Conservative supermarket magnate Ricardo Martinelli was elected to succeed Martin Torrijos with a landslide victory at the April 2009 presidential election.
Standing for the four-party opposition Alliance for Change, Mr Martinelli gained 61% of the vote, against 37% for Balbina Herrera, the candidate of the governing left-wing Democratic Revolutionary Party.
The result appeared to run counter a wider Latin American trend towards the left.
With Panama's recent rapid rate of economic growth slowing as a result of the global economic slump, Mr Martinelli's business background attracted many voters fearful about job losses.
The previous government was blamed for rising crime and a surge in prices, and Mr Martinelli tapped into feelings that little had been done to spread the wealth created in the economic boom to low-income Panamanians.
Free trade deal
During the campaign, he promised to promote free trade, especially with the US, Panama's biggest trading partner, and to encourage foreign investment.
Days after being elected, Mr Martinelli said one of his priorities would be the ratification of a free trade deal with the US.
Among his proposals were a flat income tax of between 10% and 20% to draw investors to the country, as well as an ambitious public works programme.
He also promised to forge ahead with a $5.25bn expansion plan for the Panama Canal, the country's main engine for economic growth.
Mr Martinelli was born in 1952 in Panama City, and has a degree from the University of Arkansas. Apart from owning the Super 99 supermarket chain, he has interests in several other businesses, including banks and agricultural firms.
He is the leader of the Democratic Change party founded in 1998, and unsuccessfully stood for president in 2004.
- Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.
- Capital city > Geographic coordinates: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Capital city > Name: This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
- Constitution: The dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments to a nation's constitution
- Country name > Conventional long form: This entry is derived from Government > Country name, which includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
- Diplomatic representation from the US > Mailing address: This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
- Executive branch > Cabinet: Cabinet includes the official name for any body of high-ranking advisers roughly comparable to a U.S. Cabinet. Also notes the method for selection of members.
- Government type: A description of the basic form of government (e.g., republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary democracy, military dictatorship).
- International organization participation: This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
- Judicial branch: The name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
- Legal system: A brief description of the legal system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.
- Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
- Political parties and leaders: Significant political organizations and their leaders.
- Political pressure groups and leaders: Organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for legislative election.
- Suffrage: The age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted
"Panama Government Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Panama/Government
"Panama Government Stats, NationMaster." 1903-2014. <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Panama/Government>.
'Panama Government Stats, NationMaster', <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Panama/Government> [assessed 1903-2014]
"Panama Government Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1903-2014. Avaliable from: <http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Panama/Government>.
"Panama Government Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1903-2014.
"Panama Government Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Panama/Government (assessed 1903-2014)
"Panama Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Panama/Government (last visited 1903-2014)
"Panama Government Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Panama/Government (as of 1903-2014)
Panama Government Profiles (Subcategories)