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Country vs country: Australia and Kazakhstan compared: Environment stats

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Definitions

  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution perceptions > Air pollution: Air Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Air quality: Air quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with the quality of air in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution: Drinking Water Pollution and Inaccessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality: Drinking Water Quality and Accessibility. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How do you find quality and the accessibility of drinking water?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Pollution index: Pollution Index is an estimation of the overall pollution in the city. The biggest weight is given to air pollution, than to water pollution/accessibility, two main pollution factors. Small weight is given to other pollution types.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Garbage Disposal. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Water pollution: Water Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Transport CO2 emission index: CO2 Emission Index is an estimation of CO2 consumption due to traffic time. Measurement unit is grams for the return trip. To calculate an average estimation of emission in grams for one way commute to work, divide this value with 2.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction: Garbage Disposal Satisfaction. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with a garbage disposal in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean water: Water Quality. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you concerned with the water pollution in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities: Dirty and Untidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution: Noise and Light Pollution. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.

  • Waste > Local garbage collected: Municipal waste collected.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people: Municipal waste collected. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities: Clean and Tidy. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Do you find city clean and tidy?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.

  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: PM10, country level (micrograms per cubic meter). Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution: Dissatisfaction to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution: Comfortable to Spend Time in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "Are you feeling comfortable to spend time in the city because of the pollution?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.

  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)

  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.

  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.

  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • National parks > Proportion of country area: Country area.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • National parks > Total area: Total area km².

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, urban.
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Proportion of land and marine area under protection: Terrestrial and marine areas protected to total territorial area, percentage.
  • CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution: Quiet and No Problem with Night Lights. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How concerned are you with noise pollution and light during the night in this city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.

  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.

  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • World Heritage Sites (environmental): Natural sites.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Urban SO2 concentration: Urban SO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.

  • Freshwater > Withdrawal per million: . Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, urban.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, rural.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Forest area > Sq. km per 1000: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a countryÂ’s technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country. Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita are calculated using the World Bank's population estimates.
  • Urban NO2 concentration: Urban NO2 concentration
    Units: Micrograms/m3
    Units: The values were originally collected at the city level. Each nation varied in terms of the number of cities reported, so this data should be used with some caution. Within each country the values have been normalized by city population for the year 1995, then added together to obtain the total concentration for the given country.

  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential). Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride."
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Water > Salinisation: Electrical conductivity
    Units: Micro-Siemens/Centimeter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of water bodies; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system.

  • Fertiliser > Consumption: Fertilizer consumption per hectare of arable land
    Units: Hundreds Grams/Hectare of Arable Land
  • Breeding birds threatened: Percentage of breeding birds threatened
    Units: Percent of Breeding Birds
    Units: The number of bird species threatened divided by known bird species in the country, expressed as a percentage.

  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Non-wildness: Percent of land area having very high anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.

  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters: Marine protected areas (% of territorial waters). Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • International agreements > Signed but not ratified: The various international environmental agreements which a country has signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area: Terrestrial protected areas are those officially documented by national authorities.
  • Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area: Marine protected areas are areas of intertidal or subtidal terrain--and overlying water and associated flora and fauna and historical and cultural features--that have been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment.
  • Kyoto Protocol signatories > Signed and ratified > Date: Date different countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol is an international environmental treaty drafted at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1997 in Kyoto Japan. The protocol mandates signatory countries to commit themselves to reducing carbon dioxide emission. At present, there are 37 countries that have signed and ratified the protocol.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2). Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth: Adjusted net national income (annual % growth). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Natural gas rents > % of GDP: Natural gas rents (% of GDP). Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers."
  • Total natural resources rents > % of GDP: Total natural resources rents (% of GDP). Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$: Consumption of fixed capital represents the replacement value of capital used up in the process of production.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI: Mineral depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of minerals extracted. It refers to bauxite, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphate, tin, zinc, gold, and silver."
  • Water > Phosphorus concentration: Phosphorus concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, except where data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.

  • Water > Suspended solids: Suspended solids
    Units: Natural Log of Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. Data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of majorwatersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries. The data in this table was transformed using the natural logarithm.

  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide. This series excludes particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$: Energy depletion is equal to the product of unit resource rents and the physical quantities of energy extracted. It covers crude oil, natural gas, and coal."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI: Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$: Net forest depletion is calculated as the product of unit resource rents and the excess of roundwood harvest over natural growth.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$: Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Particulate emissions damage is calculated as the willingness to pay to avoid mortality attributable to particulate emissions.
  • Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total: Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total: Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use: Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total: Industrial methane emissions are emissions from the handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels."
  • Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent: Methane emissions are those stemming from human activities such as agriculture and from industrial methane production.
  • Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent: Nitrous oxide emissions are emissions from agricultural biomass burning, industrial activities, and livestock management."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from solid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of coal as an energy source.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat: Percentage of country's population that perceives climate change as a threat. Results are from a 2008 Gallop Poll.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).
  • Oil rents > % of GDP: Oil rents (% of GDP). Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date: Signed.
  • Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date: Signature.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of natural gas as an energy source. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million: Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 (thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent). Other greenhouse gas emissions are by-product emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Forest area > % of land area: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI: Adjusted net savings are equal to net national savings plus education expenditure and minus energy depletion, mineral depletion, net forest depletion, and carbon dioxide and particulate emissions damage."
  • Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter: Particulate matter concentrations refer to fine suspended particulates less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) that are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing significant health damage. Data for countries and aggregates for regions and income groups are urban-population weighted PM10 levels in residential areas of cities with more than 100,000 residents. The estimates represent the average annual exposure level of the average urban resident to outdoor particulate matter. The state of a country's technology and pollution controls is an important determinant of particulate matter concentrations."
  • Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for agriculture and industry are total withdrawals for irrigation and livestock production and for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002."
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total: CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total). Carbon dioxide emissions from liquid fuel consumption refer mainly to emissions from use of petroleum-derived fuels as an energy source.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion: CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total fuel combustion). CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction: Dissatisfaction with Green and Parks in the City. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction: Quality of Green and Parks. Based on 0-50 contributions for Albania, Algeria, Argentina and 86 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Canada, China and 9 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Brazil, Bulgaria, Greece and 12 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from January, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How satisfied are you with green and parks in the city?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
STAT Australia Kazakhstan HISTORY
Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 51
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
22
Ranked 45th.
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 55
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
16
Ranked 52nd.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons 241.7
Ranked 9th. 94% more than Kazakhstan
124.84
Ranked 20th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > Million metric tons per million 10.83
Ranked 5th. 44% more than Kazakhstan
7.54
Ranked 11th.

Current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices
Ecological footprint 8.49
Ranked 7th. 91% more than Kazakhstan
4.45
Ranked 38th.
Marine fish catch 134,900 tons
Ranked 49th.
0.0
Ranked 106th.
Pollution perceptions > Air pollution 16.32
Ranked 57th.
77.94
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Air quality 83.68
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than Kazakhstan
22.06
Ranked 25th.
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water pollution 15.29
Ranked 54th.
42.65
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Drinking water quality 84.71
Ranked 6th. 48% more than Kazakhstan
57.35
Ranked 21st.
Pollution perceptions > Pollution index 20.52
Ranked 56th.
74.36
Ranked 5th. 4 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Waste management dissatisfaction 15.5
Ranked 58th.
70.83
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Water pollution 23.97
Ranked 55th.
56.94
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Australia
Transport CO2 emission index 4,192.63
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
1,563.33
Ranked 16th.
Proportion of land area under protection 12.85%
Ranked 115th. 4 times more than Kazakhstan
3.32%
Ranked 182nd.

CO2 emissions > Kt 354,054.6 kt
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
159,190.3 kt
Ranked 25th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 373,080.58
Ranked 18th. 50% more than Kazakhstan
248,728.94
Ranked 25th.

Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 80.52 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 5th. 37 times more than Kazakhstan
2.2 km² per 1,000 people
Ranked 109th.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $1.03 trillion
Ranked 14th. 11 times more than Kazakhstan
$93.62 billion
Ranked 54th.

CO2 Emissions per 1000 16.71
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
8.3
Ranked 27th.
Pollution perceptions > Waste management satisfaction 84.5
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
29.17
Ranked 21st.
Pollution perceptions > Clean water 76.03
Ranked 5th. 77% more than Kazakhstan
43.06
Ranked 20th.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 21st. 5% more than Kazakhstan
94.82
Ranked 102nd.

CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 17.82 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 13th. 67% more than Kazakhstan
10.68 kt per 1,000 people
Ranked 23th.

Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 97%
Ranked 5th. 62% more than Kazakhstan
60%
Ranked 69th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 16.91
Ranked 12th. 11% more than Kazakhstan
15.24
Ranked 14th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 16.91
Ranked 12th. 11% more than Kazakhstan
15.24
Ranked 14th.

Pollution perceptions > Dirty, untidy cities 20.59
Ranked 57th.
63.89
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Noise and light pollution 25.74
Ranked 56th.
40.28
Ranked 15th. 56% more than Australia
Water > Percent of water resources used 4.58%
Ranked 79th.
18.59%
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than Australia

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 100
Ranked 23th. 3% more than Kazakhstan
97.29
Ranked 59th.

Water > Severe water stress 8
Ranked 64th.
60.4
Ranked 30th. 8 times more than Australia
Waste > Local garbage collected 8.9 million tonnes
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
3.93 million tonnes
Ranked 30th.

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 46.81
Ranked 50th.
96.75
Ranked 37th. 2 times more than Australia

Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people 447.49 tonnes
Ranked 29th. 83% more than Kazakhstan
244.09 tonnes
Ranked 55th.

Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 106
Ranked 8th. 7 times more than Kazakhstan
15
Ranked 128th.
Pollution perceptions > Clean, tidy cities 79.41
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
36.11
Ranked 22nd.
SO2 emissions per populated area 2,840 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 18th. 5 times more than Kazakhstan
580 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 70th.
Protected area 7%
Ranked 59th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
2.7%
Ranked 104th.
Pollution > PM10, country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 13.11
Ranked 161st.
18.08
Ranked 137th. 38% more than Australia

Pollution perceptions > Urban discomfort from pollution 13.5
Ranked 56th.
63.24
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than Australia
Pollution perceptions > Urban comfort > Low pollution 86.5
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
36.76
Ranked 24th.
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 17.8 kt
Ranked 11th. 67% more than Kazakhstan
10.68 kt
Ranked 20th.

Endangered species protection 100%
Ranked 18th.
0.0
Ranked 112th.
Water > Availability 27.81 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 19th. 8 times more than Kazakhstan
3.63 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 61st.
Acidification 0.0
Ranked 122nd.
0.0
Ranked 52nd.
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 100
Ranked 22nd. 11% more than Kazakhstan
90.36
Ranked 100th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons per million 0.568
Ranked 33th.
1.35
Ranked 11th. 2 times more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt 199,294.12
Ranked 11th. 52% more than Kazakhstan
131,289.6
Ranked 13th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.47
Ranked 91st.
$3.22
Ranked 5th. 7 times more than Australia

Endangered species > Bird species 49
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
21
Ranked 39th.

Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 54%
Ranked 68th. The same as Kazakhstan
54%
Ranked 63th.
Biodiversity > Number 87.69
Ranked 3rd. 17 times more than Kazakhstan
5.14
Ranked 50th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal 24.06
Ranked 25th.
35
Ranked 19th. 45% more than Australia
Forest area > Sq. km 1.64 million km²
Ranked 6th. 49 times more than Kazakhstan
33,370 km²
Ranked 85th.

NOx emissions per populated area 1 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 21st. 7 times more than Kazakhstan
0.14 thousand metric tons/squ
Ranked 111th.
Marine fish catch per 1000 7.13 tons
Ranked 57th.
0.0
Ranked 106th.
Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 89
Ranked 37th. 5 times more than Kazakhstan
17
Ranked 82nd.
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $46,204.01
Ranked 6th. 8 times more than Kazakhstan
$5,653.60
Ranked 59th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $29,639.38
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than Kazakhstan
$3,042.70
Ranked 32nd.

National parks > Proportion of country area 4.36%
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Kazakhstan
0.7%
Ranked 33th.
National parks > Total area 335,062
Ranked 1st. 18 times more than Kazakhstan
18,876
Ranked 4th.
Carbon efficiency 2.07 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 33th.
4.78 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Australia
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100
Ranked 23th. 2% more than Kazakhstan
97.91
Ranked 47th.

Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban 100
Ranked 30th. 1% more than Kazakhstan
98.68
Ranked 90th.

Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 57
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Kazakhstan
16
Ranked 49th.
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt 60,674.18
Ranked 30th.
67,183.11
Ranked 26th. 11% more than Australia

Proportion of land and marine area under protection 15.05%
Ranked 85th. 5 times more than Kazakhstan
3.32%
Ranked 166th.

CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 PPP $ of GDP 0.65 kg/PPP$
Ranked 32nd.
1.72 kg/PPP$
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Australia

Pollution perceptions > Free of noise and light pollution 74.26
Ranked 4th. 24% more than Kazakhstan
59.72
Ranked 13th.
Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 9,051
Ranked 15th. 15 times more than Kazakhstan
584
Ranked 61st.

Wildness 74%
Ranked 6th. 88% more than Kazakhstan
39.45%
Ranked 29th.
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 10.64 mls/litre
Ranked 11th. 29% more than Kazakhstan
8.27 mls/litre
Ranked 58th.
National parks > Number of parks 685
Ranked 1st. 69 times more than Kazakhstan
10
Ranked 16th.
World Heritage Sites (environmental) 12
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than Kazakhstan
1
Ranked 53th.
Urban SO2 concentration 13.17 micrograms/m3
Ranked 120th.
103.96 micrograms/m3
Ranked 23th. 8 times more than Australia
Freshwater > Withdrawal per million 1.26
Ranked 14th.
2.35
Ranked 3rd. 87% more than Australia
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 373,738.99
Ranked 15th. 64% more than Kazakhstan
227,208.3
Ranked 23th.

Threatened species 483
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than Kazakhstan
41
Ranked 46th.
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban 100
Ranked 25th. 3% more than Kazakhstan
96.75
Ranked 74th.

Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Rural 100%
Ranked 23th. 2% more than Kazakhstan
97.91%
Ranked 47th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > Number 5,485
Ranked 7th. 71 times more than Kazakhstan
77
Ranked 73th.
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 87.69
Ranked 3rd. 17 times more than Kazakhstan
5.14
Ranked 51st.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 4.9
Ranked 25th. 71% more than Kazakhstan
2.87
Ranked 57th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 9.03
Ranked 2nd. 12% more than Kazakhstan
8.04
Ranked 3rd.

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 492
Ranked 17th. 7 times more than Kazakhstan
75.42
Ranked 64th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > Billion cubic meters 23.93
Ranked 29th.
35
Ranked 24th. 46% more than Australia

Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 55
Ranked 39th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
16
Ranked 72nd.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > Current US$ $145.84 billion
Ranked 8th. 48 times more than Kazakhstan
$3.01 billion
Ranked 53th.

Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > Number 384
Ranked 5th.
0.0
Ranked 147th.
Forest area > Sq. km per 1000 80.25 km²
Ranked 5th. 36 times more than Kazakhstan
2.2 km²
Ranked 105th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 17.74
Ranked 11th. 21% more than Kazakhstan
14.67
Ranked 15th.

PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 15.91 mcg/m³
Ranked 163th.
18.8 mcg/m³
Ranked 152nd. 18% more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > Current US$ $198.44 million
Ranked 41st. 55% more than Kazakhstan
$128.15 million
Ranked 48th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.52
Ranked 39th.
$1.43
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Australia

Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita > Cubic meters 22,956.54
Ranked 32nd. 5 times more than Kazakhstan
4,811.79
Ranked 68th.

Urban NO2 concentration 16.47 micrograms/m3
Ranked 134th.
52.39 micrograms/m3
Ranked 66th. 3 times more than Australia
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum per million 4.1
Ranked 32nd. 13 times more than Kazakhstan
0.328
Ranked 95th.

Emissions > Other greenhouse gas emissions > HFC > PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 4,580
Ranked 16th.
0.0
Ranked 87th.

Endangered species > Fish species > Number 84
Ranked 6th. 6 times more than Kazakhstan
13
Ranked 112th.
Water > Salinisation 655.39
Ranked 66th.
823.68
Ranked 53th. 26% more than Australia
Fertiliser > Consumption 392.38 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 86th. 25 times more than Kazakhstan
15.45 hundred grams/hectare
Ranked 132nd.
Breeding birds threatened 4.93%
Ranked 31st. 30% more than Kazakhstan
3.79%
Ranked 52nd.
Threatened species > Mammal 58
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than Kazakhstan
15
Ranked 46th.
Non-wildness 0.48%
Ranked 119th.
0.7%
Ranked 112th. 46% more than Australia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 1.63%
Ranked 80th.
2.36%
Ranked 63th. 45% more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.07% of GNI
Ranked 143th.
0.27% of GNI
Ranked 100th. 4 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.37% of GNI
Ranked 86th.
2.49% of GNI
Ranked 6th. 7 times more than Australia

Marine protected areas > % of territorial waters 28.34%
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
10.52%
Ranked 48th.

International agreements > Signed but not ratified none of the selected agreements Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Biodiversity and protected areas > Terrestrial protected areas > % of total surface area 0.1%
Ranked 188th.
2.8%
Ranked 154th. 28 times more than Australia
Biodiversity and protected areas > Marine protected areas > % of total surface area 70.65%
Ranked 2nd.
0.0
Ranked 139th.
Kyoto Protocol signatories > Signed and ratified > Date 4/29/1998 3/12/1999
Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 per 1000 4.97
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
2.06
Ranked 40th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Domestic 15%
Ranked 62nd. 8 times more than Kazakhstan
2%
Ranked 115th.
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $661.67 billion
Ranked 8th. 13 times more than Kazakhstan
$50.38 billion
Ranked 28th.

Adjusted net national income > Annual % growth 4.94%
Ranked 32nd.
17.16%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > Current US$ $36.45 billion
Ranked 2nd. 17 times more than Kazakhstan
$2.10 billion
Ranked 15th.

Natural gas rents > % of GDP 0.684%
Ranked 34th.
2.46%
Ranked 18th. 4 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 32.86%
Ranked 25th.
46.21%
Ranked 14th. 41% more than Australia

Total natural resources rents > % of GDP 10.74%
Ranked 47th.
38.2%
Ranked 15th. 4 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > % of GNI 14.73%
Ranked 7th. 9% more than Kazakhstan
13.46%
Ranked 33th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Consumption of fixed capital > Current US$ $142.69 billion
Ranked 12th. 9 times more than Kazakhstan
$15.41 billion
Ranked 47th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Mineral depletion > % of GNI 3.76%
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
1.83%
Ranked 20th.

Water > Phosphorus concentration 0.06 mls/litre
Ranked 132nd.
0.47 mls/litre
Ranked 39th. 8 times more than Australia
Water > Suspended solids 7.64 mls/litre
Ranked 10th. 6% more than Kazakhstan
7.22 mls/litre
Ranked 14th.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > % of GNI 4.12%
Ranked 42nd.
31.28%
Ranked 13th. 8 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Excluding particulate emission damage > % of GNI 15.06%
Ranked 31st. 6 times more than Kazakhstan
2.63%
Ranked 87th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Energy depletion > Current US$ $39.90 billion
Ranked 18th. 11% more than Kazakhstan
$35.81 billion
Ranked 21st.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > Current US$ $145.64 billion
Ranked 7th. 51 times more than Kazakhstan
$2.88 billion
Ranked 53th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Carbon dioxide damage > % of GNI 0.29%
Ranked 91st.
1.42%
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > % of GNI 0.0
Ranked 134th.
0.0
Ranked 67th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net forest depletion > Current US$ 0.0
Ranked 143th.
0.0
Ranked 73th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > % of GNI 18.13%
Ranked 37th.
32.75%
Ranked 15th. 81% more than Australia

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Net national savings > Current US$ $175.59 billion
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than Kazakhstan
$37.50 billion
Ranked 26th.

Adjusted savings > Adjusted savings > Particulate emission damage > % of GNI 0.02%
Ranked 141st.
0.11%
Ranked 96th. 6 times more than Australia

Emissions > Agricultural methane emissions > % of total 61.53%
Ranked 37th. 62% more than Kazakhstan
37.92%
Ranked 76th.

Emissions > Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions > % of total 94.88%
Ranked 31st. 5% more than Kazakhstan
90.24%
Ranked 49th.

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.72
Ranked 76th.
$6.29
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than Australia

Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP $0.49
Ranked 39th.
$1.35
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Australia

Emissions > CO2 intensity > Kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use 3.01
Ranked 20th.
3.42
Ranked 6th. 14% more than Australia

Emissions > Industrial methane emissions > % of total 24.59%
Ranked 54th.
49.13%
Ranked 27th. Twice as much as Australia

Emissions > Methane emissions > Kt of CO2 equivalent 116,840
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Kazakhstan
28,270
Ranked 39th.

Emissions > Nitrous oxide emissions > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent 114,500
Ranked 6th. 21 times more than Kazakhstan
5,530
Ranked 75th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Agriculture > % of total freshwater withdrawal 75.26%
Ranked 59th.
81.8%
Ranked 44th. 9% more than Australia

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Domestic > % of total freshwater withdrawal 14.71%
Ranked 72nd. 9 times more than Kazakhstan
1.69%
Ranked 134th.

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Industry > % of total freshwater withdrawal 10.03%
Ranked 64th.
16.51%
Ranked 46th. 65% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > % of total 16.26%
Ranked 73th.
27.01%
Ranked 50th. 66% more than Australia

Freshwater > Withdrawal > Industrial 10%
Ranked 44th.
17%
Ranked 24th. 70% more than Australia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption > % of total 53.42%
Ranked 17th. 1% more than Kazakhstan
52.78%
Ranked 18th.

Pollution > Climate change > Perceived as threat 75%
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
35%
Ranked 93th.
Freshwater > Withdrawal > Agricultural 75%
Ranked 59th.
82%
Ranked 47th. 9% more than Australia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 6.45
Ranked 24th. 17% more than Kazakhstan
5.52
Ranked 27th.

Oil rents > % of GDP 0.823%
Ranked 56th.
27.49%
Ranked 14th. 33 times more than Australia

Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 2.1
Ranked 80th.
5.84
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Australia

Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > Kyoto Protocol sign date 29 April 1998 12 March 1999
Pollution > Greenhouse gas emissions > United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change sign date June 4, 1992 June 8, 1992
Climate change > CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption > Kt per 1000 2.75
Ranked 25th.
4.12
Ranked 17th. 50% more than Australia

Climate change > Other greenhouse gas emissions, HFC, PFC and SF6 > Thousand metric tons of CO2 equivalent per million 410.19
Ranked 11th. 11 times more than Kazakhstan
35.78
Ranked 65th.

Forest area > % of land area 21.31% of land area
Ranked 119th. 17 times more than Kazakhstan
1.24% of land area
Ranked 181st.

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 94,008
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
30,796
Ranked 31st.
Adjusted savings > Adjusted net savings > Including particulate emission damage > % of GNI 15.04%
Ranked 30th. 6 times more than Kazakhstan
2.52%
Ranked 86th.

Emissions > PM10 > Country level > Micrograms per cubic meter 15.39
Ranked 156th.
18.78
Ranked 141st. 22% more than Australia

Freshwater > Annual freshwater withdrawals > Total > % of internal resources 4.86%
Ranked 85th.
46.41%
Ranked 31st. 10 times more than Australia
Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > Kt 108,158.16
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
46,919.26
Ranked 35th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption > % of total 28.99%
Ranked 165th. 54% more than Kazakhstan
18.86%
Ranked 185th.

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > Million metric tons 12.69
Ranked 32nd.
22.4
Ranked 22nd. 77% more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services > % of total fuel combustion 3.2%
Ranked 111th.
9.57%
Ranked 50th. 3 times more than Australia

Climate change > CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total > % of total fuel combustion 60.92%
Ranked 17th. 14% more than Kazakhstan
53.31%
Ranked 31st.

Adjusted net national income > Current US$, % of GDP 74.52%
Ranked 118th. 48% more than Kazakhstan
50.22%
Ranked 146th.

Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$, % of GDP 47.8%
Ranked 60th. 77% more than Kazakhstan
27.03%
Ranked 79th.

Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks dissatisfaction 15.93
Ranked 59th.
31.94
Ranked 18th. Twice as much as Australia
CO2 Emissions 332,377
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
123,686
Ranked 29th.
Pollution perceptions > Green space and parks satisfaction 84.07
Ranked 1st. 24% more than Kazakhstan
68.06
Ranked 10th.

SOURCES: United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; International Energy Agency; International Energy Agency. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; FAOSTAT on-line database; pollution; traffic; United Nations Statistics Division. 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Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, ""Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility"" (2006).; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; United Nations Statistics Division Original html; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the lastwild places on the earth's surface. via ciesin.org; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen,R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; Wikipedia: Table of World Heritage Sites by country (Table of World Heritage Sites); World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-99; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2000; WHO,Air Management Information System-AMIS 2.0, 1998; and Global Urban Observatory, Citibase, 1999. via ciesin.org; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, as compiled by the World Resources Institute, based on data from national authorities, national legislation and international agreements.; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; World Bank staff estimates. The conceptual underpinnings of the savings measure appear in Hamilton and Clemens' ""Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries"" (1999).; Kiran D. Pandey and others' ""The Human Costs of Air Pollution: New Estimates for Developing Countries"" (2006).; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics \xA9 OECD/IEA, http://www.iea.org/stats/index.asp).; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.; World Bank, World Development Indicators 2001. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001. via ciesin.org; 2000 IUCN Red List, and World Resources Institute,World Resources 2000-2001, Washington, DC: WRI, 2000. Original sources: World Conservation Monitoring Center, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and other sources.; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the last wild places on the earth's surface. Accessed via ciesin.org; UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods in Arundhati Kunte and others' ""Estimating National Wealth: Methodology and Results"" (1998).; World Bank national accounts data files.; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's National Accounts Statistics.; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen, R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; World Bank staff estimates based on Samuel Fankhauser's ""Valuing Climate Change: The Economics of the Greenhouse"" (1995).; World Bank staff estimates.; World Resources Institute.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of parties to the Kyoto Protocol (Parties); Wikipedia: List of parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (List of parties) (Parties & Observers , UNFCCC, 1 June 2011); Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication; Kiren Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, Kirk Hamilton, and Katherine Bolt. ""Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot Areas of World Cities: New Estimates Based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS),"" World Bank, Development Research Group and Environment Department (2006).; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. GDP figures sourced from World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute

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"Environment: Australia and Kazakhstan compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Australia/Kazakhstan/Environment

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