% 2009
10 New Zealand 0.269% 2009
11 Belgium 0.175% 2009
12 Czech Republic 0.146% 2009
13 Portugal 0.111% 2009
14 Netherlands 0.105% 2009
15 Hungary 0.0968% 2009
16 Australia 0.0923% 2009
17 Slovakia 0.0867% 2009
18 South Korea 0.0606% 2009
19 Canada 0.056% 2009
20 Greece 0.0505% 2009
21 France 0.0321% 2009
22 Germany 0.0309% 2009
Group of 7 countries (G7) average (profile) 0.0286% 2009
23 United Kingdom 0.0285% 2009
24 Japan 0.026% 2009
25 Spain 0.0244% 2009
26 Italy 0.0181% 2009
27 Poland 0.0149% 2009
28 United States 0.00874% 2009
29 Turkey 0.00828% 2009
30 Mexico 0.00395% 2009

Citation

"Countries Compared by Education > Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million. International Statistics at NationMaster.com", OECD Country statistical profiles 2009. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database. Aggregates compiled by NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Education/Research-and-Development/RandD/Expenditure-on-RandD/Gross-domestic-expenditure-on-RandD-per-million

Education > Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million: Countries Compared Map

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