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Country vs country: Canada and United Kingdom compared: Economy stats

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Definitions

  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • Debt > External > Per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • Big Mac Index: Price of a McDonald's Big Mac in US Dollars at current exchange rates. January 12th, 2006.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • Gross National Income per capita: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Population below poverty line > Per capita: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar). The ratio of the PPP conversion factor to the official exchange rate (also referred to as the national price level) makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • Poverty > Poverty by individual and household characteristics > Poverty rate > Children: Group-specific poverty rates are headcounts of how many people of a population group fall below the poverty line, in percentage of the total number in that population group. The poverty line used here is 50% of the median household disposable income, adjusted for household size. Children are persons with less than 18 years of age, working-age people are persons between age 18 and 65 and adults are persons aged 18 and over. A worker is an adult with a non-zero annual earning or self-employment income. In addition to poverty rates, indicators show here include the poverty risk (i.e. the age-specific poverty rate divided by the poverty rate for the entire population, times 100) and the share of various population groups that are counted as poor.

    Income is defined as household disposable income in a particular year. It consists of earnings, self-employment and capital income and public cash transfers; income taxes and social security contributions paid by households are deducted. The income of the household is attributed to each of its members, with an adjustment to reflect differences in needs for households of different sizes (i.e. the needs of a household composed of four people are assumed to be twice as large as those of a person living alone).
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D;, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average: Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average). Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • GNI > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Debt > External per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Outbound tourist spending: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
  • Tax > Tax rates: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita (constant LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index: Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
    2000 = 100
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Deposit interest rate: Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits.
  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Economic aid > Donor: The net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows.
  • Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP: Gross government debt as % of GDP (IMF).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • Technological achievement: Technology Achievement Index
    Units: Score
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • New businesses registered > Number > Per capita: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
    Additional details:
    • Gibraltar: negligible (2013)


  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. 
  • Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% of the population to the average income of the poorest 20% of the population.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita, PPP (current international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • International tourism > Number of departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited.
  • Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate: Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
  • Trade > Exports: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating): Overall rating of each country's adherence to the corporate governance guidelines set forth in three prominent economical essays. The ratings are out of 10, with 10 meaning full adherence.
  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries, and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Debt > External > Per $ GDP: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Plus: Direct purchases abroad by residents: Amount of money country's residents spent while abroad. For instance, American tourists spent a total of $132.4 billion while in foreign countries.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Patents granted: Patents granted to residents per million people 1998.
  • Total > Reserves in months of imports: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. This item shows reserves expressed in terms of the number of months of imports of goods and services which could be paid for.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
  • Investment > External financial assets: Gross financial assets privately owned by residents of the country, mainly in the form of bank deposits, insurances and securities, in EUR.
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 trillion $ gross domestic product.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Net barter terms of trade: Net barter terms of trade are the ratio of the export price index to the corresponding import price index measured relative to the base year 2000.
    2000 = 100
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
  • Overall productivity > PPP: Estimates: GDP (PPP) per person employed, US$
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Inflation: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Business efficiency: Based upon a business efficiency index where '100' represents the highest level of business efficiency.
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Labor force per thousand people: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$: Portfolio investment excluding liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves covers transactions in equity securities and debt securities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate: Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations.
  • Research and development spending: Research and development (R&D;) expenditures for most recent year available between 1990 and 2000.
  • Poverty and inequality > Income inequality 1993-2011: Income inequality 1993-2011 (latest available).
  • Researchers in RandD > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > GDP per capita: What does gross domestic product mean? "Gross" signifies that no deduction has been made for the depreciation of machinery, buildings and other capital products used in production. "Domestic" means that it is production by the resident institutional units of the country. As many products are used to produce other products it is necessary to define production in terms of value added.

    GDP can be measured in three different ways: as output less intermediate consumption (i.e. value added) plus taxes less subsidies on products (such as VAT); as the income earned from production by summing employee compensation, the gross operating surplus of enterprises and government, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises and net taxes on production and imports (VAT, payroll tax, import duties, etc, less subsidies); or as the expenditure on the goods and services produced by summing final consumption expenditures, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports less imports.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars.
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Debt > Government debt > Net government debt, share of GDP: Net government debt as % of GDP (IMF).
  • Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations: Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations). Ease of doing business ranks economies from 1 to 189, with first place being the best. A high ranking (a low numerical rank) means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure.
  • Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking: Doing Business records all generic procedures that are officially required for an entrepreneur to start up and operate an industrial or commercial business. These include obtaining all necessary licenses and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications or inscriptions with relevant authorities. After a study of laws, regulations and publicly available information on business entry, a detailed list of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirements is developed. Subsequently, local incorporation lawyers and government officials complete and verify the data on applicable procedures, the time and cost of complying with each procedure under normal circumstances and the paid-in minimum capital. On average 4 law firms participate in each country. Information is also collected on the sequence in which procedures are to be completed and whether procedures may be carried out simultaneously. It is assumed that any required information is readily available and that all government and nongovernment agencies involved in the start-up process function efficiently and without corruption. If answers by local experts differ, inquiries continue until the data are reconciled. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Aid > Untied given: ODA that is untied, million US$.
  • Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP (constant 2000 US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP (constant 2000 US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Interest rates > Central bank discount rate: Compares the annualized interest rate set by centrals banks over loans requested by commercial banks to meet temporary shortages of funds. Through these loans, central banks can influence the commercial banks' interest rates as a tool of monetary policy. Usually their interest rates are lower than the ones offered by commercial banks, which lend it at a higher rate to make their profit.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100: Real effective exchange rate index (2005 = 100). Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Companies > Stock market > Business extent of disclosure index > 0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure: Business extent of disclosure index (0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure). Disclosure index measures the extent to which investors are protected through disclosure of ownership and financial information. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher values indicating more disclosure.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Big Mac Index > Per $ GDP: Price of a McDonald's Big Mac in US Dollars at current exchange rates. January 12th, 2006. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 14.1 billion $ gross domestic product.
  • Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • GDP > PPP: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU: GDP per capita (current LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Economic aid > Donor per capita: The net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here.
  • GDP in 1970: Gross domestic product GDP by exchange rate billion US dollar in 1970.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Stocks traded > Turnover ratio: Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply.
  • Tax > Total tax wedge > Single worker: The percentage of gross earnings given up in tax, including any social security contributions. Calculated for a single worker without children, earning 100 % of the average wage. Data for 2001, and only for selected OECD countries.
  • Economy growth: Measures growth in the economy or ""economy growth"". Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources."
  • Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking: Every economy has established a complex system of laws and institutions intended to protect the interests of workers and to guarantee a minimum standard of living for its population. The OECD Job Study and the International Encyclopedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations identify 4 areas subject to statutory regulation in all countries: employment, social security, industrial relations and occupational health and safety. Doing Business focuses on the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This year data on social security payments by the employer and pension benefits, including the mandatory retirement age, have been added. The data on hiring and firing workers are based on a detailed survey of employment and social security regulations. The survey is completed by local law firms. The employment laws of most countries are available online in the NATLEX database, published by the International Labour Organization. In all cases both actual laws and secondary sources are used to ensure accuracy. Conflicting answers are further checked against 2 additional sources, including a local legal treatise on employment regulation. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GNI per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number per 1000: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • GDP > Median household income (PPP): Median Household Income $PPP.
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade balance with US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Tax > Components of taxation > Property tax: Property tax as a percentage of total tax collected by the country. Data is for 2000.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Export value index: Export values are from UNCTAD's value indexes or from current values of merchandise exports.
    2000 = 100
  • Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • GDP > PPP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Gross savings > Current US$: Gross savings (current US$). Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth: GDP growth (annual %).
  • Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit is the sum of net credit to the nonfinancial public sector, credit to the private sector, and other accounts. Data are in current local currency.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • Commitment to foreign aid: Relative commitment to aid and military expenditure. Official development assistance compared with military expenditure, 1995 %.
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures for travel items > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures for travel items (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Government spending in research and development: Government spending on R&D; as % of GDP (1999).
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Intellectual property > Patents granted: No. of Patents Granted.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Innovation: Innovation
    Units: Unitless Scale
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inequality > Gini coefficient > Level: Income is defined as household disposable income in a particular year. It consists of earnings, self-employment and capital income and public cash transfers; income taxes and social security contributions paid by households are deducted. The income of the household is attributed to each of its members, with an adjustment to reflect differences in needs for households of different sizes (i.e. the needs of a household composed of four people are assumed to be twice as large as those of a person living alone).

    Income inequality among individuals is measured here by five indicators. The Gini Coefficient is based on the comparison of cumulative proportions of the population against cumulative proportions of income they receive, and it ranges between 0 in the case of perfect equality and 1 in the case of perfect inequality. The mean log deviation is the average value of the logarithm of the ratio of mean income to the income of each decile. The squared coefficient of variation is the variance of average income of each decile, divided by the square of the average income of the entire population. The P90/P10 ratio is the ratio of the upper bound value of the ninth decile (i.e. the 10% of people with highest income) to that of the first. The P50/P10 ratio is the ratio of median income to the upper bound value of the first decile. The mean log deviation and inter-decile ratios have a lower value of 1 and no upper bound, while the squared coefficient of variation has a lower bound of 0 and upper bound of infinity.
  • Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Investment > External financial assets per capita: Financial assets in 2013 EUR billions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Legality of Bitcoins: Legal status of Bitcoins.
  • Trade > Exports > Manufactured: Manufactured exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures per 1000: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross capital formation > Current US$: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross National Income > Constant LCU: Gross national income is derived as the sum of GNP and the terms of trade adjustment. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Total > Reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU: Social contributions (current LCU). Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Economic importance: Globalpolicy.org
  • Companies > New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered (number). New businesses registered are the number of new limited liability corporations registered in the calendar year.
  • Companies > New businesses registered > Number per 1000: New businesses registered (number). New businesses registered are the number of new limited liability corporations registered in the calendar year. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut: The year in which the first IKEA opened in each country. The first IKEA opened in Sweden in 1958.
  • Trade > Exports to US: in US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Wholesale price index: Wholesale price index refers to a mix of agricultural and industrial goods at various stages of production and distribution, including import duties. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum: US imports of bauxite and aluminum, USD Thousands, 2004
  • Tax > Social security contributions: Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments."
  • Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
  • Oil > Exports: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)


  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • International tourism > Receipts for travel items > Current US$: International tourism receipts for travel items are expenditures by international inbound visitors in the reporting economy. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Plus: Direct purchases abroad by residents per capita: Amount of money country's residents spent while abroad. For instance, American tourists spent a total of $132.4 billion while in foreign countries. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > General government final consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (constant LCU). General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Savings > Gross savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross savings (current US$). Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • National accounts > Atlas GNI and GNI per capita > GNI per capita > Atlas method > Current US$: GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States."
  • Tax > Components of taxation > Social security > Contribution by employer: Tax on employer's contribution of social security as a percentage of total tax collected by the country. Data is for 2002.
  • GNI > Current US$ > Per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Inflation > Duration 1990-2000: Average annual change in consumer price index (%) 1990 - 2000
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > Apple Stores: Countries compared by number of Apple stores located at its territory. The Apple campus, located in Cupertino (California) hosts not only the company headquartes, but the original Employee Store (now named Apple Company Store), which is the only place in the world where legitimate merchandise with the Apple logo (such as t-shirts, hats and the like) can be purchased. Another special case is China, that currently hosts 10 official Apple stores, but also numerous fake ones. These imitations try to mimic the look and feel of the orginal stores, with varying degrees of success. Other countries are known to host unauthorized stores too.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Overall tax burden: Burden.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Index of Economic Freedom: IEF 2013.
  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Debt > Banks > Automated teller machines > ATMs > Per 100,000 adults: Automated teller machines (ATMs) (per 100,000 adults). Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor > GDP to market exchange rate ratio: PPP conversion factor (GDP) to market exchange rate ratio. Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. The ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the result obtained by dividing the PPP conversion factor by the market exchange rate. The ratio, also referred to as the national price level, makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Foreign direct investment > FDI > FDI flows and stocks > Inward FDI stocks: Foreign direct investment is defined as investment by a resident entity in one economy with the objective of obtaining a lasting interest in an enterprise resident in another economy. The lasting interest means the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise and a significant degree of influence by the direct investor on the management of the direct investment enterprise. The ownership of at least 10% of the voting power, representing the influence by the investor, is the basic criterion used. Hence, control by the foreign investor is not required.

    Inward stocks are the direct investments held by non-residents in the reporting economy; outward stocks are the investments of the reporting economy held abroad.

    The stock tables also show the distribution of stocks according to broad sectors of the industry, namely manufacturing and services.

    Negative flows may generally indicate disinvestments or the impact of substantial reimbursements of inter-company loans.
  • Poverty > Population under $11 a day: Population below line - proportion receiving less than $11 per day in income (purchasing power parity). Data from most recent available between the period 1983 to 2000.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax revenue as percentage of GDP: Heritage Foundation (2012).
  • Purchasing power parity > PPP conversion factor > Private > Consumption > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for private consumption (i.e., household final consumption expenditure)."
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Net trade in goods and services > Current US$: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Saving rate: ""Saving rate"" or gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers."
  • Balance of payments > Foreign investment > Net > USD: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Electricity > Consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Tourist departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure."
  • Government spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU: Goods and services expense (current LCU). Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded.
  • Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU per capita: Social contributions (current LCU). Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption: Percentage of country's total income or consumption that belongs to the poorest 5% of its citizens.
  • Aid > Untied given per million people: ODA that is untied, million US$. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Researchers in Research and development > Per million people: Researchers in Research and development are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in Research and development are included."
  • Companies > New business density > New registrations per 1,000 people ages 15-64: New business density (new registrations per 1,000 people ages 15-64). New businesses registered are the number of new limited liability corporations registered in the calendar year.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1975-2000: GDP per capita annual growth rate (%) from 1975 to 2000
  • Innovation > Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment): Number of full-time employed researchers in private for-profit enterprises.
  • Purchasing power parity > GNI per capita > PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Companies > Trademark applications, total: Trademark applications, total. Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > High technology: High-technology exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
  • New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting."
  • Income > CO2 emissions > Kg per PPP $ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per PPP $ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted savings: education expenditure (current US$). Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: net national savings > Current US$: Adjusted savings: net national savings (current US$). Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: net national savings > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted savings: net national savings (current US$). Net national savings are equal to gross national savings less the value of consumption of fixed capital. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > Apple Store first opening: First opening of Apple Stores.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes local income of resident citizens: Indicates whether or not a tax is levied on income generated within the country by individuals who are both citizens and residents of this country.
  • Investment > Foreign investment > Commitment to Development Index (investment): This is a sub-index of the Commitment to Development Index (CDI), which ranks rich countries’ policies is terms of how beneficial they are to the world’s five billion poorest people. The investment sub-index ranks the support each country provides for foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries, such as insurance schemes, guarantees and tax treaties. For further information, please refer to cgdev.org/cdi
  • Tax > Components of taxation > Personal income tax: Personal Income tax as a percentage of total tax collected by the country. Data is for 2002.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > No. of stores: The number of IKEA outlets in each country.
  • Debt > Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong: Strength of legal rights index (0=weak to 10=strong). Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit.
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • GDP after tax: Gross value added at factor cost (formerly GDP at factor cost) is derived as the sum of the value added in the agriculture, industry and services sectors. If the value added of these sectors is calculated at purchaser values, gross value added at factor cost is derived by subtracting net product taxes from GDP. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Financial > Reserves: Changes in net reserves is the net change in a country's holdings of international reserves resulting from transactions on the current, capital, and financial accounts. These include changes in holdings of monetary gold, SDRs, foreign exchange assets, reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, and other claims on nonresidents that are available to the central authority. The measure is net of liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves, and counterpart items for valuation changes and exceptional financing items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Government expenditure: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI > Current US$: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • External balance on goods and services > Current LCU: External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services). Data are in current local currency.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Poverty and inequality > Social welfare > Social expenditures on non-elderly: Social expenditures on non-elderly (as percentage of GDP).
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: NPISHs final consumption expenditure: Amount of money taken in by households from non-profit institutions serving households. NPISHs have little, if any, government funding and influence.
  • Trade > Exports > High-technology exports > Current US$: High-technology exports (current US$). High-technology exports are products with high R&D; intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Per 1,000 people: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Trade > Exports > Primary: Primary exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
  • Trade > With US > US > Exports of tobacco > Manufactured: US exports of tobacco, manufactured, USD Thousands, 2004
  • Goods imports > BoP > Current US$: Goods imports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Current international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > PPP conversion factor > GDP to market exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. The ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the result obtained by dividing the PPP conversion factor by the market exchange rate. The ratio, also referred to as the national price level, makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States."
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Less: Direct purchases in domestic market by non-residents: Amount of money tourists and non-residents spent in each country.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: NPISHs final consumption expenditure per capita: Amount of money taken in by households from non-profit institutions serving households. NPISHs have little, if any, government funding and influence. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU per capita: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current LCU: Gross domestic savings (current LCU). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current local currency.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Constant LCU: Gross domestic savings (constant LCU). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in constant local currency.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number > Per capita: Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent." Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Taxes > Total tax revenue > Total tax revenue: Taxes are defined as compulsory, unrequited payments to general government. They are unrequited in the sense that benefits provided by government to taxpayers are not normally in proportion to their payments.

    Taxes on incomes and profits cover taxes levied on the net income or profits (gross income minus allowable tax reliefs) of individuals and enterprises. They also cover taxes levied on the capital gains of individuals and enterprises, and gains from gambling.

    Taxes on goods and services cover all taxes levied on the production, extraction, sale, transfer, leasing or delivery of goods, and the rendering of services, or on the use of goods or permission to use goods or to perform activities. They consist mainly of value added and sales taxes.

    Note that the sum of taxes on goods and services and taxes on income and profits is less than the figure for total tax revenues, which also includes payments by employers and employees made under compulsory social security schemes as well as payroll taxes, taxes related to the ownership and transfer of property, and other taxes.
  • Taxes > Taxes on the average worker > Taxes on the average worker: The taxes included in the measure are personal income taxes, employees’ social security contributions and employers’ social security contributions. For the few countries that have them, it also includes payroll taxes. The amount of these taxes paid in relation to the employment of one average worker is expressed as a percentage of their labour cost (gross wage plus employers’ social security contributions and payroll tax).

    An average worker is defined as somebody who earns the average income of full-time workers of the country concerned in sectors C-K of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). The average worker is single, meaning that he or she does not receive any tax relief in respect of a spouse, unmarried partner or child.
  • Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > Gross domestic product: What does gross domestic product mean? "Gross" signifies that no deduction has been made for the depreciation of machinery, buildings and other capital products used in production. "Domestic" means that it is production by the resident institutional units of the country. As many products are used to produce other products it is necessary to define production in terms of value added.

    GDP can be measured in three different ways: as output less intermediate consumption (i.e. value added) plus taxes less subsidies on products (such as VAT); as the income earned from production by summing employee compensation, the gross operating surplus of enterprises and government, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises and net taxes on production and imports (VAT, payroll tax, import duties, etc, less subsidies); or as the expenditure on the goods and services produced by summing final consumption expenditures, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports less imports.
  • Public expenditure > Social expenditure > Public social expenditure: Public social expenditure comprises cash benefits, direct "in-kind” provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes. To be considered "social”, benefits have to address one or more social goals. Benefits may be targeted at low-income households, but they may also be for the elderly, disabled, sick, unemployed, or young persons. Programmes regulating the provision of social benefits have to involve: a) redistribution of resources across households, or b) compulsory participation. Social benefits are regarded as public when general government (that is central, state, and local governments, including social security funds) controls relevant financial flows. The expenditures shown here refer only to public social benefits and exclude similar benefits provided by private charities.
  • Bank capital to assets ratio: Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets.
  • Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Health expenditure per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in international dollars converted using 2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) rates.
  • Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourism expenditures > International > Per $ GDP: Per $ GDP figures expressed per $1,000 gross domestic product
  • Oil > Consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Currency > Monetary unit: Country currency.
  • Oil > Production: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Aid > Giving > Commitment to Development Index (aid): Each country's score on the Commitment to Development Index for aid giving. The scores shouldn't be interpreted as the monetary amount of aid given, instead, the scores are general rating of how the country aids development.
  • Innovation > Commitment to Development Index (technology): The technology component of the Commitment to Development Index analyzes policies of rich countries that support creation and dissemination of new technologies which can profoundly shape life in developing countries. A deduction in ranking is given to countries whose patent laws arguably go too far in advancing the interests of those who produce innovations at the expense of those who use them.
  • Tax > Revenue > Excluding grants > Current LCU: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • Trade > Imports from US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Trade > Exports > Commodities: A rank ordering of exported products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Income > PPP conversion factor, private consumption > LCU per international $: PPP conversion factor, private consumption (LCU per international $). Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for private consumption (i.e., household final consumption expenditure).
  • Income > PPP conversion factor, GDP > LCU per international $: PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per international $). Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for GDP.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Current international $ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (current international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to current international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net current transfers from abroad > Constant LCU: Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > Logistics performance index: Frequency with which shipments reach consignee within scheduled or expected time > 1=low to 5=high: Logistics performance index: Frequency with which shipments reach consignee within scheduled or expected time (1=low to 5=high). Data are from Logistics Performance Index surveys conducted by the World Bank in partnership with academic and international institutions and private companies and individuals engaged in international logistics. 2009 round of surveys covered more than 5,000 country assessments by nearly 1,000 international freight forwarders. Respondents evaluate eight markets on six core dimensions on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The markets are chosen based on the most important export and import markets of the respondent's country, random selection, and, for landlocked countries, neighboring countries that connect them with international markets. Details of the survey methodology are in Arvis and others' Connecting to Compete 2010: Trade Logistics in the Global Economy (2010). Respondents assessed how often the shipments to assessed markets reach the consignee within the scheduled or expected delivery time, on a rating ranging from 1 (hardly ever) to 5 (nearly always). Scores are averaged across all respondents.
  • Transnational corporations > Affiliates: Number of foreign affiliates to transnational corporations
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trade > Exports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$: Exports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) exports, exports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) receipts. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Changes in net > Reserves > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Changes in net reserves is the net change in a country's holdings of international reserves resulting from transactions on the current, capital, and financial accounts. These include changes in holdings of monetary gold, SDRs, foreign exchange assets, reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, and other claims on nonresidents that are available to the central authority. The measure is net of liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves, and counterpart items for valuation changes and exceptional financing items. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Growth competitiveness score: The GCI, or the Growth competitiveness index, is composed of three pillars, all of which are widely accepted as being critical to economic growth: the quality of the macroeconomic environment, the state of a country's public institutions, and, given the increasing importance of technology in the development process, a country's technological readiness. The GCI aims specifically to gauge the ability of the world's economies to achieve sustained economic growth over the medium to long term.
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Transfers > Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Services output: Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Income receipts > BoP > Current US$: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Trade > Imports > Services: Services (previously nonfactor services) refer to economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993), but definitions may nevertheless vary among reporting economies. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Gross savings: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Transfers > Net current transfers > BoP > Current US$: Net current transfers are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy provides or receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Debt > Interest payments > Current LCU per capita: Interest payments (current LCU). Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
STAT Canada United Kingdom HISTORY
Overview As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. Given its great natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in 2010-12 and plans to balance the budget by 2015. In addition, the country's petroleum sector is rapidly becoming an even larger economic driver with Alberta's oil sands significantly boosting Canada's proven oil reserves, ranking the country third in the world behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the second largest economy in Europe after Germany. Over the past two decades, the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining and the UK became a net importer of energy in 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while industry continues to decline in importance. After emerging from recession in 1992, Britain's economy enjoyed the longest period of expansion on record during which time growth outpaced most of Western Europe. In 2008, however, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Sharply declining home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded Britain's economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the then BROWN (Labour) government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets; these include nationalizing parts of the banking system, temporarily cutting taxes, suspending public sector borrowing rules, and moving forward public spending on capital projects. Facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, in 2010 the CAMERON-led coalition government (between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) initiated a five-year austerity program, which aimed to lower London's budget deficit from over 10% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 1% by 2015. In November 2011, Chancellor of the Exchequer George OSBORNE announced additional austerity measures through 2017 because of slower-than-expected economic growth and the impact of the euro-zone debt crisis. The CAMERON government raised the value added tax from 17.5% to 20% in 2011. It has pledged to reduce the corporation tax rate to 21% by 2014. The Bank of England (BoE) implemented an asset purchase program of up to £375 billion (approximately $605 billion) as of December 2012. During times of economic crisis, the BoE coordinates interest rate moves with the European Central Bank, but Britain remains outside the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). In 2012, weak consumer spending and subdued business investment weighed on the economy. GDP fell 0.1%, and the budget deficit remained stubbornly high at 7.7% of GDP. Public debt continued to increase.
Exports $462.90 billion
Ranked 12th.
$473.00 billion
Ranked 10th. 2% more than Canada

Fiscal year 1 6
GDP $1.82 trillion
Ranked 12th.
$2.44 trillion
Ranked 7th. 34% more than Canada

GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 28.6%
Ranked 88th. 36% more than United Kingdom
21.1%
Ranked 146th.

GDP > Per capita $38,065.13 per capita
Ranked 14th. 9% more than United Kingdom
$35,046.59 per capita
Ranked 21st.

GDP > Per capita > PPP $42,300.00
Ranked 10th. 16% more than United Kingdom
$36,600.00
Ranked 21st.

GDP > Purchasing power parity $1.47 trillion
Ranked 13th.
$2.31 trillion
Ranked 8th. 57% more than Canada

GDP > Real growth rate 1.7%
Ranked 129th. 9 times more than United Kingdom
0.2%
Ranked 152nd.

GDP per capita $52,218.99
Ranked 8th. 36% more than United Kingdom
$38,514.46
Ranked 21st.

Gross National Income $682.00 billion
Ranked 8th.
$1.48 trillion
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Canada
Population below poverty line 9.4%
Ranked 8th.
14%
Ranked 18th. 49% more than Canada

Public debt 85.4% of GDP
Ranked 24th.
88.7% of GDP
Ranked 19th. 4% more than Canada

Tourist arrivals 17.14 million
Ranked 15th.
30.14 million
Ranked 7th. 76% more than Canada

Unemployment rate 7.3%
Ranked 59th.
8%
Ranked 51st. 10% more than Canada

Debt > External $1.33 trillion
Ranked 14th.
$10.09 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 8 times more than Canada

Inflation rate > Consumer prices 1.5%
Ranked 175th.
2.8%
Ranked 126th. 87% more than Canada

Budget > Revenues $690.30 billion
Ranked 9th.
$986.10 billion
Ranked 6th. 43% more than Canada

Human Development Index 0.949
Ranked 6th. 1% more than United Kingdom
0.939
Ranked 15th.
Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 84.1 CIA
Ranked 22nd.
90 CIA
Ranked 17th. 7% more than Canada
Distribution of family income > Gini index 32.1
Ranked 15th.
40
Ranked 1st. 25% more than Canada

GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 1.8%
Ranked 183th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
0.7%
Ranked 204th.

GDP > Composition by sector > Services 69.6%
Ranked 47th.
78.2%
Ranked 20th. 12% more than Canada

Tourist arrivals > Per capita 516.13 per 1,000 people
Ranked 62nd. 4% more than United Kingdom
494.59 per 1,000 people
Ranked 64th.

Exports > Commodities motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Central bank discount rate 1%
Ranked 19th. Twice as much as United Kingdom
0.5%
Ranked 49th.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 69.8%
Ranked 47th.
78.5%
Ranked 19th. 12% more than Canada
Industries transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods
Exports per capita $13,271.03
Ranked 25th. 77% more than United Kingdom
$7,480.92
Ranked 41st.

Economic freedom 79.4
Ranked 6th. 6% more than United Kingdom
74.8
Ranked 14th.

Debt > External > Per capita $22,719.28 per capita
Ranked 20th.
$171,942.20 per capita
Ranked 3rd. 8 times more than Canada

GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $1.21
Ranked 88th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
$0.58
Ranked 109th.

Exchange rates Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -<br />1 (2012 est.)<br />0.99 (2011 est.)<br />1.03 (2010 est.)<br />1.14 (2009)<br />1.04 (2008) British pounds (GBP) per US dollar -<br />0.63 (2012 est.)<br />0.62 (2011 est.)<br />0.65 (2010 est.)<br />0.62 (2009)<br />0.53 (2008)
World trade > Exports 383.65 billion
Ranked 10th.
601.63 billion
Ranked 7th. 57% more than Canada

GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $39,119.11
Ranked 13th. 11% more than United Kingdom
$35,152.70
Ranked 21st.

GINI index 32.56
Ranked 29th.
35.97
Ranked 14th. 10% more than Canada
Big Mac Index $3.01
Ranked 11th.
$3.32
Ranked 7th. 10% more than Canada
Imports > Commodities machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Inequality > GINI index 32.56
Ranked 28th.
35.97
Ranked 16th. 10% more than Canada
Gross National Income per capita $21,942.03
Ranked 17th.
$25,038.93
Ranked 9th. 14% more than Canada
Population below poverty line > Per capita 0.283% per 1 million people
Ranked 14th. 22% more than United Kingdom
0.232% per 1 million people
Ranked 24th.

Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio 1.03
Ranked 22nd.
1.1
Ranked 18th. 7% more than Canada

Imports $474.90 billion
Ranked 11th.
$643.50 billion
Ranked 5th. 36% more than Canada

Agriculture > Products wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
Budget > Expenditures $748.90 billion
Ranked 9th.
$1.19 trillion
Ranked 6th. 58% more than Canada

Current account balance $-62,270,000,000.00
Ranked 177th.
$-93,600,000,000.00
Ranked 179th. 50% more than Canada

Development > Human Development Index 0.911
Ranked 11th. 4% more than United Kingdom
0.875
Ranked 26th.

Poverty > Poverty by individual and household characteristics > Poverty rate > Children 15.06%
Ranked 10th. 49% more than United Kingdom
10.08%
Ranked 20th.
Technology index 5.05
Ranked 13th. 3% more than United Kingdom
4.92
Ranked 17th.
GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 33,375.5 PPP $
Ranked 11th. About the same as United Kingdom
33,238.21 PPP $
Ranked 12th.

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate 29%
Ranked 52nd.
40%
Ranked 23th. 38% more than Canada

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number 2.25 million
Ranked 5th.
4.42 million
Ranked 3rd. 97% more than Canada
Imports per capita $13,615.06
Ranked 20th. 34% more than United Kingdom
$10,177.53
Ranked 34th.

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average $1.00
Ranked 153th. 58% more than United Kingdom
$0.63
Ranked 162nd.

GNI per capita $45,550.00
Ranked 15th. 21% more than United Kingdom
$37,780.00
Ranked 24th.
International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 14.21$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 87th.
18$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 77th. 27% more than Canada

Consumer price index 112.16%
Ranked 116th.
112.76%
Ranked 111th. 1% more than Canada

Labor force 18
Ranked 103th.
32
Ranked 83th. 78% more than Canada

GDP per person 39,599.04
Ranked 19th. 13% more than United Kingdom
35,164.86
Ranked 22nd.

Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -3.3% of GDP
Ranked 105th.
-8.2% of GDP
Ranked 163th. 2 times more than Canada

Exports > Main exports Machinery and equipment, automotive products, metals and plastics, forestry products, agricultural and fishing products, energy products Manufactured goods, chemicals, foodstuffs
GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 25,064.13 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 15th.
26,890.73 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 11th. 7% more than Canada

Consumer spending 58.88
Ranked 84th.
65.31
Ranked 66th. 11% more than Canada

Commercial bank prime lending rate 3%
Ranked 172nd.
4.22%
Ranked 160th. 41% more than Canada

GNI > Current US$ per capita 33,844.27$
Ranked 17th.
37,303.51$
Ranked 10th. 10% more than Canada

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita 7,690.55$
Ranked 17th. 63% more than United Kingdom
4,722.68$
Ranked 21st.

Industrial > Production growth rate 5.8%
Ranked 58th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
1.9%
Ranked 123th.

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ 809.55 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 8th.
1.62 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 5th. Twice as much as Canada

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 1.7%
Ranked 184th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
0.7%
Ranked 208th.
Debt > External per capita $23,038.48
Ranked 21st.
$171,348.98
Ranked 3rd. 7 times more than Canada

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $1,247.59
Ranked 45th. 33% more than United Kingdom
$939.55
Ranked 58th.

Outbound tourist spending 34.01 billion
Ranked 9th.
84.22 billion
Ranked 4th. 2 times more than Canada

GDP > Official exchange rate $1.80 trillion
Ranked 11th.
$2.44 trillion
Ranked 6th. 36% more than Canada

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals 16.01 million
Ranked 19th.
29.31 million
Ranked 8th. 83% more than Canada

GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 55.6%
Ranked 138th.
65.8%
Ranked 89th. 18% more than Canada
Tax > Tax payments > Number 8
Ranked 167th. The same as United Kingdom
8
Ranked 162nd.

Tax > Tax rates 18.12
Ranked 72nd.
38.26
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than Canada

Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU 43,613.83
Ranked 82nd. 2 times more than United Kingdom
20,784.57
Ranked 113th.

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index 119.73%
Ranked 18th. 18% more than United Kingdom
101.3%
Ranked 54th.

GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $45,829.42
Ranked 12th. 26% more than United Kingdom
$36,276.82
Ranked 21st.

Budget > Revenues > Per capita $17,049.94 per capita
Ranked 17th.
$18,987.68 per capita
Ranked 15th. 11% more than Canada

Real interest rate 1.16%
Ranked 102nd.
2.61%
Ranked 88th. 2 times more than Canada

Deposit interest rate 0.79%
Ranked 146th.
4.48%
Ranked 119th. 6 times more than Canada

Exports > Partners US 74.5%, China 4.3%, UK 4.1% Germany 11.3%, US 10.5%, Netherlands 8.8%, France 7.4%, Ireland 6.2%, Belgium 5.1%
Economic aid > Donor $3.90 billion
Ranked 8th.
$12.46 billion
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Canada
Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP 85.64 IMF
Ranked 20th.
90.31 IMF
Ranked 16th. 5% more than Canada
Imports > Partners US 50.6%, China 11%, Mexico 5.5% Germany 12.6%, China 8%, Netherlands 7.5%, US 6.7%, France 5.4%, Belgium 4.4%, Norway 4%
Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Europe 2.4 million
Ranked 31st.
21.74 million
Ranked 4th. 9 times more than Canada

Currency Canadian dollar British pound
Technological achievement 0.59
Ranked 8th.
0.61
Ranked 7th. 3% more than Canada
Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US $19.90 billion
Ranked 16th.
$24.80 billion
Ranked 14th. 25% more than Canada

GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 30%
Ranked 122nd.
31.6%
Ranked 116th. 5% more than Canada
Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 1.52 trillion
Ranked 56th. 16% more than United Kingdom
1.31 trillion
Ranked 62nd.

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita -1.528 BoP $
Ranked 108th.
917.67 BoP $
Ranked 9th.

International tourism > Number of arrivals 18.77 million
Ranked 13th.
29.97 million
Ranked 6th. 60% more than Canada

New businesses registered > Number > Per capita 6.2 per 1,000 people
Ranked 6th.
7.4 per 1,000 people
Ranked 3rd. 19% more than Canada

Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture 2%
Ranked 171st. 43% more than United Kingdom
1.4%
Ranked 176th.

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure 874.79 billion USD
Ranked 9th.
1.65 trillion USD
Ranked 3rd. 88% more than Canada

Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio 5.5
Ranked 12th.
7.2
Ranked 2nd. 31% more than Canada
Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $ $42,530.00
Ranked 12th. 14% more than United Kingdom
$37,340.00
Ranked 16th.

Trade > Exports per capita $11,920.34
Ranked 22nd. 83% more than United Kingdom
$6,513.45
Ranked 38th.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 28.5%
Ranked 89th. 37% more than United Kingdom
20.8%
Ranked 152nd.
Investment > Gross fixed 23.7% of GDP
Ranked 55th. 71% more than United Kingdom
13.9% of GDP
Ranked 136th.

International tourism > Number of departures 21.1 million
Ranked 8th.
66.49 million
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Canada

Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP $0.32 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 77th. 67% more than United Kingdom
$0.19 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 117th.

GDP deflator 112.27
Ranked 147th.
112.98
Ranked 142nd. 1% more than Canada

Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate 3.62%
Ranked 112th. 33% more than United Kingdom
2.72%
Ranked 130th.

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU 157.63 billion
Ranked 38th.
199.9 billion
Ranked 33th. 27% more than Canada

Trade > Exports $406.80 billion
Ranked 9th. About the same as United Kingdom
$405.60 billion
Ranked 10th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -32%
Ranked 46th.
-33.8%
Ranked 52nd. 6% more than Canada
Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating) 7.36
Ranked 2nd.
7.6
Ranked 1st. 3% more than Canada
Trade > Imports per capita $11,908.62
Ranked 17th. 36% more than United Kingdom
$8,776.13
Ranked 27th.

Taxes and other revenues 38.4% of GDP
Ranked 48th.
40.4% of GDP
Ranked 37th. 5% more than Canada

International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita 713.7$
Ranked 18th.
1,225.19$
Ranked 12th. 72% more than Canada

GDP per capita > Constant LCU 37222.73 17772.08
Debt > External > Per $ GDP $547.12 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 43th.
$3,530.89 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than Canada

GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption 21.7%
Ranked 30th.
21.8%
Ranked 28th. About the same as Canada
Consumption > Consumption by sector > Plus: Direct purchases abroad by residents 29.14 billion USD
Ranked 6th.
49.15 billion USD
Ranked 1st. 69% more than Canada

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita 69.51 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th.
73.79 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th. 6% more than Canada
Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 16,898.73$
Ranked 19th.
23,830.31$
Ranked 4th. 41% more than Canada

GNI 1.32 trillion
Ranked 11th.
2.22 trillion
Ranked 7th. 68% more than Canada

Patents granted 31 per million people
Ranked 30th.
82 per million people
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than Canada
Total > Reserves in months of imports 0.9
Ranked 121st. 64% more than United Kingdom
0.55
Ranked 127th.

Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU 924.58 billion
Ranked 21st.
1.53 trillion
Ranked 17th. 66% more than Canada

Investment > External financial assets €3.65 trillion
Ranked 8th.
€5.61 trillion
Ranked 4th. 53% more than Canada

Stock of domestic credit $3.09 trillion
Ranked 8th.
$3.76 trillion
Ranked 5th. 22% more than Canada

Gross national saving 21.2% of GDP
Ranked 68th. 93% more than United Kingdom
11% of GDP
Ranked 121st.

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 3,876
Ranked 4th. 78% more than United Kingdom
2,179
Ranked 8th.

Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP 9.7% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 27th. 62% more than United Kingdom
5.97% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 27th.

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita $10,964.49
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
$4,909.40
Ranked 31st.

Labor force > By occupation > Services 76%
Ranked 3rd.
80.4%
Ranked 1st. 6% more than Canada
Net barter terms of trade 111.29%
Ranked 4th. 6% more than United Kingdom
105.31%
Ranked 9th.

Budget > Revenues per capita $17,748.65
Ranked 12th. 19% more than United Kingdom
$14,881.68
Ranked 17th.

Market value of publicly traded shares $1.91 trillion
Ranked 5th.
$3.11 trillion
Ranked 4th. 63% more than Canada

Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 113.74
Ranked 164th.
122.99
Ranked 124th. 8% more than Canada

Overall productivity > PPP $57,038.60
Ranked 10th. 12% more than United Kingdom
$50,825.40
Ranked 21st.
Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ $382.45 billion
Ranked 11th. 23% more than United Kingdom
$310.41 billion
Ranked 15th.

Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $729.79 billion
Ranked 13th.
$1.29 trillion
Ranked 8th. 76% more than Canada

GDP > CIA Factbook $958.70 billion
Ranked 11th.
$1.67 trillion
Ranked 6th. 74% more than Canada

Trade > Imports $406.40 billion
Ranked 11th.
$546.50 billion
Ranked 6th. 34% more than Canada

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Africa 61,842
Ranked 43th.
654,000
Ranked 7th. 11 times more than Canada

Inflation 106.97
Ranked 155th.
111.28
Ranked 134th. 4% more than Canada

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.464
Ranked 77th.
0.467
Ranked 75th. 1% more than Canada

Business efficiency 82.65
Ranked 5th. 21% more than United Kingdom
68.52
Ranked 20th.
Industrial production growth rate 1.8%
Ranked 103th.
-4%
Ranked 157th.

Labor force per thousand people 0.000521
Ranked 104th. 3% more than United Kingdom
0.000505
Ranked 108th.

Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ $37,945.58
Ranked 12th. 4% more than United Kingdom
$36,495.76
Ranked 16th.

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million 111.12
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
34.46
Ranked 25th.

Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita 1,056.76 BoP $
Ranked 17th.
2,636.82 BoP $
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Canada

Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$ $90.96 billion
Ranked 3rd. 68% more than United Kingdom
$54.24 billion
Ranked 6th.

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate 33%
Ranked 25th. 18% more than United Kingdom
28%
Ranked 48th.

Research and development spending 1.7%
Ranked 17th.
1.8%
Ranked 15th. 6% more than Canada
Poverty and inequality > Income inequality 1993-2011 32.56 latest available
Ranked 19th.
35.97 latest available
Ranked 10th. 10% more than Canada
Researchers in RandD > Per million people 3,596.89 per million people
Ranked 7th. 33% more than United Kingdom
2,705.99 per million people
Ranked 9th.

Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU 12.53 billion
Ranked 116th.
180.31 billion
Ranked 76th. 14 times more than Canada

Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita $52,218.99
Ranked 9th. 34% more than United Kingdom
$39,093.47
Ranked 22nd.

Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > GDP per capita $38,500.34 US dollars, current price
Ranked 7th. 8% more than United Kingdom
$35,668.88 US dollars, current price
Ranked 13th.
Economic growth > Per capita -3.7
Ranked 115th.
-5.58
Ranked 137th. 51% more than Canada

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita 29,048
Ranked 10th. 13% more than United Kingdom
25,728.95
Ranked 15th.

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels 223 billion
Ranked 11th.
360.77 billion
Ranked 4th. 62% more than Canada

GDP > Current LCU 1349715000000 1209334000000
Debt > Government debt > Net government debt, share of GDP 34.56 IMF
Ranked 51st.
82.78 IMF
Ranked 13th. 2 times more than Canada
Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations 19
Ranked 171st. 90% more than United Kingdom
10
Ranked 179th.

Tourism > International tourism, number of departures 30.15 million
Ranked 7th.
56.84 million
Ranked 5th. 89% more than Canada

Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking 1
Ranked 154th.
9
Ranked 146th. 9 times more than Canada
Aid > Untied given $2,648.42 million
Ranked 8th.
$3,099.12 million
Ranked 5th. 17% more than Canada

Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ 6.66 billion BoP $
Ranked 21st.
29.84 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than Canada

Tax > GDP > Current LCU 1.82 trillion
Ranked 70th. 16% more than United Kingdom
1.56 trillion
Ranked 76th.

Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ $1.26 trillion
Ranked 10th.
$2.39 trillion
Ranked 6th. 90% more than Canada

Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $35,992.14
Ranked 20th.
$37,790.26
Ranked 15th. 5% more than Canada

Debt > Interest rates > Central bank discount rate 1%
Ranked 89th. Twice as much as United Kingdom
0.5%
Ranked 90th.
Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100 113.68
Ranked 33th. 27% more than United Kingdom
89.33
Ranked 89th.

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ $1.21 trillion
Ranked 9th.
$2.49 trillion
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Canada

Gender income ratio 0.62%
Ranked 14th. 2% more than United Kingdom
0.61%
Ranked 18th.
Companies > Stock market > Business extent of disclosure index > 0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure 8
Ranked 33th.
10
Ranked 5th. 25% more than Canada

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure 1.01 trillion
Ranked 9th.
1.63 trillion
Ranked 4th. 61% more than Canada

Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita 26,811.82
Ranked 28th. 10% more than United Kingdom
24,452.9
Ranked 30th.

Big Mac Index > Per $ GDP $0.04 per $14.1 billion of GDP
Ranked 58th. 95% more than United Kingdom
$0.02 per $14.1 billion of GDP
Ranked 60th.
Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index 0.718
Ranked 16th. 1% more than United Kingdom
0.709
Ranked 18th.
GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita 29,680.78 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 11th. About the same as United Kingdom
29,571.68 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 12th.

GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ 29,692.73 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 11th. About the same as United Kingdom
29,570.6 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 12th.

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $ $42,533.40
Ranked 15th. 14% more than United Kingdom
$37,455.93
Ranked 22nd.

Government spending 174.11 billion
Ranked 9th.
333.79 billion
Ranked 7th. 92% more than Canada

Lending interest rate 4.42%
Ranked 134th.
4.65%
Ranked 133th. 5% more than Canada

GDP > PPP $993.08 billion
Ranked 13th.
$1.83 trillion
Ranked 6th. 85% more than Canada
GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital 24.1%
Ranked 71st. 69% more than United Kingdom
14.3%
Ranked 169th.
Current account balance per capita 0.0
Ranked 149th.
0.0
Ranked 109th.

GDP > Per $ GDP $38,065.13 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 14th. 9% more than United Kingdom
$35,046.59 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 21st.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ 15.83 billion$
Ranked 9th.
39.57 billion$
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Canada

Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita 1,232.74 BoP $
Ranked 24th.
5,642.01 BoP $
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Canada

Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP 34,567.06
Ranked 11th. 8% more than United Kingdom
32,146.76
Ranked 18th.

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 251.91$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 46th. 95% more than United Kingdom
129.35$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 89th.

Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU 52,177.22
Ranked 97th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
24,746.17
Ranked 129th.

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita $57,800.71
Ranked 8th. 21% more than United Kingdom
$47,755.58
Ranked 11th.

Economic aid > Donor per capita $117.06
Ranked 14th.
$202.95
Ranked 8th. 73% more than Canada
Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU 294.98 billion
Ranked 51st.
558.34 billion
Ranked 40th. 89% more than Canada

GDP in 1970 $85.10
Ranked 7th.
$123.60
Ranked 5th. 45% more than Canada
Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita 6,393.14
Ranked 23th. 12% more than United Kingdom
5,705.97
Ranked 25th.

Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita -480,140.252 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 117th.
910,125.61 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 5th.

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ -49,387,230 BoP $
Ranked 114th.
55.27 billion BoP $
Ranked 3rd.

Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 3,116.5 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 15th.
6,050.1 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 9th. 94% more than Canada

Stocks traded > Turnover ratio 63.57%
Ranked 29th.
141.88%
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than Canada

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$ $107,542.00
Ranked 14th. 63% more than United Kingdom
$66,047.00
Ranked 27th.

Tax > Total tax wedge > Single worker 30.2%
Ranked 20th. 2% more than United Kingdom
29.7%
Ranked 22nd.
Economy growth -2.46
Ranked 109th.
-4.92
Ranked 136th. Twice as much as Canada

Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking 24
Ranked 130th. 60% more than United Kingdom
15
Ranked 139th.
Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $35,936.26
Ranked 9th. 10% more than United Kingdom
$32,574.04
Ranked 15th.

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ $1.48 trillion
Ranked 14th.
$2.37 trillion
Ranked 9th. 60% more than Canada

Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $35,936.26
Ranked 14th. 10% more than United Kingdom
$32,671.24
Ranked 19th.

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number per 1000 69.49
Ranked 3rd.
73.75
Ranked 4th. 6% more than Canada
Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $992.20 billion
Ranked 8th.
$1.32 trillion
Ranked 4th. 33% more than Canada

GDP > Median household income (PPP) $50,362.00
Ranked 8th. 31% more than United Kingdom
$38,573.00
Ranked 21st.
Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$ 845.02 billion$
Ranked 11th.
4.17 trillion$
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Canada

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ $2.02 trillion
Ranked 6th.
$3.02 trillion
Ranked 5th. 50% more than Canada

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita 32,574.99$
Ranked 18th.
37,737.52$
Ranked 10th. 16% more than Canada

Trade balance with US $-14,500,000,000.00
Ranked 222nd. 10 times more than United Kingdom
$-1,454,200,000.00
Ranked 202nd.
Tax > Components of taxation > Property tax 9.7%
Ranked 4th.
11.9%
Ranked 1st. 23% more than Canada
Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita 821.83 BoP $
Ranked 19th.
-821.241 BoP $
Ranked 112th.

Trade > Export value index 110.79%
Ranked 28th.
116.58%
Ranked 24th. 5% more than Canada

Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted 0.832
Ranked 13th. 4% more than United Kingdom
0.802
Ranked 19th.
GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories 0.5%
Ranked 85th. 67% more than United Kingdom
0.3%
Ranked 100th.
GDP > PPP per capita $31,038.57
Ranked 11th. 1% more than United Kingdom
$30,604.93
Ranked 13th.
Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market 822.18 billion USD
Ranked 9th.
1.64 trillion USD
Ranked 1st. Twice as much as Canada

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita 25,367.88 USD
Ranked 13th.
26,057.87 USD
Ranked 9th. 3% more than Canada

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita 24,092.15 USD
Ranked 13th.
25,891.58 USD
Ranked 2nd. 7% more than Canada

Savings > Gross savings > Current US$ $378.90 billion
Ranked 9th. 42% more than United Kingdom
$266.60 billion
Ranked 14th.

Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth 1.71%
Ranked 122nd. 6 times more than United Kingdom
0.273%
Ranked 148th.

Net domestic credit > Current LCU 2077170000000 2032084000000
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $68.55 billion
Ranked 30th.
$105.10 billion
Ranked 24th. 53% more than Canada

Commitment to foreign aid 23%
Ranked 7th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
9%
Ranked 16th.
Tourism > International tourism, expenditures for travel items > Current US$ $33.17 billion
Ranked 7th.
$51.10 billion
Ranked 5th. 54% more than Canada

Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services 547.06 billion
Ranked 11th.
780.14 billion
Ranked 4th. 43% more than Canada

Government spending in research and development 0.52% of GDP
Ranked 16th. The same as United Kingdom
0.52% of GDP
Ranked 15th.
Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.204$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 97th. 23% more than United Kingdom
0.166$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 125th.

Intellectual property > Patents granted 20,762
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
7,173
Ranked 11th.

Budget > Expenditures > Per capita $16,657.61 per capita
Ranked 17th.
$20,386.26 per capita
Ranked 13th. 22% more than Canada

Innovation 26.5
Ranked 10th.
27
Ranked 4th. 2% more than Canada
GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $38,065.13 per capita
Ranked 14th. 9% more than United Kingdom
$35,046.59 per capita
Ranked 21st.

GDP > CIA Factbook per capita $30,265.82
Ranked 8th. 8% more than United Kingdom
$27,968.85
Ranked 16th.

Inequality > Gini coefficient > Level 0.317 Different summary measure
Ranked 13th.
0.335 Different summary measure
Ranked 8th. 6% more than Canada
Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$ 42.48 billion BoP $
Ranked 8th.
-82,281,890,000 BoP $
Ranked 136th.

Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ 26.55 billion BoP $
Ranked 11th.
-49,458,680,000 BoP $
Ranked 135th.

Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ 440.81 billion BoP $
Ranked 9th.
954.8 billion BoP $
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Canada

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $35,936.26
Ranked 14th. 10% more than United Kingdom
$32,671.24
Ranked 19th.

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita $42,533.40
Ranked 15th. 14% more than United Kingdom
$37,455.93
Ranked 22nd.

Investment > External financial assets per capita €105,732.98
Ranked 7th. 20% more than United Kingdom
€88,413.11
Ranked 11th.

Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ 6.65 billion BoP $
Ranked 6th.
9.07 billion BoP $
Ranked 4th. 36% more than Canada

Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ 4.92 billion BoP $
Ranked 3rd.
6.05 billion BoP $
Ranked 2nd. 23% more than Canada

Currency > Legality of Bitcoins Yes Yes
Trade > Exports > Manufactured 64%
Ranked 51st.
82%
Ranked 26th. 28% more than Canada
Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita $34,629.50
Ranked 7th.
$39,358.90
Ranked 6th. 14% more than Canada

Tourism > International tourism, number of departures per 1000 874.32
Ranked 20th.
905.72
Ranked 18th. 4% more than Canada

Gross domestic savings 257.3 billion
Ranked 12th. 5% more than United Kingdom
244.27 billion
Ranked 13th.

Household spending per capita 15,657.54
Ranked 8th.
18,342.65
Ranked 6th. 17% more than Canada

Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$ $-38,379,665,052.08
Ranked 138th. 42% more than United Kingdom
$-27,060,601,906.50
Ranked 136th.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita 489.91$
Ranked 38th.
657.09$
Ranked 31st. 34% more than Canada

Gross capital formation > Current US$ 205.02 billion$
Ranked 11th.
369.69 billion$
Ranked 4th. 80% more than Canada

Gross National Income > Constant LCU 1171439000000 1098318000000
Total > Reserves minus gold > Current US$ 32.96 billion$
Ranked 23th.
38.47 billion$
Ranked 20th. 17% more than Canada

Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU 67.79 billion
Ranked 29th.
123.04 billion
Ranked 25th. 82% more than Canada

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita 4,571.02
Ranked 45th. 43% more than United Kingdom
3,185.45
Ranked 53th.

Economic importance 16.9
Ranked 7th.
22.2
Ranked 4th. 31% more than Canada
Companies > New businesses registered > Number 174,000
Ranked 4th.
429,363
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Canada

Companies > New businesses registered > Number per 1000 5.16
Ranked 15th.
6.84
Ranked 8th. 33% more than Canada

Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut 1,976
Ranked 41st.
1,987
Ranked 30th. 1% more than Canada

Trade > Exports to US $55.66 billion
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United Kingdom
$10.17 billion
Ranked 6th.
Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita 45,830.99$
Ranked 11th.
50,779.86$
Ranked 9th. 11% more than Canada

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Southern Asia 109,681
Ranked 20th.
407,000
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Canada

Wholesale price index 104.48%
Ranked 70th.
106.66%
Ranked 67th. 2% more than Canada

Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum 4.79 million
Ranked 1st. 164 times more than United Kingdom
29,162
Ranked 22nd.
Tax > Social security contributions 20.62%
Ranked 36th.
21.13%
Ranked 34th. 2% more than Canada

Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $ 1.25 0.6
Oil > Exports 1.93 million bbl/day
Ranked 8th. 47% more than United Kingdom
1.31 million bbl/day
Ranked 19th.

International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ 23.06 billion$
Ranked 7th.
73.79 billion$
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Canada

International tourism > Receipts for travel items > Current US$ $15.27 billion
Ranked 15th.