Country vs country: Norway and United States compared: Education stats
Definitions
 Average years of schooling of adults: Average years of schooling of adults is the years of formal schooling received, on average, by adults over age 15. (Data Source: BarroLee Data Set www.worldbank.org/html/prdmg/grthweb/ddbarle2.htm)
 Children out of school, primary: Children out of school, primary. Outofschool children of primary school age. Total is the total number of primaryschoolage children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
 Children out of school, primary per 1000: Children out of school, primary. Outofschool children of primary school age. Total is the total number of primaryschoolage children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Children out of school, primary, female: Children out of school, primary, female. Outofschool children of primary school age. Female is the total number of female primaryschoolage children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
 College and university > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index for college and university enrollment. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled.
 College and university > Share of total education spending: Percentage of government education funding that goes to postsecondary education.
 Compulsary education duration: Number of years students are required to be enrolled in school for all levels of education. For instance, compulsary education lasts for 12 years in the United States.
 Government spending on education > Proportion of GDP: Percentage of public funding for education out of country's total GDP.
 Literacy > Female: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition  the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
 Literacy > Total population: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition  the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
 Primary education, duration > Years: Primary education, duration (years). Duration of primary is the number of grades (years) in primary education.
 Primary education, teachers per 1000: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and parttime. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. facetoface and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Pupilteacher ratio, primary: Pupilteacher ratio, primary. Pupilteacher ratio. Primary is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers.
 Pupilteacher ratio, secondary: Pupilteacher ratio, secondary. Pupilteacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers.
 Secondary education, duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years). Duration of secondary education is the number of grades (years) in secondary education (ISCED 2 & 3).
 Secondary education > Teachers > Per capita: Secondary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 Homeschooling legal status: Legal status of homeschooling.
 College and university > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment is the percentage of men to women enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
 Children out of school, primary, female per 1000: Children out of school, primary, female. Outofschool children of primary school age. Female is the total number of female primaryschoolage children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Child care (preschool) > Duration: Number of years students study at the preprimary (preschool) level. It should be noted that not all countries require preprimary education.
 Duration of compulsory education: Duration of compulsory education is the number of grades (or years) that a child must legally be enrolled in school.
 Tertiary enrollment: Gross enrolment ratio, tertiary level is the sum of all tertiary level students enrolled at the start of the school year, expressed as a percentage of the midyear population in the 5 year age group after the official secondary school leaving age.
 Compulsary education starting age: Age at which children must be enrolled in school.
 College and university > Private school share: Percentage of postsecondary students who attend a private school, college, or university.
 Secondary education, teachers per 1000: Secondary education, teachers. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and parttime. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. facetoface and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Pupilteacher ratio, secondary per million: Pupilteacher ratio, secondary. Pupilteacher ratio. Secondary is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
 High school > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
 Spending per student > College and university: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
 Child care (preschool) > Starting age: Average age at which students begin preprimary (preschool) education.
 Literacy > Definition: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition  the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
 High school > Upper secondary school duration: Number of years students study at the upper secondary (high school) level.
 School life expectancy > Total: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CDROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
 Literacy > Male: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition  the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of our source. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons.
 Primary education, teachers: Primary education, teachers. Teaching staff in primary. Public and private. Full and parttime. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private primary education institutions. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. facetoface and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
 Secondary education, pupils: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions.
 Tertiary > Students studying abroad: Total number of postsecondary students who were studying abroad during given year.
 Children out of school, primary, male: Children out of school, primary, male. Outofschool children of primary school age. Male is the total number of male primaryschoolage children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools.
 High school > Lower secondary school duration: Number of years students study at the lower secondary (middle school) level.
 Spending > USD: Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment."
 Mathematical literacy: Mathematical literacy mean value of performance scale 15 years old 2000
 Spending > Proportion: Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Expressed as a proportion of GNI."
 Primary education, pupils: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions.
 Scouting > Genders admitted: Admits boys/girls.
 Spending per student > High school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
 Scientific literacy: Scientific literacy mean value of performance scale 15 years old (2000)

Literacy > Reading performance > Overall:
Overall.
No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.
 Elementary (primary school) > Duration: Number of years students study at the primary level.
 Child care (preschool) > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for preprimary (preschool) education.
 Children out of school, primary, male per 1000: Children out of school, primary, male. Outofschool children of primary school age. Male is the total number of male primaryschoolage children who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Preschool enrollment rate: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music."
 Primary education, pupils per 1000: Primary education, pupils. Enrolment in primary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in public and private primary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.

Literacy > Reading performance > Access and retrieve:
Access and retrieve.
No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.
 Secondary education, pupils per 1000: Secondary education, pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. All programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Pupilteacher ratio > Primary: Primary school pupilteacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
 Tertiary > Students studying abroad proportion: The number of students from a given country studying abroad in a given year, expressed as a percentage of total tertiary enrollment in that country. Ratios greater than 100 % are possible, because those currently studying abroad do not count towards total enrollment.
 Services, etc., value added > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Services, etc., value added (constant 2000 US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 5099. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
 Teacher student ratio > High school: Secondary school pupilteacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in secondary school divided by the number of secondary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).

Literacy > Reading performance > Overall reading skills:
Overall.
No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.
 Educational attainment > Tertiary: Percentage of adult population (aged 2564) educated till tertiary level (year 2000).
 College and university > Teachers > Proportion of teachers female: Percentage of country's college and university professors that are female.
 Children out of school > Primary: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
 Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
 Teacher student ratio > Elementary school: Primary school pupilteacher ratio is the number of pupils enrolled in primary school divided by the number of primary school teachers (regardless of their teaching assignment).
 Reading literacy: Reading literacy mean value of performance scale (15 years old, 2000)
 High school > Population with at least high school education > Men: Gender Inequality Index.
 Primary education > Teachers > Per capita: Primary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 Elementary (primary) school) > Private school share: Percentage of primary students who attend a private school.
 High school > Private school share: Percentage of secondary students who attend a private school.
 Student attitude > Dislike of school: Percentage of schoolgoing children who do not like going to school (2000).
 Primary school starting age > Years: Primary school starting age (years). Entrance age of primary is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied fulltime throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
 Secondary education, general pupils: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
 Elementary school > Gender ratio: Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
 Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 Elementary (primary school) > Starting age: Average age at which students begin primary education.
 Secondary education > General pupils: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training.
 Education enrolment by level > Tertiary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Elementary school > Enrolled students: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
 Tertiary > Students studying abroad per thousand people: Total number of postsecondary students who were studying abroad during given year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
 Universities > Top 200 per million: Number of universities in the top 200. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
 High school > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index for secondary level enrollment. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled.
 Public spending per student > Primary level: Public expenditure per student, primary level is the total reported current spending by the government on primary education, divided by the total number of pupils in primary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
 High school starting age > Years: Secondary school starting age is the age at which students would enter secondary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied fulltime throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade."
 Primary teacher salary > Starting: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999.
 Spending per student > Elementary school: Public expenditure per student is the public current spending on education divided by the total number of students by level, as a percentage of GDP per capita. Public expenditure (current and capital) includes government spending on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration as well as subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities)."
 Services, etc., value added > Constant LCU per capita: Services, etc., value added (constant LCU). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 5099. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
 Enrolment ratio > Secondary level: Net enrolment ratio, secondary level, is the ratio of the number of children of official secondary school age enrolled in school to the number of children of official secondary school age in the population.
 Secondary education, vocational pupils per 1000: Secondary education, vocational pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. Technical/vocational programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in technical/vocational programmes at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Class size > Age 13: The average number of 13yearold students per class.
 High school > Lower secondary starting age: Average age at which students begin lower secondary (middle school) education.
 High school > Share of total education spending: Percentage of government education funding that goes to secondary education.
 Elementary school teachers: Primary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 Elementary school repeaters > All: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
 Schools connected to the Internet: Schools connected to the Internet are the share of primary and secondary schools in the country that have access to the Internet.
 School enrolment rate > 1st grade: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."

Literacy > Reading performance > Continuous texts:
Continuous texts.
No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.
 Duration of education > Secondary level: Duration of secondary education is the number of grades (or years) in general secondary education.
 Children out of school > Primary per 1000: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 High school > Proportion spent on all staff salaries: Percentage of public funding for secondary education that goes to school staff salaries.
 High school > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for all levels of secondary education.
 Duration of education > Primary level: Duration of primary education is the number of grades (or years) in primary education.
 Teachers as percentage of labor force: The percentage share of the total labor force who are classroom, academic staff, and other teachers. Data for 1999.
 Primary education > Pupils: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
 Elementary school graduate rate: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
 Spending per secondary school student: Secondary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity.
 Student attitude > Find school boring: Percentage of students who do find school boring (2000).
 Expected duration of education for all students: Expected years of schooling for a 5yearold under current conditions, excluding education for children under 5. Data for 2000.
 Universities > Top 200: Number of universities in the top 200
 Children out of school > Primary > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 High school > Population with at least high school education > Women: Population with at least high school education > Women.
 Students from households with computer > Age 13: Percentage of 13yearold students who come from households with at least one computer.
 Secondary education, vocational pupils: Secondary education, vocational pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. Technical/vocational programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in technical/vocational programmes at public and private secondary education institutions.
 Inequality adjusted index: Inequalityadjusted Human Development Index.
 High school > Upper secondary starting age: Average age at which students begin upper secondary (high school) education.
 Literacy > Adults at low literacy level: Percentage of adults whose level of document literacy is rated 'low'. Data for 1998
 Primary education > Teachers: Primary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 Secondary education > Teachers: Secondary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 School enrolment rate > 5th grade: Persistence to grade 5 (percentage of cohort reaching grade 5) is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
 Participation > Secondary education > General pupils: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training."
 Elementary (primary) school > Gender parity index: Country's gender parity index in primary, or elementary, school. For countries with a rating of over 1, more females are enrolled while countries with a rating under 1 have more males enrolled.

Literacy > Reading performance > Reflect and evaluate:
Reflect and evaluate.
No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.
 Secondary education > General pupils per 1000: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Primary education > Pupils per 1000: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Education enrolment by level > Secondary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 Literacy > Adults at high literacy level: Percentage of adults whose level of document literacy is rated 'high'. Data for 1998.
 Literacy > Adults with at least moderate literacy: Percentage of adult females who have at least a moderate level of literacy, in selected OECD countries. Data for 1998.
 Educational attainment > Junior secondary: Percentage of adult population (aged 2564) educated till junior secondary level (year 2000).
 Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD: Research and development (R&D;) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D; is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D; by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D; expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad.
 Private school enrolment > Primary level: Private sector enrolment share, primary level is the share of primary school pupils who attend a privately managed school, regardless of whether or not the school receives subsidies from the government.
 Primary education > Duration > Years: Primary duration refers to the number of years of fulltime equivalent duration in primary education in the school system according to ISCED.
 Class size > Age 9: The average number of children in every class of nineyearolds.
 Education enrolment by level > Primary level > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
 Education enrolment by level > Secondary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Outcomes > Primary education > Duration > Years: Primary duration refers to the number of years of fulltime equivalent duration in primary education in the school system according to ISCED.
 Outcomes > Secondary education > Duration > Years: Secondary education, duration (years) is the number of grades (years) in secondary school."
 Female enrolment share > Secondary level: Girls' enrolment share, secondary level is the number of girls enrolled in secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in secondary school.
 Services, etc., value added > Current US$ per capita: Services, etc., value added (current US$). Services correspond to ISIC divisions 5099. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
 Secondary education > General pupils > Per capita: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 Secondary education > Teachers per 1000: Secondary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Outcomes > Tertiary attainment > Tertiary attainment for age group 5564: For each age group shown, those who have completed tertiary education are shown as a percentage of all persons in that age group. Tertiary education includes both tertiarytype "A programmes”, which are largely theoreticallybased and designed to provide qualifications for entry to advanced research programmes and professions with high skill requirements, as well as tertiarytype "B programmes” which are classified at the same level of competencies as tertiarytype A programmes but are more occupationallyoriented and lead to direct labour market access. The tertiary attainment profiles are based on the percentage of the population aged 25 to 64 that has completed that level of education.
 Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD per million: Research and development (R&D;) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D; is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D; (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D; by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D; expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
 Secondary education, teachers: Secondary education, teachers. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and parttime. All programmes. Total is the total number of teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. facetoface and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
 Secondary education, general pupils per 1000: Secondary education, general pupils. Enrolment in total secondary. Public and private. General programmes. Total is the total number of students enrolled in general programmes at public and private secondary education institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Secondary school starting age > Years: Secondary school starting age (years). Entrance age of 2A lower secondary is the age at which students would enter lower secondary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied fulltime throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
 High school teachers: Secondary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 Public spending per student > Tertiary level: Public expenditure per student, tertiary level is the total reported current spending by the government on tertiary education, divided by the total number of pupils in tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
 Scouting > Members per thousand people: Membership (from 2012). Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
 Scouting > Members: Members of boy or girl scout groups which are members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM).
 High school > Lower Secondary > Students per teacher: Number of students per teacher for lower secondary (middle school) education.
 Student attitude > Report class disorder: Percentage of students who report high noise level and disorder in classes (2000).
 Educational attainment > Senior secondary: Percentage of adult population (aged 2564) educated till senior secondary level (year 2000).
 Universities > Top 200 > Per $ GDP: Number of universities in the top 200 Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 billion $ gross domestic product.
 Literacy > Adults at moderate literacy level: Percentage of adults whose level of document literacy is rated 'moderate'. Data for 1998.
 Scientific and technical journal articles per million: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
 Expenditure on education > Change in expenditure on education > Expenditure in tertiary education: The indicator shows direct public and private expenditure on educational institutions in relation to the number of fulltime equivalent students enrolled in these institutions. Public subsidies for students’ living expenses have been excluded to ensure international comparability of the data. Expenditure on education per student is obtained by dividing the total expenditure on educational institutions by the number of fulltime equivalents students. Only those educational institutions and programmes are taken into account for which both enrolment and expenditure data are available.
 Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment: Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
 Public spending per student > Secondary level: Public expenditure per student, secondary level is the total reported current spending by the government on secondary education, divided by the total number of pupils in secondary education, expressed as a percentage of per capita GDP.
 School life expectancy > Male: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CDROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
 Primary teacher salary > After 15 years: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999.
 Education enrolment by level > Primary level per 1000: . Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Elementary school starting age > Years: Primary school starting age is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied fulltime throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade."
 Spending per primary school student: Primary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity.
 School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Male: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
 Proportion of primary education time spent learning foreign languages: Intended instruction time spent studying modern foreign languages, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
 Teacher qualifications > Share with degree > Age 9: Of those teachers who teach students aged 9, the percentage who have one or more university degrees.
 Preschool enrollment rate > Male: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a schooltype environment."
 Primary education > Teachers per 1000: Primary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Researchers in R&D > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; (per million people). Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
 Literacy > Adults with at least moderate literacy > Female: Percentage of adult females who have at least a moderate level of literacy, in selected OECD countries. Data for 1998.
 Spending per secondary school student > Per $ GDP: Secondary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product.
 Children out of school > Primary > Female > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 Proportion of 15 yearolds in secondary education: Percentage share of 15 yearolds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
 Private school enrolment > Secondary level: Private sector enrolment share, secondary level is the share of students in general secondary education who attend a privately managed school, regardless of whether or not the school receives subsidies from the government.
 School enrolment rate > 5th grade > Female: Persistence to grade 5 (percentage of cohort reaching grade 5) is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
 School enrolment rate > 5th grade > Male: Persistence to grade 5 (percentage of cohort reaching grade 5) is the share of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
 School life expectancy > Female: School life expectancy and transition from primary to secondary for school years 1998/99 and 1999/00, published in http://www.uis.unesco.org accessed on Sept. 2002 and Women's Indicators and Statistics Database (Wistat), Version 4, CDROM (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.00.XVII.4) based on data provided by UNESCO in 1999.
 Teacher qualifications > Share with special training > Age 13: Of those teachers who teach students aged 13, the percentage who have specialised teacher training.
 Share of university qualifications awarded to females: Percentage share of tertiary level A qualifications as first degree awarded to females. Data for 2000.
 Primary teacher salary > Starting per 1000: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary education, in equivalent US dollars converted using PPPs. Data for 1999. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Primary teacher salary per hour > After 15 years: Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions in primary level education, per hour after 15 years experience and typical training. Expressed in equivalent US dollars converted using Purchasing Power Parities (PPP's). Data for 1999.
 Students living with mother > Age 13: Percentage of 13yearold students who live with their mother.
 Students from households with more than 25 books > Age 13: Percentage of 13 yearold students who come from households owning more than 25 books.
 Students from households with dictionary > Age 13: The percentage of 13yearold students who come from a household with a dictionary.
 Teacher qualifications > Years experience > Age 13: The average number of years of teaching experience, for teachers of students aged 13.
 Proportion of 19 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 19 yearolds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
 Young longtext readers: Share of 15yearolds who are frequent longtext readers(2000)
 Ratio of female to male primary enrollment: Ratio of female to male primary enrollment is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
 Primary education > Pupils > Per capita: Primary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at primary level in public and private schools. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
 Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education: Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education is the percentage of girls to boys enrolled at primary and secondary levels in public and private schools.
 Children out of school > Primary > Male per 1000: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Children out of school > Primary > Male: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
 Teacher qualifications > Years experience > Age 9: The average number of years of experience of teachers who teach children aged 9.
 Students from households with more than 25 books > Age 9: Percentage of nineyearold students who have more than 25 books at home.
 Students from households with calculator > Age 13: Percentage of 13yearold students who come from households containing at least one calculator.
 Students from households with computer > Age 9: Percentage of nineyearold students who come from households with at least one computer.
 Students from households with more than 25 books > Age 13 per million: Percentage of 13 yearold students who come from households owning more than 25 books. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
 Students from households with computer > Age 13 per million: Percentage of 13yearold students who come from households with at least one computer. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
 Proportion of 20 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 20 yearolds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
 Proportion of primary education time spent learning technology: Intended instruction time spent studying technology, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
 Literacy > Adults with at least moderate literacy > Male: Percentage of adult males who have at least a moderate level of literacy, in selected OECD countries. Data for 1998.
 Pupilsteacher ratio > Secondary level: Pupilteacher ratio, secondary level is the average number of pupils per teacher in secondary education. Crosscountry comparisons may be affected by such factors as the composition of teachers by part and fulltime employment.
 Teacher qualifications > Share with special training > Age 9: Of those teachers who teach students aged 9, the percentage who have specialised teacher training.
 Students from households with study desk > Age 13: Percentage of 13yearold students who come from households with at least one study desk.
 Young shorttext readers: Share of 15yearolds who are frequent shorttext (particularly comics) readers (2000)
 Share of university qualifications awarded to females > First degree: Percentage share of tertiary level A qualifications as first degree awarded to females. Data for 2000.
 Expected duration of education for females: Expected years of schooling for a female 5yearold under current conditions, excluding education for children under 5. Data for 2000.
 Proportion of 19 year olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 19 yearolds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
 Proportion of primary education time spent learning mathematics: Intended instruction time spent practicing mathematics, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
 Proportion of primary education time spent learning vocational skills: Intended instruction time spent studying vocational skills, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
 Spending per primary school student > Per $ GDP: Primary school spending per pupil in 1998, converted into US dollars by purchasing power parity. Per $ GDP figures expressed per $1,000 of Gross Domestic Product.
 Gross intake rate in grade 1 > Total > % of relevant age group: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age.
 School enrollment > Preprimary > Male > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a schooltype environment.
 School enrollment > Secondary > Male > % net: Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject or skilloriented instruction using more specialized teachers.
 Secondary education > Teachers > % female: Female teachers as a percentage of total secondary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 School enrollment, secondary, male > % net: School enrollment, secondary, male (% net). Net enrolment rate. Secondary. All programmes. Male is the ratio of male children of the official secondary school age who are enrolled in secondary school to the male population of the official secondary school age.
 Secondary education, teachers, female per 1000: Secondary education, teachers, female. Teaching staff in total secondary. Public and private. Full and parttime. All programmes. Female is the total number of female teachers in public and private secondary education institutions (ISCED 2 and 3). Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. facetoface and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
 Children out of school > Primary > Male > Per capita: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
 School enrollment, secondary, female > % gross: School enrollment, secondary, female (% gross). Gross enrolment ratio. Secondary. All programmes. Female is the total female enrollment in secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the female population of official secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of overaged and underaged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
 Primary education > Pupils > % female: Female pupils as a percentage of total pupils at primary level include enrollments in public and private schools.
 High school teachers > % female: Female teachers as a percentage of total secondary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 Elementary school graduate rate > Female: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
 Proportion of primary education time spent learning religion: Intended instruction time spent studying religion, as a percentage of total intended instruction time for students 12 to 14 years of age. Data for 1999.
 Elementary school > Enrolled students > % female: Female pupils as a percentage of total pupils at primary level include enrollments in public and private schools.
 Proportion of 20 year olds in secondary education: Percentage share of 20 yearolds enrolled in secondary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
 Elementary school graduate rate > Male: Persistence to last grade of primary is the percentage of children enrolled in the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary education. The estimate is based on the reconstructed cohort method.
 Primary education, teachers > % female: Primary education, teachers (% female). Percentage female teachers. Primary is the number of female teachers at the primary level expressed as a percentage of the total number of teachers (male and female) at the primary level in a given school year. Teachers are persons employed full time or part time in an official capacity to guide and direct the learning experience of pupils and students, irrespective of their qualifications or the delivery mechanism, i.e. facetoface and/or at a distance. This definition excludes educational personnel who have no active teaching duties (e.g. headmasters, headmistresses or principals who do not teach) and persons who work occasionally or in a voluntary capacity in educational institutions.
 Elementary school repeaters > Female: Repeaters in primary school are the number of students enrolled in the same grade as in the previous year, as a percentage of all students enrolled in primary school."
 Elementary school teachers > % female: Female teachers as a percentage of total primary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 Students from households with calculator > Age 9: Percentage of nineyearold students who come from households with at least one calculator.
 Proportion of 18 year olds in tertiary education: Percentage share of 18 yearolds enrolled in tertiary education. Based on net enrolment rates, attained by head count. Data for 2000.
 Inputs > Secondary education > Teachers > Female: Secondary education teachers includes fulltime and parttime teachers.
 Participation > Children out of school > Elementary > Female: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
 Female teachers > Lower secondary: Percentage share of lower secondary level teachers at who are female. Data for 2000.
 Participation > Children out of school > Elementary > Male: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
 Participation > Children out of school > Elementary: Children out of school are the number of primaryschoolage children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.
 Participation > School enrollment > Preprimary > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a schooltype environment."
 Participation > School enrollment > Primary > % net: Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music."
 Participation > School enrollment > Primary > Male > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music."
 Participation > School enrollment > Primary > Male > % net: Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music."
 Participation > School enrollment > Primary > Private > % of total primary: Private enrollment refers to pupils or students enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a nongovernmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise."
 Participation > School enrollment > Secondary > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject or skilloriented instruction using more specialized teachers."
 Participation > School enrollment > Secondary > % net: Net enrollment ratio is the ratio of children of official school age based on the International Standard Classification of Education 1997 who are enrolled in school to the population of the corresponding official school age. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject or skilloriented instruction using more specialized teachers."
 Participation > School enrollment > Secondary > Female > % gross: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject or skilloriented instruction using more specialized teachers."
 Participation > Secondary education > General pupils > % female: Secondary general pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in general education programs, including teacher training."
 Participation > Secondary education > Pupils > % female: Female pupils as a percentage of total pupils at secondary level includes enrollments in public and private schools.
 Participation > Secondary education > Pupils: Secondary education pupils is the total number of pupils enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
 Participation > Secondary education > Vocational pupils > % female: Secondary vocational pupils are the number of secondary students enrolled in technical and vocational education programs, including teacher training."
 Participation > Total enrollment > Primary > Male > % net: Total enrollment is the number of pupils of the schoolage group for primary education, enrolled either in primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group."
 Preschool enrollment rate > Female: Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Preprimary education refers to the initial stage of organized instruction, designed primarily to introduce very young children to a schooltype environment."
 School enrolment rate > 1st grade > Female: Gross intake rate in grade 1 is the number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the official primary entrance age."
 Public spending on education > Total > % of government expenditure: Public expenditure on education consists of current and capital public expenditure on education plus subsidies to private education at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels.
 Participation > Total enrollment > Primary > Female > % net: Total enrollment is the number of pupils of the schoolage group for primary education, enrolled either in primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group."
SOURCES: UNESCO; UNESCO Institute for Statistics; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Development Indicators database; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homeschooling_international_status_and_statistics; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; Source: UNESCO UIS Data  UNESCO Institute for Statistics; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Statistics Division's Statistical Yearbook, and the UNESCO Institute for Statistics online database.; OECD; Wikipedia: List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members (Table of World Organization of the Scout Movement members); Wikipedia: List of countries by student performance (Reading); UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; World Bank national accounts data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; "WOSM MEMBERSHIP as at 31st December 2012". World Organization of the Scout Movement. August 2013.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.; UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. 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