Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, from the Democratic Party, began a second term as president in July 2013. He won just over 50% of the vote.
The veteran democracy campaigner has twice served as prime minister and was first elected president in 2009.
The faltering economy and concerns about the growing role of foreign firms in the mining sector were key campaign issues in the 2013 election.
Mr Elbegdorj's government pursues a "resource nationalist" approach which aims to give Mongolia a bigger say in how its assets are exploited.
Analysts say Mr Elbegdorj enjoys the support of the urban middle class.
The prime minister and parliament exercise real political power, but the president heads the armed forces and has the power of veto in parliament. Frequent changes of government have also enhanced the role of the presidency.
Born in 1963, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj was one of the leaders of the peaceful revolution that ended the Communist dictatorship in 1990. He has a degree from Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government in the US.
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"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government
"Mongolia Government Stats, NationMaster." 1921-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government>.
'Mongolia Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government> [assessed 1921-2014]
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1921-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government>.
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1921-2014.
"Mongolia Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government (assessed 1921-2014)
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government (last visited 1921-2014)
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government (as of 1921-2014)