In power since 1982, Paul Biya is seen as one of Africa's most entrenched leaders.
Cameroon's parliament in April 2008 passed a controversial amendment to the constitution enabling President Paul Biya to run for a third term of office in 2011.
The veteran politician went on to win a new seven-year term in the October 2011 election, in a vote that international observers said was marred by irregularities.
Mr Biya's opponents rejected the result - which gave him a landslide 78% of the vote - and alleged widespread fraud. Civil society movements accused Mr Biya of having locked down the electoral system to guarantee his return to power.
When Mr Biya first became president in 1982, it was within the context of a single-party system. He accepted the introduction of multi-party politics in the early 1990s and went on to win the 1992 presidential election by a narrow margin.
In the 1997 presidential election, which was boycotted by the main opposition parties, he was re-elected with more than 92% of the vote. At the next election, in 2004, he officially took more than 70% of the vote, though opposition parties alleged widespread fraud.
His party, the Cameroonian People's Democratic Movement (RDPC) has won landslide majorities in every legislative election since 1992.
Before becoming president, Mr Biya spent his entire political career in the service of President Ahmadou Ahidjo, becoming prime minister in 1975.
With Mr Ahidjo's resignation in 1982 he assumed the leadership and set about replacing his predecessor's northern allies with fellow southerners.
In 1983 he accused Mr Ahidjo of organising a coup against him, forcing the former president to flee the country.
Born in 1933, Paul Biya was educated in Cameroon and France, where he studied law at the Sorbonne.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
- Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
- Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
- Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
- Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
- Government corruption rating: Transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector assess the extent to which the executive can be held accountable for its use of funds and for the results of its actions by the electorate and by the legislature and judiciary, and the extent to which public employees within the executive are required to account for administrative decisions, use of resources, and results obtained. The three main dimensions assessed here are the accountability of the executive to oversight institutions and of public employees for their performance, access of civil society to information on public affairs, and state capture by narrow vested interests."
- Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
- International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
- Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
- Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
- Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
- Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
- Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
- Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
"Cameroon Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Cameroon/Government
"Cameroon Government Stats, NationMaster." 1965-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Cameroon/Government>.
'Cameroon Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Cameroon/Government> [assessed 1965-2014]
"Cameroon Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1965-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Cameroon/Government>.
"Cameroon Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1965-2014.
"Cameroon Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Cameroon/Government (assessed 1965-2014)
"Cameroon Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Cameroon/Government (last visited 1965-2014)
"Cameroon Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Cameroon/Government (as of 1965-2014)
Cameroon Government Profiles (Subcategories)
- Cameroon ranked second for time to prepare and pay taxes > hours amongst Hot countries in 2006.
- Cameroon ranked second for procedures to enforce a contract > number amongst Christian countries in 2006.