Nguyen Tan Dung was elected to the post by parliament in 2006 and re-elected in July 2011, at the recommendation of the Communist Party.
The former Viet Cong communist guerrilla and one-time central bank governor is considered a reformer, but Vietnam - one of the fastest growing countries in Asia - has struggled with economic woes during his tenure.
Correspondents say his record is mixed. He has been a strong supporter of state-owned conglomerates, such as the shipbuilding group Vinashin, which was revealed to be near bankruptcy in 2010 and restructured.
He came under public pressure to resign after several top Vinashin officials were jailed for their roles in the scandal, but he was spared disciplinary action by the Communist Party.
Private economists generally deride his embrace of lumbering state firms, saying the sector warps the competitive environment, saps precious capital needed elsewhere and is a major source of economic inefficiencies.
In June 2013, Mr Dung survived a no-confidence ballot in the national assembly, but with his position weakened after more than 30 per cent of its members voted against him.
Under Nguyen Tan Dung's leadership, international human rights groups accuse Vietnam of taking a tougher stance against political dissidents, including those peacefully expressing their views online. The government does not tolerate any threat to its one-party rule, and people can be jailed for publicly calling for a multiparty system.
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"Vietnam Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Vietnam/Government
"Vietnam Government Stats, NationMaster." 1945-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Vietnam/Government>.
'Vietnam Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Vietnam/Government> [assessed 1945-2014]
"Vietnam Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1945-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Vietnam/Government>.
"Vietnam Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1945-2014.
"Vietnam Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Vietnam/Government (assessed 1945-2014)
"Vietnam Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Vietnam/Government (last visited 1945-2014)
"Vietnam Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Vietnam/Government (as of 1945-2014)