Ismael Omar Guelleh, known in Djibouti by his initials, IOG, won a second term in a one-man presidential race in 2005 and a third term in April 2011.
Parliament - which does not include any representatives of the opposition - approved an amendment to the constitution in 2010 allowing the president to run for a third term.
The constitutional reforms also cut the presidential mandate to five years from six, and created a senate.
Mr Guelleh succeeded his uncle and Djibouti's first president, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, in April 1999 at the age of 52. He was elected in a multi-party ballot.
Mr Guelleh supports Djibouti's traditionally strong ties with France and has tried to reconcile the different factions in neighbouring Somalia.
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"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government
"Djibouti Government Stats, NationMaster." 1977-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government>.
'Djibouti Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government> [assessed 1977-2014]
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1977-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government>.
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1977-2014.
"Djibouti Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government (assessed 1977-2014)
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government (last visited 1977-2014)
"Djibouti Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Djibouti/Government (as of 1977-2014)