Former strongman Manuel Pinto da Costa returned to power in elections in 2011, two decades after losing office.
Mr Pinto da Costa ruled Sao Tome with an iron fist for 15 years after independence from Portugal in 1975, and observers warned his return to power could herald a slide towards authoritarianism.
He lost the presidency after introducing reforms in 1990, including multi-party democracy that saw the election as president of Miguel Trovoada.
Mr Pinto da Costa has a five-year mandate. He worked with Prime Minister Patrice Trovoada whose Democratic Action party won legislative elections in 2012. However, the president dismissed Mr Trovoada and his government in December 2012 following a no-confidence vote in parliament.
Under the democratic constitution adopted in 1990, the president shares power with a government headed by a prime minister, who needs the confidence of parliament to stay in power.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
- Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
- Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
- Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
- Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
- Government corruption rating: Transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector assess the extent to which the executive can be held accountable for its use of funds and for the results of its actions by the electorate and by the legislature and judiciary, and the extent to which public employees within the executive are required to account for administrative decisions, use of resources, and results obtained. The three main dimensions assessed here are the accountability of the executive to oversight institutions and of public employees for their performance, access of civil society to information on public affairs, and state capture by narrow vested interests."
- Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
- Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
- Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
- Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
- Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
- Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
- Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats, NationMaster." 1970-2013. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government>.
'Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government> [assessed 1970-2013]
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1970-2013. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government>.
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1970-2013.
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government (assessed 1970-2013)
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government (last visited 1970-2013)
"Sao Tome and Principe Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Sao-Tome-and-Principe/Government (as of 1970-2013)