India Environment Stats


With such a dependence on fossil fuels, there can be little surprise that India has its share of pollution problems. In 2003, the country's carbon dioxide emissions were the 5th highest in the world, with just over 1 billion metric tonnes. This was still some way short of the US (5.7 billion), China (3.4 billion), and was just behind Russia (1.5 billion) and Japan (1.2 billion). And while its carbon efficiency rating is 57th in the world, its fresh water pollution rate is just 32nd, with 0.97 tonnes of organic pollutants per cubic metre.


  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Areas under protection: Protected Areas under IUCN management categories I - VI (1992-2003)
  • Biodiversity richness: Caldecott, J.O., M.D. Jenkins, T. Johnson and B. Groombridge. 1994. Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and Endemism. In World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Biodiversity Series No. 3 (N. Mark Collins, ed.) pp. 17. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Known mammal species: Known mammal species (1992-2002).
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Freshwater pollution: Industrial organic pollutants per available freshwater
    Units: Metric Tons of BOD Emissions per Cubic Km of Water
    Units: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants. The data from the World Bank, which represented BOD emissions (kilograms per day) were normalized by the combination of water availability per capita and water inflow availability per capita from the WaterGap2.1 model. In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
Acidification 0.0 2001 84th out of 141
Areas under protection 497 2003 20th out of 146
Biodiversity richness 1 1994 36th out of 53
CFC > Consumption 46,502.3 1997 23th out of 107
CO2 Emissions 1.01 million 2003 5th out of 178
CO2 emissions > Kt 1.27 million kt 2003 4th out of 194
Carbon efficiency 1.39 CO2 emissions/$ GDP 1998 57th out of 141
Current issues deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources 2011
Ecological footprint 1.06 2000 108th out of 141
Endangered species protection 100% 2000 12th out of 141
Known mammal species 390 2002 8th out of 145
Marine fish catch 2.24 million tons 1999 10th out of 139
Protected area 4.8% 1997 80th out of 147
Water > Availability 1.56 thousand cubic metres 1990 93th out of 141
Water > Freshwater pollution 0.97 tons/cubic km 2001 32nd out of 69

SOURCES: Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; World Resources Institute; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; World Development Indicators database; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; FAOSTAT on-line database; Jacaranda Atlas; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001 (for BOD emissions)and Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 (for data on waterquantity). via ciesin.org


"India Environment Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/India/Environment


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