Mr Grimsson was re-elected president in 2012 for a record fifth term, having first been elected in 1996.
An academic political scientist by profession who studied at the University of Manchester in England, Olafur Ragnar Grimsson was elected to parliament for the left-wing People's Alliance in 1978 and served as finance minister in a coalition government in 1988-1991.
He often speaks out on controversial issues, and his relations with the conservative Independence Party - the dominant party in Icelandic politics until 2009 - has been uneasy.
Mr Grimsson was the first president to use his right to put a bill to a national referendum in 2004, prompting the government to withdraw a proposal that would have set up an official committee to police freedom of speech.
He later used the same power successfully twice - in 2010 and 2011 - to veto a government plan to repay British and Dutch investors over the collapse of the Icelandic banking system.
He has been a vocal critic of the international response to Iceland's financial crisis, and is a campaigner for greater international action on climate change.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
- Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
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- Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
- Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
- Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
- Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
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- Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
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"Iceland Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Iceland/Government
"Iceland Government Stats, NationMaster." 1944-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Iceland/Government>.
'Iceland Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Iceland/Government> [assessed 1944-2014]
"Iceland Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1944-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Iceland/Government>.
"Iceland Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1944-2014.
"Iceland Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Iceland/Government (assessed 1944-2014)
"Iceland Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Iceland/Government (last visited 1944-2014)
"Iceland Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Iceland/Government (as of 1944-2014)