Country vs country: Australia and Kazakhstan compared: Environment


  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • CO2 Emissions: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Endangered species protection: Percent of CITES reporting requirements met
    Units: Percent of Requirements Met
    Units: Countries that have not ratified the CITES convention are recorded as having zero percent of their requirements met.
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999: 1999 total CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring. Emissions are expressed in thousand metric tons of carbon (not CO2).
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Threatened species > Mammal: Number of threatened mammal species (1997)
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Wildness: Percent of land area having very low anthropogenic impact
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: Global grids for population (GPW), land use (USGS AVHRR based classification from EROS data center), VMAP roads, VMAP railways, VMAP coastlines, VMAP major rivers and the stable lights data were all scored for "wildness". The scores were aggregated and normalized.
STAT Australia Kazakhstan HISTORY
Acidification 0.0
Ranked 122nd.
Ranked 52nd.

CO2 Emissions 332,377
Ranked 14th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
Ranked 29th.

CO2 emissions > Kt 354,054.6 kt
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than Kazakhstan
159,190.3 kt
Ranked 25th.

Carbon efficiency 2.07 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 33th.
4.78 CO2 emissions/$ GDP
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Australia

Current issues soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources radioactive or toxic chemical sites associated with former defense industries and test ranges scattered throughout the country pose health risks for humans and animals; industrial pollution is severe in some cities; because the two main rivers that flowed into the Aral Sea have been diverted for irrigation, it is drying up and leaving behind a harmful layer of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then picked up by the wind and blown into noxious dust storms; pollution in the Caspian Sea; soil pollution from overuse of agricultural chemicals and salination from poor infrastructure and wasteful irrigation practices

Ecological footprint 8.49
Ranked 7th. 91% more than Kazakhstan
Ranked 38th.

Endangered species protection 100%
Ranked 18th.
Ranked 112th.

Freshwater > Withdrawal 24.06
Ranked 25th.
Ranked 19th. 45% more than Australia

Marine fish catch 134,900 tons
Ranked 49th.
Ranked 106th.

Pollution > Carbon dioxide 1999 94,008
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
Ranked 31st.

Protected area 7%
Ranked 59th. 3 times more than Kazakhstan
Ranked 104th.

Threatened species 483
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than Kazakhstan
Ranked 46th.

Threatened species > Mammal 58
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than Kazakhstan
Ranked 46th.

Water > Availability 27.81 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 19th. 8 times more than Kazakhstan
3.63 thousand cubic metres
Ranked 61st.

Wildness 74%
Ranked 6th. 88% more than Kazakhstan
Ranked 29th.

SOURCES: Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; World Development Indicators database; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Report on National Reports Required Under Article VIII, Paragraph 7(a), of the Convention, Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Gigiri, Kenya, April 2000; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; FAOSTAT on-line database; Gregg Marland, Tom Boden, and Bob Andres, University of North Dakota, via net publication; Jacaranda Atlas; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; Wild Areas Project (WAP), joint Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and CIESIN project to map the lastwild places on the earth's surface. via ciesin.org


"Environment: Australia and Kazakhstan compared", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/compare/Australia/Kazakhstan/Environment

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