Ismael Omar Guelleh, known in Djibouti by his initials, IOG, won a second term in a one-man presidential race in 2005 and a third term in April 2011.
Parliament - which does not include any representatives of the opposition - approved an amendment to the constitution in 2010 allowing the president to run for a third term.
The constitutional reforms also cut the presidential mandate to five years from six, and created a senate.
Mr Guelleh succeeded his uncle and Djibouti's first president, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, in April 1999 at the age of 52. He was elected in a multi-party ballot.
Mr Guelleh supports Djibouti's traditionally strong ties with France and has tried to reconcile the different factions in neighbouring Somalia.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
- Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
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- Government corruption rating: Transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector assess the extent to which the executive can be held accountable for its use of funds and for the results of its actions by the electorate and by the legislature and judiciary, and the extent to which public employees within the executive are required to account for administrative decisions, use of resources, and results obtained. The three main dimensions assessed here are the accountability of the executive to oversight institutions and of public employees for their performance, access of civil society to information on public affairs, and state capture by narrow vested interests."
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"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government
"Djibouti Government Stats, NationMaster." 1977-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government>.
'Djibouti Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government> [assessed 1977-2014]
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1977-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government>.
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1977-2014.
"Djibouti Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government (assessed 1977-2014)
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government (last visited 1977-2014)
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government (as of 1977-2014)