Vice-President John Dramani Mahama became interim head of state following the death of President John Atta Mills in July 2012.
Mr Mahama won his first full term in office in an extremely tight election a few months later in December, defeating Nana Akufo-Addo of the opposition New Patriotic Party with only 50.7% of the vote to Mr Addo's 47.7%.
The NPP said he had won fraudulently, but its legal challenge to the result was rejected by the supreme court in August 2013.
Several foreign observer teams, including those of the African Union and regional body Ecowas, declared the election free and fair.
His first year as elected president was overshadowed by poor economic news, with sharp rises in inflation and the government deficit.
Mr Mahama is a respected historian, writer and communications specialist. Regarded as a champion of the underprivileged, he has a keen interest in environmental issues, particularly the problem of plastic pollution in Africa. His book, entitled "My First Coup d'Etat" was published in July 2012.
He studied in Ghana and Moscow. Between 1991 and 1995 he worked as an information officer at the Japanese embassy in Accra.
He joined the non-governmental organization PLAN International in 1995.
He was elected as a member of parliament in 1996, and served communications minister between 1998 and 2001.
In opposition from 2005 to 2011, Mr Mahama served as parliamentary spokesman for foreign affairs.
Mr Mahama was born at Bole-Bamboi in the Northern Region in 1958. He is married and has seven children.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
- Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
- Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
- Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
- Executive branch > Head of government: Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government.
- Government corruption rating: Transparency, accountability, and corruption in the public sector assess the extent to which the executive can be held accountable for its use of funds and for the results of its actions by the electorate and by the legislature and judiciary, and the extent to which public employees within the executive are required to account for administrative decisions, use of resources, and results obtained. The three main dimensions assessed here are the accountability of the executive to oversight institutions and of public employees for their performance, access of civil society to information on public affairs, and state capture by narrow vested interests."
- Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
- Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
- Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
- Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
- Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
- Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
- Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
"Ghana Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Ghana/Government
"Ghana Government Stats, NationMaster." 1957-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Ghana/Government>.
'Ghana Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Ghana/Government> [assessed 1957-2014]
"Ghana Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1957-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Ghana/Government>.
"Ghana Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1957-2014.
"Ghana Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Ghana/Government (assessed 1957-2014)
"Ghana Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Ghana/Government (last visited 1957-2014)
"Ghana Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Ghana/Government (as of 1957-2014)