Former strongman Manuel Pinto da Costa returned to power in elections in 2011, two decades after losing office.
Mr Pinto da Costa ruled Sao Tome with an iron fist for 15 years after independence from Portugal in 1975, and observers warned his return to power could herald a slide towards authoritarianism.
He lost the presidency after introducing reforms in 1990, including multi-party democracy that saw the election as president of Miguel Trovoada.
Mr Pinto da Costa has a five-year mandate. He worked with Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada whose Democratic Action party won legislative elections in 2012. However, the president dismissed Mr Trovoada and his government in December 2012 following a no-confidence vote in parliament.
Under the democratic constitution adopted in 1990, the president shares power with a government headed by a prime minister, who needs the confidence of parliament to stay in power.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
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- Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
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"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats, NationMaster." 1970-2013. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government>.
'Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government> [assessed 1970-2013]
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1970-2013. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government>.
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1970-2013.
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"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government (last visited 1970-2013)
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government (as of 1970-2013)