Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states combined, largely due to the country's vast natural resources and a recent history of political stability. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; achieving a sustainable economic growth; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's competitiveness; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
What was the total expenditure for education in 2004 or 2003, expressed as a percentage of the GDP of that year?
Suchita Vemuri Staff Editor 28th April 2005
Hi David, see: http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Kazakhstan as well as the links from that page.
Steven Colosi 18th November 2004
This definition is bogus from Merriam-Webster
4 : a member of one of the Latin peoples; specifically : a native or inhabitant of Latin America
However, I wouldn't trust Webster anyway after they put that Estonia was a former country of Western Europe.