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Country vs country: Japan and Luxembourg compared: Economy stats

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Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Gross National Income per capita: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar). The ratio of the PPP conversion factor to the official exchange rate (also referred to as the national price level) makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP: Gross government debt as % of GDP (IMF).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D;, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average: Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average). Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals.
  • Poverty > Poverty by individual and household characteristics > Poverty rate > Children: Group-specific poverty rates are headcounts of how many people of a population group fall below the poverty line, in percentage of the total number in that population group. The poverty line used here is 50% of the median household disposable income, adjusted for household size. Children are persons with less than 18 years of age, working-age people are persons between age 18 and 65 and adults are persons aged 18 and over. A worker is an adult with a non-zero annual earning or self-employment income. In addition to poverty rates, indicators show here include the poverty risk (i.e. the age-specific poverty rate divided by the poverty rate for the entire population, times 100) and the share of various population groups that are counted as poor.

    Income is defined as household disposable income in a particular year. It consists of earnings, self-employment and capital income and public cash transfers; income taxes and social security contributions paid by households are deducted. The income of the household is attributed to each of its members, with an adjustment to reflect differences in needs for households of different sizes (i.e. the needs of a household composed of four people are assumed to be twice as large as those of a person living alone).
  • Size of economy > Share of world GDP : Percent of world GDP (exchange rates).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Tax > Tax rates: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
  • Inflation: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Outbound tourist spending: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations: Exports of Chocolate/cocoa preparations, by country, in thousands USD
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index: Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
    2000 = 100
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100: Real effective exchange rate index (2005 = 100). Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Economic aid > Donor: The net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows.
  • New businesses registered > Number > Per capita: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Currency > Monetary unit: Country currency.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita, PPP (current international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Overall productivity > PPP: Estimates: GDP (PPP) per person employed, US$
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Labor force per thousand people: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. 
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Deposit interest rate: Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
    Additional details:
    • Gibraltar: negligible (2013)


  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty and inequality > Income inequality 1993-2011: Income inequality 1993-2011 (latest available).
  • Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations: Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations). Ease of doing business ranks economies from 1 to 189, with first place being the best. A high ranking (a low numerical rank) means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators.
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • GDP > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Inequality > Gini coefficient > Level: Income is defined as household disposable income in a particular year. It consists of earnings, self-employment and capital income and public cash transfers; income taxes and social security contributions paid by households are deducted. The income of the household is attributed to each of its members, with an adjustment to reflect differences in needs for households of different sizes (i.e. the needs of a household composed of four people are assumed to be twice as large as those of a person living alone).

    Income inequality among individuals is measured here by five indicators. The Gini Coefficient is based on the comparison of cumulative proportions of the population against cumulative proportions of income they receive, and it ranges between 0 in the case of perfect equality and 1 in the case of perfect inequality. The mean log deviation is the average value of the logarithm of the ratio of mean income to the income of each decile. The squared coefficient of variation is the variance of average income of each decile, divided by the square of the average income of the entire population. The P90/P10 ratio is the ratio of the upper bound value of the ninth decile (i.e. the 10% of people with highest income) to that of the first. The P50/P10 ratio is the ratio of median income to the upper bound value of the first decile. The mean log deviation and inter-decile ratios have a lower value of 1 and no upper bound, while the squared coefficient of variation has a lower bound of 0 and upper bound of infinity.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Imports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth: GDP growth (annual %).
  • Tax > Total tax wedge > Single worker: The percentage of gross earnings given up in tax, including any social security contributions. Calculated for a single worker without children, earning 100 % of the average wage. Data for 2001, and only for selected OECD countries.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate: Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits.
  • Oil > Consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Trade > Exports to US: in US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Exports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita (constant LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • International tourism > Number of departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited.
  • GDP > PPP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Oil > Production: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • Labor force > By occupation > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Bank capital to assets ratio: Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets.
  • GDP in 1970: Gross domestic product GDP by exchange rate billion US dollar in 1970.
  • Oil > Exports: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)


  • Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU: GDP per capita (current LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Patents granted: Patents granted to residents per million people 1998.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting."
  • GDP > PPP: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004.
  • Gross savings: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Index of Economic Freedom: IEF 2013.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Taxes > Taxes on the average worker > Taxes on the average worker: The taxes included in the measure are personal income taxes, employees’ social security contributions and employers’ social security contributions. For the few countries that have them, it also includes payroll taxes. The amount of these taxes paid in relation to the employment of one average worker is expressed as a percentage of their labour cost (gross wage plus employers’ social security contributions and payroll tax).

    An average worker is defined as somebody who earns the average income of full-time workers of the country concerned in sectors C-K of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). The average worker is single, meaning that he or she does not receive any tax relief in respect of a spouse, unmarried partner or child.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1980-2000: Gross domestic product GDP growth rate from 1980 to 2000
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Government > Finance minister: The name of each country's finance minister. A finance minister is a cabinet member in charge of overseeing and regulating the economic and monetary activity of a country. Certain countries have different titles for their finance minister, such as the UK's "Chancellor of the Exchequer" or the United States' "Secretary of the Treasury".
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc: Imports of Silver/platinum etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > GDP per capita: What does gross domestic product mean? "Gross" signifies that no deduction has been made for the depreciation of machinery, buildings and other capital products used in production. "Domestic" means that it is production by the resident institutional units of the country. As many products are used to produce other products it is necessary to define production in terms of value added.

    GDP can be measured in three different ways: as output less intermediate consumption (i.e. value added) plus taxes less subsidies on products (such as VAT); as the income earned from production by summing employee compensation, the gross operating surplus of enterprises and government, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises and net taxes on production and imports (VAT, payroll tax, import duties, etc, less subsidies); or as the expenditure on the goods and services produced by summing final consumption expenditures, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports less imports.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • Investment > Foreign investment > Commitment to Development Index (investment): This is a sub-index of the Commitment to Development Index (CDI), which ranks rich countries’ policies is terms of how beneficial they are to the world’s five billion poorest people. The investment sub-index ranks the support each country provides for foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries, such as insurance schemes, guarantees and tax treaties. For further information, please refer to cgdev.org/cdi
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Tax > Components of taxation > Personal income tax: Personal Income tax as a percentage of total tax collected by the country. Data is for 2002.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate: Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Total > Reserves in months of imports: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. This item shows reserves expressed in terms of the number of months of imports of goods and services which could be paid for.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Current international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Deposit interest rate: Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits."
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes local income of resident citizens: Indicates whether or not a tax is levied on income generated within the country by individuals who are both citizens and residents of this country.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes local income of resident foreigners: Indicates whether or not a tax is levied on income generated within the country by resident foreigners
  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Productivity > GDP per hour worked: Figures for 2005. The Conference Board, Labor Productivity and Per Capita Income Levels and the Effects of Working Hours and Labor Utilization, 2009.
  • Economy growth: Measures growth in the economy or ""economy growth"". Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources."
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
  • Tourist departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure."
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures per 1000: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Electricity > Consumption per capita: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Stocks traded > Turnover ratio: Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Tractors: Imports of Tractors, by country, in thousands USD
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Net trade in goods > US$: Net trade in goods is the difference between exports and imports of goods. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Trade in services is not included. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Liquid propane butane: Exports of Liquid propane/butane, by country, in thousands USD
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Companies > Trademark applications, total: Trademark applications, total. Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees.
  • Researchers in RandD > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports from US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > PPP conversion factor, GDP > LCU per international $: PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per international $). Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for GDP.
  • Aid > Untied given: ODA that is untied, million US$.
  • Currency > DEC alternative conversion factor > LCU per US$: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar.
  • International tourism > Expenditures for travel items > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Saving rate: ""Saving rate"" or gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers."
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Business efficiency: Based upon a business efficiency index where '100' represents the highest level of business efficiency.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Sales tax, VAT or GST: VAT / GST / Sales.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    India had range specified: 14.5% - 5.5%

    Uzbekistan had range specified: 0- 20%

  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > Gross domestic product: What does gross domestic product mean? "Gross" signifies that no deduction has been made for the depreciation of machinery, buildings and other capital products used in production. "Domestic" means that it is production by the resident institutional units of the country. As many products are used to produce other products it is necessary to define production in terms of value added.

    GDP can be measured in three different ways: as output less intermediate consumption (i.e. value added) plus taxes less subsidies on products (such as VAT); as the income earned from production by summing employee compensation, the gross operating surplus of enterprises and government, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises and net taxes on production and imports (VAT, payroll tax, import duties, etc, less subsidies); or as the expenditure on the goods and services produced by summing final consumption expenditures, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports less imports.
  • Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU per capita: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Gross savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross savings (current US$). Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: NPISHs final consumption expenditure per capita: Amount of money taken in by households from non-profit institutions serving households. NPISHs have little, if any, government funding and influence. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP (constant 2000 US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered (number). New businesses registered are the number of new limited liability corporations registered in the calendar year.
  • Electricity > Production per capita: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Innovation > Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment): Number of full-time employed researchers in private for-profit enterprises.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Pharmaceuticals excl medicaments: Imports of Pharmaceuticals excl. medicaments, by country, in thousands USD
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: High-technology exports are products with high R&D; intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade balance with US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • GDP > Median household income (PPP): Median Household Income $PPP.
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures for travel items > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures for travel items (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Oil > Imports: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Gross capital formation > Current US$: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Natural gas > Consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
  • Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Corporate tax: Corporate tax.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    Bangladesh had range specified: 45%-0%

    Maldives had range specified: 15%-0%

    Mexico had range specified: 30%-28%

    Spain had range specified: 30%-25%

    Sri Lanka had range specified: 35%-0%

    Switzerland had range specified: 25%-13%

  • Government > Revenue > Tax revenue as percentage of GDP: Heritage Foundation (2012).
  • Summary: Country economy.
  • Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Oil > Production per thousand people: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Veneer plywood etc: Imports of Veneer/plywood/etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Foreign direct investment > FDI > FDI flows and stocks > Inward FDI stocks: Foreign direct investment is defined as investment by a resident entity in one economy with the objective of obtaining a lasting interest in an enterprise resident in another economy. The lasting interest means the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise and a significant degree of influence by the direct investor on the management of the direct investment enterprise. The ownership of at least 10% of the voting power, representing the influence by the investor, is the basic criterion used. Hence, control by the foreign investor is not required.

    Inward stocks are the direct investments held by non-residents in the reporting economy; outward stocks are the investments of the reporting economy held abroad.

    The stock tables also show the distribution of stocks according to broad sectors of the industry, namely manufacturing and services.

    Negative flows may generally indicate disinvestments or the impact of substantial reimbursements of inter-company loans.
  • Oil > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Innovation > Military expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditure (current LCU). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services: Exports of goods and services as a % of GDP, 2000
  • Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU: Social contributions (current LCU). Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments.
  • Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption: Percentage of country's total income or consumption that belongs to the poorest 5% of its citizens.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Bank liquid > Reserves to bank assets ratio: Ratio of bank liquid reserves to bank assets is the ratio of domestic currency holdings and deposits with the monetary authorities to claims on other governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, the private sector, and other banking institutions.
  • Gross National Income > Constant LCU: Gross national income is derived as the sum of GNP and the terms of trade adjustment. Data are in constant local currency.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Inflation > Duration 1990-2000: Average annual change in consumer price index (%) 1990 - 2000
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1975-2000: GDP per capita annual growth rate (%) from 1975 to 2000
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics: Exports of Perfume/toilet/cosmetics, by country, in thousands USD
  • Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Health expenditure per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in international dollars converted using 2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) rates.
  • Purchasing power parity > Household final > Consumption expenditure > PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates."
  • Innovation > Research and development personnel > By sector > Government sector (full time employment) per million people: Number of full-time employed researchers in the government sector. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Wood simply worked: Exports of Wood simply worked, by country, in thousands USD
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Milk products excl butter cheese: Exports of Milk products excl. butter/cheese, by country, in thousands USD
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Innovation > Scientific and technical journal articles per million: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Financial sector > Assets > Bank capital to assets ratio: Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets."
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit is the sum of net credit to the nonfinancial public sector, credit to the private sector, and other accounts. Data are in current local currency.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Gross national expenditure > Current US$: Gross national expenditure (current US$). Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure, etc. > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Final consumption expenditure, etc. (constant 2000 US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Taxes > Total tax revenue > Total tax revenue: Taxes are defined as compulsory, unrequited payments to general government. They are unrequited in the sense that benefits provided by government to taxpayers are not normally in proportion to their payments.

    Taxes on incomes and profits cover taxes levied on the net income or profits (gross income minus allowable tax reliefs) of individuals and enterprises. They also cover taxes levied on the capital gains of individuals and enterprises, and gains from gambling.

    Taxes on goods and services cover all taxes levied on the production, extraction, sale, transfer, leasing or delivery of goods, and the rendering of services, or on the use of goods or permission to use goods or to perform activities. They consist mainly of value added and sales taxes.

    Note that the sum of taxes on goods and services and taxes on income and profits is less than the figure for total tax revenues, which also includes payments by employers and employees made under compulsory social security schemes as well as payroll taxes, taxes related to the ownership and transfer of property, and other taxes.
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • Economic aid > Donor per capita: The net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Export growth: Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments."
  • Oil > Exports per thousand people: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)
    . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.

  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Goods imports > BoP > Current US$: Goods imports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Budget > Expenditures > Capital: This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations per 1000: Exports of Chocolate/cocoa preparations, by country, in thousands USD. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Electricity > Consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Income > PPP conversion factor, private consumption > LCU per international $: PPP conversion factor, private consumption (LCU per international $). Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for private consumption (i.e., household final consumption expenditure).
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor > GDP to market exchange rate ratio: PPP conversion factor (GDP) to market exchange rate ratio. Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. The ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the result obtained by dividing the PPP conversion factor by the market exchange rate. The ratio, also referred to as the national price level, makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • GNI > Current US$: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Services > Etc. > Value added > Current US$: Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home per capita: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > New business density > New registrations per 1,000 people ages 15-64: New business density (new registrations per 1,000 people ages 15-64). New businesses registered are the number of new limited liability corporations registered in the calendar year.
  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Constant 2005 international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Natural gas > Production per capita: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Innovation > Technicians in R&D > Per million people: Technicians in R&D; (per million people). Technicians in R&D; and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D; by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers.
  • Gold > Reserves > Tonnes > December 2010: Gold reserves of different countries as of December 2010. Figures are in tonnes.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Capital per capita: This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Innovation > Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$: International tourism, receipts (current US$). International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Innovation > Military expenditure > Current LCU per capita: Military expenditure (current LCU). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Innovation > Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (Headcounts) per thousand people: Total number of researchers employed by private for-profit enterprises. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU per capita: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Patent applications > Nonresidents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Taxes > Taxes on the average worker > Taxes on the average worker per million: The taxes included in the measure are personal income taxes, employees’ social security contributions and employers’ social security contributions. For the few countries that have them, it also includes payroll taxes. The amount of these taxes paid in relation to the employment of one average worker is expressed as a percentage of their labour cost (gross wage plus employers’ social security contributions and payroll tax).

    An average worker is defined as somebody who earns the average income of full-time workers of the country concerned in sectors C-K of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). The average worker is single, meaning that he or she does not receive any tax relief in respect of a spouse, unmarried partner or child. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Aluminium: Exports of Aluminium, by country, in thousands USD
  • GDP after tax: Gross value added at factor cost (formerly GDP at factor cost) is derived as the sum of the value added in the agriculture, industry and services sectors. If the value added of these sectors is calculated at purchaser values, gross value added at factor cost is derived by subtracting net product taxes from GDP. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Trade > Exports less imports: External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Balance of payments > Financial > Reserves: Changes in net reserves is the net change in a country's holdings of international reserves resulting from transactions on the current, capital, and financial accounts. These include changes in holdings of monetary gold, SDRs, foreign exchange assets, reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, and other claims on nonresidents that are available to the central authority. The measure is net of liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves, and counterpart items for valuation changes and exceptional financing items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ > Per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Per 1,000 people: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Computer equipment: Exports of Computer equipment, by country, in thousands USD
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > Leading export market: Country or customs union which is the main recipient of exports.
  • Public expenditure > Social expenditure > Public social expenditure: Public social expenditure comprises cash benefits, direct "in-kind” provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes. To be considered "social”, benefits have to address one or more social goals. Benefits may be targeted at low-income households, but they may also be for the elderly, disabled, sick, unemployed, or young persons. Programmes regulating the provision of social benefits have to involve: a) redistribution of resources across households, or b) compulsory participation. Social benefits are regarded as public when general government (that is central, state, and local governments, including social security funds) controls relevant financial flows. The expenditures shown here refer only to public social benefits and exclude similar benefits provided by private charities.
  • Intellectual property > Patents in force: No. of Patents in Force.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average: Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Electricity > Production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Purchasing power parity > GNI per capita > PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > Household final > Consumption expenditure > PPP > Current international $: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to current international dollars using purchasing power parity rates."
  • Electricity > Exports per capita: This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Aid > Giving > Commitment to Development Index (aid): Each country's score on the Commitment to Development Index for aid giving. The scores shouldn't be interpreted as the monetary amount of aid given, instead, the scores are general rating of how the country aids development.
  • Economic growth > Evolution of GDP > Real GDP growth: In order to calculate the growth rate of GDP free of the direct effects of inflation, data at fixed, or constant, prices should be used. Price relativities change over time, and the 1993 System of National Accounts recommends that the fixed prices used should be representative of the periods for which the growth rates are calculated, which means that new fixed prices should be introduced frequently, typically every year. The growth rates of GDP between successive periods are linked together to form chain volume indices. All OECD countries derive their "volume" estimates in this way, except for Korea, and Mexico.. These two like many non-OECD countries, only revise their fixed weights every five or ten years. Such practices tend to lead to biased growth rates, usually upward.

    The growth rates for OECD total are averages of the growth rates of individual countries weighted by the relative size of each country’s GDP in US dollars. Conversion to US dollars is done using purchasing power parities so that each country is weighted by the relative size of its real GDP.
  • Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum: US imports of bauxite and aluminum, USD Thousands, 2004
  • Trade > Exports > Primary: Primary exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
STAT Japan Luxembourg HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $1.99 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 83 times more than Luxembourg
$24.07 billion
Ranked 65th.

Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 214.3 CIA
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than Luxembourg
18.4 CIA
Ranked 130th.
Overview In the years following World War II, government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of GDP) helped Japan develop a technologically advanced economy. Two notable characteristics of the post-war economy were the close interlocking structures of manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors, known as keiretsu, and the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding under the dual pressures of global competition and domestic demographic change. Japan's industrial sector is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. A small agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. While self-sufficient in rice production, Japan imports about 60% of its food on a caloric basis. For three decades, overall real economic growth had been spectacular - a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the after effects of inefficient investment and an asset price bubble in the late 1980s that required a protracted period of time for firms to reduce excess debt, capital, and labor. Modest economic growth continued after 2000, but the economy has fallen into recession three times since 2008. A sharp downturn in business investment and global demand for Japan's exports in late 2008 pushed Japan into recession. Government stimulus spending helped the economy recover in late 2009 and 2010, but the economy contracted again in 2011 as the massive 9.0 magnitude earthquake and the ensuing tsunami in March disrupted manufacturing. The economy has largely recovered in the two years since the disaster, but reconstruction in the Tohoku region has been uneven. Newly-elected Prime Minister Shinzo ABE has declared the economy his government's top priority; he has pledged to reconsider his predecessor's plan to permanently close nuclear power plants and is pursuing an economic revitalization agenda of fiscal stimulus and regulatory reform and has said he will press the Bank of Japan to loosen monetary policy. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, Japan in 2012 stood as the fourth-largest economy in the world after second-place China, which surpassed Japan in 2001, and third-place India, which edged out Japan in 2012. The new government will continue a longstanding debate on restructuring the economy and reining in Japan's huge government debt, which exceeds 200% of GDP. Persistent deflation, reliance on exports to drive growth, and an aging and shrinking population are other major long-term challenges for the economy. This small, stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 27% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings, but Luxembourg has lost some of its advantages as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 40% of its labor force. Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic crisis that began in late 2008, but unemployment has trended below the EU average. Following strong expansion from 2004 to 2007, Luxembourg's economy contracted 3.6% in 2009, but rebounded in 2010-11 before slowing again in 2012. The country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks among the highest in the world, and is the highest in the euro zone. Turmoil in the world financial markets and lower global demand during 2008-09 prompted the government to inject capital into the banking sector and implement stimulus measures to boost the economy. Government stimulus measures and support for the banking sector, however, led to a 5% government budget deficit in 2009. Nevertheless, the deficit was cut to 1.1% in 2011 and 0.9% in 2012. Even during the financial crisis and recovery, Luxembourg retained the highest current account surplus as a share of GDP in the euro zone, owing largely to their strength in financial services. Public debt remains among the lowest of the region although it has more than doubled since 2007 as percentage of GDP. Luxembourg's economy, while stabile, grew slowly in 2012 due to ongoing weak growth in the euro area. Authorities have strengthened supervision of domestic banks because of their exposure to the activities of foreign banks.
Exports $776.60 billion
Ranked 4th. 49 times more than Luxembourg
$15.93 billion
Ranked 75th.

GDP $5.96 trillion
Ranked 4th. 104 times more than Luxembourg
$57.12 billion
Ranked 67th.

GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 27.5%
Ranked 98th. 2 times more than Luxembourg
13.6%
Ranked 192nd.

GDP > Per capita $33,523.37 per capita
Ranked 25th.
$81,278.63 per capita
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

GDP > Per capita > PPP $35,900.00
Ranked 22nd.
$78,000.00
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than Japan

GDP > Purchasing power parity $4.58 trillion
Ranked 4th. 109 times more than Luxembourg
$41.86 billion
Ranked 95th.

GDP > Real growth rate 2%
Ranked 119th. 7 times more than Luxembourg
0.3%
Ranked 150th.

GDP per capita $46,720.36
Ranked 12th.
$107,475.95
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

Gross National Income $4.52 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 257 times more than Luxembourg
$17.57 billion
Ranked 61st.
Public debt 219.1% of GDP
Ranked 2nd. 11 times more than Luxembourg
20.8% of GDP
Ranked 127th.

Tourist arrivals 8.35 million
Ranked 26th. 10 times more than Luxembourg
879,000
Ranked 88th.

Unemployment rate 4.4%
Ranked 94th.
6.1%
Ranked 71st. 39% more than Japan

Fiscal year 1 calendar year
Inflation rate > Consumer prices 0.0
Ranked 196th.
2.7%
Ranked 133th.

Human Development Index 0.943
Ranked 11th.
0.949
Ranked 5th. 1% more than Japan
Exports per capita $6,088.04
Ranked 44th.
$29,975.11
Ranked 9th. 5 times more than Japan

Inequality > GINI index 24.85
Ranked 30th.
30.76
Ranked 31st. 24% more than Japan
Economic freedom 71.8
Ranked 24th.
74.2
Ranked 15th. 3% more than Japan

GDP > Composition by sector > Services 71.4%
Ranked 36th.
86%
Ranked 1st. 20% more than Japan

Industries among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism
GINI index 24.85
Ranked 31st.
30.76
Ranked 31st. 24% more than Japan
GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 1.2%
Ranked 190th. 3 times more than Luxembourg
0.4%
Ranked 207th.

Debt > External $3.02 trillion
Ranked 5th. 14% more than Luxembourg
$2.64 trillion
Ranked 6th.

Gross National Income per capita $35,548.84
Ranked 4th.
$39,796.16
Ranked 1st. 12% more than Japan
Exports > Commodities motor vehicles 13.6%; semiconductors 6.2%; iron and steel products 5.5%; auto parts 4.6%; plastic materials 3.5%; power generating machinery 3.5% machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $34,036.75
Ranked 23th.
$80,500.56
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

Distribution of family income > Gini index 37.6
Ranked 6th. 45% more than Luxembourg
26
Ranked 42nd.

Imports $830.10 billion
Ranked 4th. 35 times more than Luxembourg
$23.78 billion
Ranked 69th.

Tourist arrivals > Per capita 65.61 per 1,000 people
Ranked 110th.
1,808.62 per 1,000 people
Ranked 21st. 28 times more than Japan

Exports > Main exports Vehicles, computer parts, chemicals, scientific instruments and watches Steel products, chemicals, rubber products
Budget > Expenditures $2.58 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 105 times more than Luxembourg
$24.53 billion
Ranked 67th.

Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -10% of GDP
Ranked 171st. 13 times more than Luxembourg
-0.8% of GDP
Ranked 50th.

GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $0.28
Ranked 126th.
$146.77
Ranked 7th. 522 times more than Japan

Imports per capita $6,507.45
Ranked 52nd.
$44,746.27
Ranked 3rd. 7 times more than Japan

Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio 1.13
Ranked 13th.
1.33
Ranked 5th. 18% more than Japan

Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP 237.92 IMF
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than Luxembourg
21.14 IMF
Ranked 145th.
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 72.8%
Ranked 34th.
86.1%
Ranked 6th. 18% more than Japan
Development > Human Development Index 0.912
Ranked 10th. 4% more than Luxembourg
0.875
Ranked 27th.

Agriculture > Products rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; pork, poultry, dairy products, eggs; fish grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products
Central bank discount rate 0.1%
Ranked 51st.
1.5%
Ranked 45th. 15 times more than Japan

World trade > Exports 636.14 billion
Ranked 5th. 7 times more than Luxembourg
88.59 billion
Ranked 31st.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 3.43$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 104th.
115.59$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 19th. 34 times more than Japan

Technology index 5.68
Ranked 5th. 33% more than Luxembourg
4.28
Ranked 40th.
Labor force 65
Ranked 53th.
208
Ranked 30th. 3 times more than Japan

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average $79.79
Ranked 59th. 2 times more than Luxembourg
$36.30
Ranked 75th.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $7,467.28
Ranked 8th. 15 times more than Luxembourg
$491.29
Ranked 76th.

GNI per capita $44,900.00
Ranked 17th.
$77,390.00
Ranked 6th. 72% more than Japan
Exchange rates yen (JPY) per US dollar -<br />79.79 (2012 est.)<br />79.81 (2011 est.)<br />87.78 (2010 est.)<br />93.57 (2009)<br />103.58 (2008) euros (EUR) per US dollar -<br />0.78 (2012 est.)<br />0.72 (2011 est.)<br />0.76 (2010 est.)<br />0.72 (2009 est.)<br />0.68 (2008 est.)
Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate 50%
Ranked 6th. 28% more than Luxembourg
38.95%
Ranked 26th.

Poverty > Poverty by individual and household characteristics > Poverty rate > Children 13.69%
Ranked 12th. 10% more than Luxembourg
12.39%
Ranked 14th.
Size of economy > Share of world GDP 14.84%
Ranked 2nd. 247 times more than Luxembourg
0.06%
Ranked 71st.
Current account balance $60.80 billion
Ranked 11th. 19 times more than Luxembourg
$3.27 billion
Ranked 31st.

Tax > Tax rates 20.72
Ranked 33th.
37.31
Ranked 22nd. 80% more than Japan

Budget > Revenues > Per capita $11,472.65 per capita
Ranked 23th.
$41,585.34 per capita
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Japan

Consumer price index 97.83%
Ranked 156th.
112.05%
Ranked 117th. 15% more than Japan

Budget > Revenues per capita $12,852.05
Ranked 19th.
$41,187.25
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Japan

GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 39,075.31 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 3rd.
52,182.86 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 34% more than Japan

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita 8,829.9$
Ranked 13th.
34,282.48$
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than Japan

GDP per capita > Constant LCU 4210971 56639.28
Imports > Commodities petroleum 15.5%; liquid natural gas 5.7%; clothing 3.9%; semiconductors 3.5%; coal 3.5%; audio and visual apparatus 2.7% minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
GDP per person 39,738.13
Ranked 18th.
105,043.65
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals 6.22 million
Ranked 41st. 7 times more than Luxembourg
871,000
Ranked 95th.

Consumer spending 59.59
Ranked 83th. 79% more than Luxembourg
33.35
Ranked 124th.

Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU 893.37 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 124478 times more than Luxembourg
7.18 billion
Ranked 54th.

Inflation 100.31
Ranked 162nd.
109.01
Ranked 145th. 9% more than Japan

GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $42,298.79
Ranked 16th.
$103,421.82
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

GNI > Current US$ per capita 36,325.89$
Ranked 13th.
63,076.07$
Ranked 1st. 74% more than Japan

Outbound tourist spending 38.98 billion
Ranked 7th. 10 times more than Luxembourg
3.84 billion
Ranked 44th.

Trade > Exports per capita $6,003.90
Ranked 39th.
$35,151.19
Ranked 3rd. 6 times more than Japan

Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations 22,535
Ranked 35th. 3 times more than Luxembourg
6,520
Ranked 44th.
Investment > Gross fixed 21.1% of GDP
Ranked 81st.
21.3% of GDP
Ranked 79th. 1% more than Japan

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels 824.75 billion
Ranked 2nd. 124 times more than Luxembourg
6.64 billion
Ranked 78th.

GDP > Official exchange rate $5.88 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 104 times more than Luxembourg
$56.37 billion
Ranked 72nd.

International tourism > Number of arrivals 6.73 million
Ranked 28th. 7 times more than Luxembourg
913,000
Ranked 74th.

GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 31,266.74 PPP $
Ranked 18th.
60,228.41 PPP $
Ranked 1st. 93% more than Japan

Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ $1.27 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 1280 times more than Luxembourg
$990.81 million
Ranked 132nd.

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index 79.39%
Ranked 85th.
107.08%
Ranked 44th. 35% more than Japan

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 3,470
Ranked 5th. 120 times more than Luxembourg
29
Ranked 88th.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 1.1%
Ranked 192nd. 4 times more than Luxembourg
0.3%
Ranked 213th.
Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU 23.34 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 4689 times more than Luxembourg
4.98 billion
Ranked 79th.

Commercial bank prime lending rate 1.48%
Ranked 178th.
2.28%
Ranked 183th. 54% more than Japan

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number 5.71 million
Ranked 2nd. 235 times more than Luxembourg
24,334
Ranked 25th.
Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita 25.15 BoP $
Ranked 106th.
236,238.01 BoP $
Ranked 1st. 9393 times more than Japan

Economic growth > Per capita -5.12
Ranked 133th.
-5.84
Ranked 140th. 14% more than Japan

Real interest rate 3.55%
Ranked 82nd.
5.7%
Ranked 112th. 61% more than Japan

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 519.33 trillion
Ranked 4th. 15601 times more than Luxembourg
33.29 billion
Ranked 131st.

Trade > Imports per capita $4,996.45
Ranked 43th.
$46,690.72
Ranked 3rd. 9 times more than Japan

Trade > Exports $765.20 billion
Ranked 4th. 43 times more than Luxembourg
$17.82 billion
Ranked 69th.

Currency yen euro
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 26.1%
Ranked 112th. 93% more than Luxembourg
13.5%
Ranked 195th.
Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100 103.24
Ranked 44th. 3% more than Luxembourg
100.4
Ranked 55th.

Exports > Partners China 18.1%, US 17.8%, South Korea 7.7%, Thailand 5.5%, Hong Kong 5.1% Germany 21.5%, France 15.5%, Belgium 14.5%, UK 5.8%, Italy 5.6%, Switzerland 4.7%
Economic aid > Donor $7.50 billion
Ranked 5th. 26 times more than Luxembourg
$291.00 million
Ranked 22nd.
Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Europe 817,092
Ranked 50th.
840,107
Ranked 49th. 3% more than Japan

New businesses registered > Number > Per capita 1.14 per 1,000 people
Ranked 39th.
5.49 per 1,000 people
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Japan

GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -16.6%
Ranked 3rd.
-142.1%
Ranked 181st. 9 times more than Japan
Industrial > Production growth rate 15.5%
Ranked 8th. 9 times more than Luxembourg
1.7%
Ranked 2nd.

Currency > Monetary unit yen 1 Euro = 100 cents
Labor force > By occupation > Services 69.8%
Ranked 12th.
80.6%
Ranked 1st. 15% more than Japan
Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US $11.83 billion
Ranked 21st.
$194.84 billion
Ranked 2nd. 16 times more than Japan

Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $ $36,300.00
Ranked 18th.
$60,160.00
Ranked 2nd. 66% more than Japan

GDP > CIA Factbook $3.58 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 143 times more than Luxembourg
$25.01 billion
Ranked 95th.

Government spending 912.39 billion
Ranked 3rd. 213 times more than Luxembourg
4.28 billion
Ranked 49th.

Imports > Partners China 21.3%, US 8.8%, Australia 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 6.2%, UAE 5%, South Korea 4.6%, Qatar 4% Belgium 30.6%, Germany 23.6%, France 10.4%, US 8.3%, China 7.2%, Netherlands 5.1%
Tax > Tax payments > Number 14
Ranked 128th.
23
Ranked 104th. 64% more than Japan

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 20,612.45$
Ranked 8th.
31,126.63$
Ranked 2nd. 51% more than Japan

Industrial production growth rate 1%
Ranked 116th.
-2.9%
Ranked 152nd.

Overall productivity > PPP $50,593.70
Ranked 22nd.
$89,722.30
Ranked 1st. 77% more than Japan
Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita 6.99 million
Ranked 3rd. 505 times more than Luxembourg
13,845.82
Ranked 42nd.

Labor force per thousand people 0.000511
Ranked 106th.
0.404
Ranked 53th. 791 times more than Japan

GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 60.9%
Ranked 107th. 95% more than Luxembourg
31.2%
Ranked 180th.
Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure 2.73 trillion USD
Ranked 3rd. 150 times more than Luxembourg
18.17 billion USD
Ranked 35th.

International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita 376.46$
Ranked 29th.
6,439.71$
Ranked 1st. 17 times more than Japan

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $1.27 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 1280 times more than Luxembourg
$991.00 million
Ranked 133th.

GNI 5.23 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 141 times more than Luxembourg
37.18 billion
Ranked 70th.

Deposit interest rate 0.27%
Ranked 150th.
3.31%
Ranked 141st. 12 times more than Japan

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita $8,698.60
Ranked 19th.
$52,353.09
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Japan

Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture 3.9%
Ranked 151st. 77% more than Luxembourg
2.2%
Ranked 165th.

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita 182,622.42
Ranked 11th. 19 times more than Luxembourg
9,603.53
Ranked 34th.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ 15.55 billion$
Ranked 10th. 4 times more than Luxembourg
3.88 billion$
Ranked 34th.

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.0487
Ranked 131st.
1.68
Ranked 30th. 35 times more than Japan

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita 21,341.11 USD
Ranked 23th.
34,186.83 USD
Ranked 3rd. 60% more than Japan

Poverty and inequality > Income inequality 1993-2011 24.85 latest available
Ranked 32nd.
30.76 latest available
Ranked 24th. 24% more than Japan
Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations 27
Ranked 163th.
60
Ranked 129th. 2 times more than Japan

GDP > Current LCU 499733600000000 29324500000
GDP > Per $ GDP $33,523.37 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 25th.
$81,278.63 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

Inequality > Gini coefficient > Level 0.321 Different summary measure
Ranked 11th. 24% more than Luxembourg
0.258 Different summary measure
Ranked 28th.
GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita 28,464.9
Ranked 11th.
33,300.12
Ranked 9th. 17% more than Japan

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita -330.464 BoP $
Ranked 123th.
-15,695.871 BoP $
Ranked 135th. 47 times more than Japan

Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc 6.99 million
Ranked 9th. 6 times more than Luxembourg
1.15 million
Ranked 32nd.
Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth 1.95%
Ranked 116th. 6 times more than Luxembourg
0.313%
Ranked 146th.

Tax > Total tax wedge > Single worker 24.2%
Ranked 26th.
33.9%
Ranked 18th. 40% more than Japan
Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million 27.2
Ranked 35th.
54.57
Ranked 15th. Twice as much as Japan

Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate 1.41%
Ranked 132nd.
1.96%
Ranked 139th. 39% more than Japan

Oil > Consumption 4.45 million bbl/day
Ranked 3rd. 74 times more than Luxembourg
60,500 bbl/day
Ranked 93th.

Trade > Exports to US $28.91 billion
Ranked 4th. 424 times more than Luxembourg
$68.20 million
Ranked 95th.
Trade > Exports > By good > Passenger cars etc 68.39 million
Ranked 2nd. 185 times more than Luxembourg
369,578
Ranked 29th.
Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU 4.07 million
Ranked 10th. 65 times more than Luxembourg
62,639.88
Ranked 76th.

GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita 27,816.88 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 18th.
52,609.41 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 1st. 89% more than Japan

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita 44.71 per 1,000 people
Ranked 10th.
53.68 per 1,000 people
Ranked 8th. 20% more than Japan
Gross domestic savings 1.05 trillion
Ranked 4th. 40 times more than Luxembourg
26.03 billion
Ranked 44th.

International tourism > Number of departures 17.4 million
Ranked 10th. 67 times more than Luxembourg
261,000
Ranked 75th.

GDP > PPP per capita $29,540.20
Ranked 16th.
$67,503.47
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan
GDP > Constant 2000 US$ 4.99 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 2nd. 209 times more than Luxembourg
23.83 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 62nd.

Trade > Imports $636.80 billion
Ranked 4th. 27 times more than Luxembourg
$23.67 billion
Ranked 63th.

Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP $0.14 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 135th.
$0.40 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 51st. 3 times more than Japan

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita 37,069.75$
Ranked 17th.
110,187.18$
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Japan

Oil > Production 131,800 bbl/day
Ranked 47th.
0.0
Ranked 190th.

Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$ $1.23 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 1409 times more than Luxembourg
$871.00 million
Ranked 134th.

Budget > Expenditures per capita $16,947.76
Ranked 17th.
$43,613.51
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan

Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU 53.45 trillion
Ranked 5th. 3243 times more than Luxembourg
16.48 billion
Ranked 85th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 14.7%
Ranked 179th.
171%
Ranked 3rd. 12 times more than Japan
Labor force > By occupation > Industry 26.2%
Ranked 34th. 52% more than Luxembourg
17.2%
Ranked 103th.

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure 3.63 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 205 times more than Luxembourg
17.7 billion
Ranked 96th.

GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $33,523.37 per capita
Ranked 25th.
$81,278.63 per capita
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

Bank capital to assets ratio 4.2%
Ranked 89th.
4.5%
Ranked 73th. 7% more than Japan

GDP in 1970 $206.80
Ranked 2nd. 159 times more than Luxembourg
$1.30
Ranked 25th.
Oil > Exports 366,800 bbl/day
Ranked 35th. 535 times more than Luxembourg
686 bbl/day
Ranked 116th.

Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU 3.73 million
Ranked 19th. 46 times more than Luxembourg
80,757.41
Ranked 83th.

Patents granted 994 per million people
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than Luxembourg
202 per million people
Ranked 7th.
Tourism > International tourism, number of departures 16.99 million
Ranked 12th. 65 times more than Luxembourg
261,000
Ranked 74th.

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita 38,947.7$
Ranked 9th.
57,443.91$
Ranked 1st. 47% more than Japan

New businesses registered > Number 145,151
Ranked 5th. 58 times more than Luxembourg
2,505
Ranked 68th.

GDP > PPP $3.77 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 122 times more than Luxembourg
$30.92 billion
Ranked 87th.
Gross savings 1.19 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 123 times more than Luxembourg
9.68 billion
Ranked 54th.

Index of Economic Freedom 71.8
Ranked 17th.
74.2
Ranked 11th. 3% more than Japan
GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption 20.5%
Ranked 40th. 21% more than Luxembourg
16.9%
Ranked 86th.
Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita 809,587.24 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 6th.
-13,873,245.327 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 137th.

Taxes > Taxes on the average worker > Taxes on the average worker 29.26%
Ranked 24th.
37.54%
Ranked 17th. 28% more than Japan
Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$ $182,062.00
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Luxembourg
$53,358.00
Ranked 34th.

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market 2.72 trillion USD
Ranked 2nd. 123 times more than Luxembourg
22.12 billion USD
Ranked 41st.

Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU 1,187.37 trillion
Ranked 4th. 15941 times more than Luxembourg
74.49 billion
Ranked 103th.

Tax > GDP > Current US$ $5.96 trillion
Ranked 4th. 108 times more than Luxembourg
$55.18 billion
Ranked 68th.

GDP growth > Duration 1980-2000 54%
Ranked 27th.
122%
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Japan
High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita $972,065.32 per 1,000 people
Ranked 21st.
$1.97 million per 1,000 people
Ranked 12th. 2 times more than Japan

Government > Finance minister Tarō Asō Luc Frieden
Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc 1.86 million
Ranked 2nd. 450 times more than Luxembourg
4,139
Ranked 35th.
Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > GDP per capita $33,626.15 US dollars, current price
Ranked 17th.
$79,793.34 US dollars, current price
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan
Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $ $35,177.55
Ranked 24th.
$88,286.00
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ $4.49 trillion
Ranked 5th. 96 times more than Luxembourg
$46.92 billion
Ranked 90th.

Innovation > Patent applications, residents 287,580
Ranked 2nd. 3383 times more than Luxembourg
85
Ranked 62nd.

GDP deflator 92.88
Ranked 169th.
113.36
Ranked 141st. 22% more than Japan

Investment > Foreign investment > Commitment to Development Index (investment) 5.2
Ranked 13th. 24% more than Luxembourg
4.2
Ranked 21st.
Budget > Expenditures > Per capita $12,296.61 per capita
Ranked 22nd.
$44,035.05 per capita
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Japan

GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ 27,816.66 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 18th.
53,582.6 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 1st. 93% more than Japan

Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $222.20 billion
Ranked 25th. 20 times more than Luxembourg
$11.21 billion
Ranked 5th.
Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ $32,452.82
Ranked 22nd.
$83,758.81
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Japan

Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 3,894 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 13th.
7,862.06 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Japan

Tax > Components of taxation > Personal income tax 18.4%
Ranked 22nd. 14% more than Luxembourg
16.2%
Ranked 26th.
Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate 40.69%
Ranked 3rd. 42% more than Luxembourg
28.59%
Ranked 46th.

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ $3.68 trillion
Ranked 4th. 52 times more than Luxembourg
$70.34 billion
Ranked 44th.

Total > Reserves in months of imports 15.74
Ranked 2nd. 525 times more than Luxembourg
0.03
Ranked 133th.

Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Current international $ $4.14 trillion
Ranked 4th. 99 times more than Luxembourg
$41.70 billion
Ranked 83th.

Financial sector > Interest rates > Deposit interest rate 0.59%
Ranked 121st.
3.31%
Ranked 137th. 6 times more than Japan

Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.229$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 64th. 13% more than Luxembourg
0.203$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 87th.

Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes local income of resident citizens yes yes
Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes local income of resident foreigners yes yes
Household spending 2.83 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 281 times more than Luxembourg
10.07 billion
Ranked 64th.

Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$ $142.19 billion
Ranked 3rd. 41 times more than Luxembourg
$3.50 billion
Ranked 28th.

Productivity > GDP per hour worked 42.44
Ranked 16th.
71.95
Ranked 1st. 70% more than Japan
Economy growth -5.23
Ranked 140th. 29% more than Luxembourg
-4.07
Ranked 130th.

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita $35,177.55
Ranked 24th.
$88,286.00
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than Japan

Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $2.16 trillion
Ranked 5th. 176 times more than Luxembourg
$12.30 billion
Ranked 80th.

Tourist departures 15.99 million
Ranked 11th. 61 times more than Luxembourg
261,000
Ranked 70th.

Tourism > International tourism, number of departures per 1000 132.96
Ranked 56th.
591.13
Ranked 24th. 4 times more than Japan

Electricity > Consumption per capita 7,547.92 kWh
Ranked 21st.
13,205.77 kWh
Ranked 7th. 75% more than Japan

Stocks traded > Turnover ratio 118.78%
Ranked 13th. 253 times more than Luxembourg
0.47%
Ranked 103th.

Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita $46,720.36
Ranked 12th.
$103,827.99
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

Trade > Imports > By good > Tractors 147,274
Ranked 15th. 10 times more than Luxembourg
14,411
Ranked 48th.
Household spending per capita 22,172.86
Ranked 2nd. 10% more than Luxembourg
20,235.55
Ranked 4th.

Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Net trade in goods > US$ $43.63 billion
Ranked 8th.
$-4,323,027,098.16
Ranked 115th.

Net income > BoP > Current US$ 103.44 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st.
-6,336,036,000 BoP $
Ranked 122nd.

GDP > CIA Factbook per capita $28,046.16
Ranked 15th.
$55,377.19
Ranked 1st. 97% more than Japan

Trade > Exports > By good > Liquid propane butane 1,368
Ranked 44th. 8 times more than Luxembourg
165
Ranked 56th.
Patent applications > Residents 330,110
Ranked 1st. 6877 times more than Luxembourg
48
Ranked 51st.

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita 6,465.47
Ranked 22nd.
12,490.78
Ranked 4th. 93% more than Japan

Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ 1.05 trillion$
Ranked 2nd. 141 times more than Luxembourg
7.41 billion$
Ranked 58th.

Lending interest rate 1.68%
Ranked 140th.
5.27%
Ranked 145th. 3 times more than Japan

Companies > Trademark applications, total 107,898
Ranked 8th. 79 times more than Luxembourg
1,368
Ranked 45th.

Researchers in RandD > Per million people 5,286.91 per million people
Ranked 4th. 23% more than Luxembourg
4,301.38 per million people
Ranked 8th.

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 1,044.67$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 25th.
1,405.44$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 12th. 35% more than Japan

Market value of publicly traded shares $4.01 trillion
Ranked 1st. 59 times more than Luxembourg
$67.63 billion
Ranked 43th.

Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$ 69.91 billion BoP $
Ranked 5th. 6 times more than Luxembourg
11.53 billion BoP $
Ranked 22nd.

Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ 645.49 billion BoP $
Ranked 6th. 5 times more than Luxembourg
122.43 billion BoP $
Ranked 28th.

Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ 14.65 billion BoP $
Ranked 3rd. 112 times more than Luxembourg
130.3 million BoP $
Ranked 42nd.

Trade > Imports from US $12.55 billion
Ranked 3rd. 198 times more than Luxembourg
$63.40 million
Ranked 79th.
Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $16,940.53
Ranked 13th.
$23,149.48
Ranked 2nd. 37% more than Japan

Income > PPP conversion factor, GDP > LCU per international $ $105.97
Ranked 47th. 116 times more than Luxembourg
$0.91
Ranked 143th.

Aid > Untied given $11,184.52 million
Ranked 2nd. 45 times more than Luxembourg
$247.30 million
Ranked 20th.

Currency > DEC alternative conversion factor > LCU per US$ 110.22 0.8
International tourism > Expenditures for travel items > Current US$ $27.90 billion
Ranked 8th. 7 times more than Luxembourg
$3.84 billion
Ranked 39th.

Saving rate 23.57
Ranked 28th. 27% more than Luxembourg
18.5
Ranked 57th.

Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita 1,104 BoP $
Ranked 25th.
156,149.35 BoP $
Ranked 1st. 141 times more than Japan

Business efficiency 68.65
Ranked 19th.
80.31
Ranked 10th. 17% more than Japan
Stock of domestic credit $13.72 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 141 times more than Luxembourg
$97.39 billion
Ranked 50th.

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 39,075.62 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 3rd.
51,235.09 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 31% more than Japan

Government > Revenue > Tax > Sales tax, VAT or GST 5%
Ranked 63th.
15%
Ranked 19th. 3 times more than Japan
Public institution index 5.88
Ranked 16th.
5.99
Ranked 15th. 2% more than Japan
Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > Gross domestic product $4,295.94 Billion US dollars, curre
Ranked 2nd. 112 times more than Luxembourg
$38.30 Billion US dollars, curre
Ranked 29th.
Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ 9.74 billion BoP $
Ranked 14th. 89% more than Luxembourg
5.14 billion BoP $
Ranked 25th.

Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ -3,520,968,000 BoP $
Ranked 113th.
2.79 billion BoP $
Ranked 6th.

Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU per capita 9.31 million
Ranked 7th. 66 times more than Luxembourg
140,159.71
Ranked 42nd.

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita 21,250.85 USD
Ranked 17th.
42,664.84 USD
Ranked 1st. Twice as much as Japan

Savings > Gross savings > Current US$ per capita $10,078.86
Ranked 13th.
$17,111.68
Ranked 4th. 70% more than Japan

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: NPISHs final consumption expenditure per capita 498.74 USD
Ranked 20th.
2,058.04 USD
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than Japan

Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $36,938.01
Ranked 18th.
$77,898.67
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Japan

Companies > New businesses registered > Number 89,374
Ranked 5th. 35 times more than Luxembourg
2,534
Ranked 64th.

Electricity > Production per capita 7,700.81 kWh
Ranked 18th. 44% more than Luxembourg
5,357.76 kWh
Ranked 33th.

Financial sector > Interest rates > Lending interest rate 1.72%
Ranked 113th.
5.27%
Ranked 140th. 3 times more than Japan

Innovation > Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment) 490,538
Ranked 2nd. 336 times more than Luxembourg
1,460
Ranked 28th.

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ 4.98 trillion$
Ranked 2nd. 189 times more than Luxembourg
26.31 billion$
Ranked 65th.

Trade > Imports > By good > Pharmaceuticals excl medicaments 2.22 million
Ranked 7th. 114 times more than Luxembourg
19,436
Ranked 70th.
High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 27.06$ per $1 million of GDP
Ranked 27th.
33.6$ per $1 million of GDP
Ranked 25th. 24% more than Japan

Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita 1,297.48 BoP $
Ranked 16th.
9,172.92 BoP $
Ranked 3rd. 7 times more than Japan

Trade balance with US $-16,366,600,000.00
Ranked 223th. 3410 times more than Luxembourg
$-4,800,000.00
Ranked 126th.
GDP > Median household income (PPP) $41,263.00
Ranked 16th.
$64,041.00
Ranked 2nd. 55% more than Japan
Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$ 5 trillion$
Ranked 2nd. 20782 times more than Luxembourg
240.47 million$
Ranked 76th.

Tourism > International tourism, expenditures for travel items > Current US$ $27.26 billion
Ranked 10th. 7 times more than Luxembourg
$3.80 billion
Ranked 42nd.

Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$ $39.76 billion
Ranked 8th. 10 times more than Luxembourg
$3.80 billion
Ranked 45th.

Oil > Imports 4.39 million bbl/day
Ranked 3rd. 85 times more than Luxembourg
51,930 bbl/day
Ranked 80th.

Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $31,425.49
Ranked 23th.
$65,736.30
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Japan

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $31,425.49
Ranked 23th.
$65,736.30
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Japan

Gross capital formation > Current US$ 1.04 trillion$
Ranked 2nd. 133 times more than Luxembourg
7.81 billion$
Ranked 58th.

Natural gas > Consumption 100.3 billion cu m
Ranked 5th. 73 times more than Luxembourg
1.37 billion cu m
Ranked 50th.

Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $ 125.09 1.07
Government > Revenue > Tax > Corporate tax 38.01%
Ranked 1st. 36% more than Luxembourg
28%
Ranked 18th.
Government > Revenue > Tax revenue as percentage of GDP 28.3
Ranked 53th.
37.2
Ranked 12th. 31% more than Japan

Summary Japan has the world&#039;s third-largest economy; its multinationals are household names. But a spiralling public debt has hampered competitiveness Financial services and steel production are economic mainstays. Luxembourg is home to the European Investment Bank
Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP 29,692.41
Ranked 20th.
68,853.46
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than Japan

Oil > Production per thousand people 1.03 bbl/day
Ranked 79th.
0.0
Ranked 189th.

Trade > Imports > By good > Veneer plywood etc 2.13 million
Ranked 2nd. 144 times more than Luxembourg
14,798
Ranked 63th.
Financial sector > Interest rates > Real interest rate 2.68%
Ranked 84th.
5.7%
Ranked 106th. 2 times more than Japan

Foreign direct investment > FDI > FDI flows and stocks > Inward FDI stocks $107,634.00 Million US dollars
Ranked 17th. 61% more than Luxembourg
$66,658.00 Million US dollars
Ranked 25th.
Oil > Proved reserves 44.12 million bbl
Ranked 76th.
0.0
Ranked 175th.

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita $28,856.53
Ranked 16th.
$132,354.92
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Japan

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita $28,263.96
Ranked 10th. 130 times more than Luxembourg
$217.32
Ranked 56th.

Innovation > Military expenditure > Current LCU 4.73 trillion
Ranked 7th. 17845 times more than Luxembourg
265 million
Ranked 125th.

Trade > Exports > Goods and services 10%
Ranked 152nd.
120%
Ranked 3rd. 12 times more than Japan
Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU 535.4 billion
Ranked 10th.