Traian Basescu, a former sea captain and mayor of Bucharest, first became president following elections in 2004.
He gained a second endorsement from the electorate in a May 2007 referendum when they rejected an attempt by parliament to impeach him. MPs had decided by a large majority to remove him from office, accusing him of exceeding his constitutional powers.
The attempt to impeach the president followed tension between him and the government of then Prime Minister Calin Tariceanu over the pace of reforms.
Mr Basescu won the December 2009 presidential election by a very narrow majority over the opposition Social Democrats' Mircea Geoana.
Since he came to power, Mr Basescu has drawn international praise for his anti-corruption efforts and for preparing Romania to join the EU.
He has faced frequent challenges to his authority from his opponents in government, and has been suspended from office twice pending efforts to impeach him - in 2007 and July 2012.
In 2005 Mr Basescu started the process of opening the files of the feared communist-era secret police - the Securitate. Researchers cleared him of accusations that he collaborated with the Securitate.
Mr Basescu was 53 at the time of his election. He was transport minister between 1996 and 2000.
His predecessor, Ion Iliescu, had dominated Romanian politics since the fall of communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu in 1989. Under his Social Democrats, Romania entered Nato and moved towards EU membership.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
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"Romania Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Romania/Government
"Romania Government Stats, NationMaster." 1918-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Romania/Government>.
'Romania Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Romania/Government> [assessed 1918-2014]
"Romania Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1918-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Romania/Government>.
"Romania Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1918-2014.
"Romania Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Romania/Government (assessed 1918-2014)
"Romania Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Romania/Government (last visited 1918-2014)
"Romania Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Romania/Government (as of 1918-2014)