United Kingdom is joining the healthcare systems of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland all under one umbrella through the National Health Services (NHS). The obligatory national insurance enables everyone to receive a free service at the point of care, with private insurance available if deluxe services are wanted. What is surprising about this system is its surprising efficiency and short waiting times, given the relatively low funding (only 9.32% of GDP in 2011, compared to 17.85% in United States and 11.63% in France) and one of the lowest numbers of physicians per 1.000 people in European Union (only 2.2). However, United Kingdom is grappling with a number of health concerns at the population level: first, the proportion of obese people is rising and showing no signs of stopping at 23% in 2003, bested only by United States and Mexico in the world. Second, the traditionally unhealthy diet (represented by the meal of Fish’N’Chips) was made even worse with increasingly sedentary lifestyle of the past few decades, culminating in high mortality from cardiovascular disease (32% of total deaths in 2012, compared to 25% of total deaths in France). The second cause for concern is decreasing immunization rates, for example the national immunization rate for measles in 2009 was 86%, and in some areas as low as 70% (immunization rate necessary to prevent outbreaks is 95%). This is the consequence of a health scare, when mumps/measles/rubella vaccine was falsely accused of causing autism and many parents withdrew from the compulsory vaccination program.
- Access to sanitation: The percentage of the total population with access to sanitation facilities
- Births by caesarean section: Number of births by caesarean section per 1000 live births (year 2000).
- Daily smokers: Data on tobacco consumption - this is a percentage of the total population who smoke at least one cigarette a day.(Data for Portugal and Austria is from 2002. All other data is from 2003).
- Death from cancer: Cancer death incidence (per 100 000 population) for year 2000.
- Dependency ratio per 100: Dependency ratio (per 100), 2003
- Drug access: Population with access to essential drugs 2000. The data on access to essential drugs are based on statistical estimates received from World Health Organization (WHO) country and regional offices and regional advisers and through the World Drug Situation Survey carried out in 1998-99. These estimates represent the best information available to the WHO Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy to date and are currently being validated by WHO member states. The department assigns the estimates to four groupings: very low access (0-49%), low access (50-79%), medium access (80-94%) and good access (95-100%). These groupings, used here in presenting the data, are often employed by the WHO in interpreting the data, as the actual estimates may suggest a higher level of accuracy than the data afford. b.
- HIV AIDS > Deaths: An estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.
- Heart disease deaths: Heart disease deaths per 100000 population (1995-1998)
- Infant mortality rate > Total: This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.
- Maternal mortality: Maternal mortality reported per 100,000 births 1985-1999. The maternal mortality data are those reported by national authorities. UNICEF and the World Health Organization periodically evaluate these data and make adjustments to account for the well-documented problems of under-reporting and misclassification of maternal deaths and to develop estimates for countries with no data (for details on the most recent estimates see Hill, AbouZahr and Wardlaw 2001). Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
- Obesity: Percentage of total population who have a BMI (body mass index) greater than 30 Kg/sq.meters (Data for Australia, Austria and Portugal is from 2002. All other data is from 2003). Obesity rates are defined as the percentage of the population with a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 30. The BMI is a single number that evaluates an individual's weight status in relation to height (weight/height2, with weight in kilograms and height in metres). For Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, figures are based on health examinations, rather than self-reported information. Obesity estimates derived from health examinations are generally higher and more reliable than those coming from self-reports, because they preclude any misreporting of people's height and weight. However, health examinations are only conducted regularly in a few countries (OECD).
- Obesity in women: Percentage of women who have a BMI (body mass index) greater than 30 Kg/sq.meters (Data for 2002).
- Red Cross donations: Amounts of the contributions to the International Committee of the Red Cross by the Council of Europe member states and states with an observer status in the PACE in the period from 1996 to 2000 (in Swiss Francs)
- Spending > Per person: Spending per capita (PPP) in $US 1998.
- Teen birth rate: Average number of births for every 1,000 girls aged 15 to 19
SOURCES: CIA World Factbook, December 2003; OECD Health Data 2003 and OECD Health Data 2002; OECD Health Data 2005; OECD Health Data 2004; World Health Organization; WHO (World Health Organization). 2001. Correspondence on access to essential drugs. Department of Essential Drugs and Medecines Policy. February. Geneva; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Health Organization; UNICEF (United Nations Children?s Fund). 2002. Official Summary: The State of the World's Children 2002. New York: Oxford University Press.; International Committee of the Red Cross; World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators 2002. CD-ROM. Washington, DC; United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 1994 Revision, 1994
"United Kingdom Health Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/United-Kingdom/Health
"United Kingdom Health Stats, NationMaster." 1960-2011. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/United-Kingdom/Health>.
'United Kingdom Health Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/United-Kingdom/Health> [assessed 1960-2011]
"United Kingdom Health Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1960-2011. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/United-Kingdom/Health>.
"United Kingdom Health Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1960-2011.
"United Kingdom Health Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/United-Kingdom/Health (assessed 1960-2011)
"United Kingdom Health Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/United-Kingdom/Health (last visited 1960-2011)
"United Kingdom Health Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/United-Kingdom/Health (as of 1960-2011)