Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, from the Democratic Party, began a second term as president in July 2013. He won just over 50% of the vote.
The veteran democracy campaigner has twice served as prime minister and was first elected president in 2009.
The faltering economy and concerns about the growing role of foreign firms in the mining sector were key campaign issues in the 2013 election.
Mr Elbegdorj's government pursues a "resource nationalist" approach which aims to give Mongolia a bigger say in how its assets are exploited.
Analysts say Mr Elbegdorj enjoys the support of the urban middle class.
The prime minister and parliament exercise real political power, but the president heads the armed forces and has the power of veto in parliament. Frequent changes of government have also enhanced the role of the presidency.
Born in 1963, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj was one of the leaders of the peaceful revolution that ended the Communist dictatorship in 1990. He has a degree from Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government in the US.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
- Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
- Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
- Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
- Executive branch > Elections: Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election
- Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
- Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. "
- International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
- Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
- Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
- Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
- Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
- Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
- Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government
"Mongolia Government Stats, NationMaster." 1921-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government>.
'Mongolia Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government> [assessed 1921-2014]
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1921-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government>.
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1921-2014.
"Mongolia Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government (assessed 1921-2014)
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government (last visited 1921-2014)
"Mongolia Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Mongolia/Government (as of 1921-2014)