Nicaraguans emigrate primarily to Costa Rica and to a lesser extent the United States. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Political turmoil, civil war, and natural disasters from the 1970s through the 1990s dramatically increased the flow of refugees and permanent migrants seeking jobs, higher wages, and better social and healthcare benefits. Since 2000, Nicaraguan emigration to Costa Rica has slowed and stabilized. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica - about 75% of the foreign population - and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally.
- Age distribution > Population aged 0-14: Percentage of total population aged 0-14.
- Age structure > 0-14 years: The distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.
- Age structure > 65 years and over: The distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest."
- Birth rate: The average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.
- Death rate: The average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.
- Ethnic groups: This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.
- Gender > Female population: Total female population.
- Mother's mean age at first birth: This entry provides the mean (average) age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use – particularly among married and unmarried adolescents, delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.
- Obesity > Adult obesity rate: This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters.
- Population: Population, total refers to the total population.
- Population > Population growth, past and future: Population growth rate (percentage).
- Population growth: Percentage by which country's population either has increased or is estimated to increase. Countries with a decrease in population are signified by a negative percentage. Future estimates are from the UN Population Division.
- Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.
- Population in 2015: (Thousands) Medium-variant projections.
- Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their child-bearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population growth in the country. High rates will also place some limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large numbers of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit the ability of the families to feed and educate their children.
SOURCES: United Nations Population Division. Source tables; CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Population Division; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: http://esa.un.org/unpp
"Nicaragua People Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nicaragua/People
"Nicaragua People Stats, NationMaster." 1950-2100. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nicaragua/People>.
'Nicaragua People Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nicaragua/People> [assessed 1950-2100]
"Nicaragua People Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1950-2100. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nicaragua/People>.
"Nicaragua People Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1950-2100.
"Nicaragua People Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nicaragua/People (assessed 1950-2100)
"Nicaragua People Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nicaragua/People (last visited 1950-2100)
"Nicaragua People Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Nicaragua/People (as of 1950-2100)