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Country vs country: China and United States compared: Economy

Definitions

  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Debt > External per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • Household income or consumption by percentage share > Highest 10%: This entry is derived from Economy > Household income or consumption by percentage share, which data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > % of GDP: Market capitalization of listed companies (% of GDP). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries, and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, turnover ratio > %: Stocks traded, turnover ratio (%). Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period.
  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$, % of GDP: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Household income or consumption by percentage share > Lowest 10%: This entry is derived from Economy > Household income or consumption by percentage share, which data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$, % of GDP: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Figures expressed as a proportion of GDP for the same year
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > % of GDP: Stocks traded, total value (% of GDP). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. This indicator complements the market capitalization ratio by showing whether market size is matched by trading.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Big Mac Index: Price of a McDonald's Big Mac in US Dollars at current exchange rates. January 12th, 2006.
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • GDP > PPP: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004.
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Technological achievement: Technology Achievement Index
    Units: Score
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Outbound tourist spending: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Business efficiency: Based upon a business efficiency index where '100' represents the highest level of business efficiency.
  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Inflation: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • Research and development spending: Research and development (R&D) expenditures for most recent year available between 1990 and 2000.
  • Economic importance: Globalpolicy.org
  • Patents granted: Patents granted to residents per million people 1998.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Innovation: Innovation
    Units: Unitless Scale
  • Macroeconomic environment index: The macroeconomic environment index indicates the quality of the macroeconomic environment of a country.
  • Terms of trade: Terms of trade (1980 = 100) 1999. The ratio of the export price index to the import price index measured relative to the base year 1980. A value of more than 100 implies that the price of exports has risen relative to the price of imports.
  • Growth competitiveness score: The GCI, or the Growth competitiveness index, is composed of three pillars, all of which are widely accepted as being critical to economic growth: the quality of the macroeconomic environment, the state of a country's public institutions, and, given the increasing importance of technology in the development process, a country's technological readiness. The GCI aims specifically to gauge the ability of the world's economies to achieve sustained economic growth over the medium to long term.
  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Saving rate: ""Saving rate"" or gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers."
  • Foreign investment: The value of all foreign direct investment in 2001, expressed in millions of US dollars.
  • Transnational corporations > Affiliates: Number of foreign affiliates to transnational corporations
  • Steel > Production: Production of crude steel in million tonnes.
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Research and development personnel: Scientists and engineers in research and development (R&D) per 1 million people for most recent year available between 1990 and 2000.
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • Credit information availability index: Credit information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Transnational corporations > Parents: Number of parent transnational corporations
  • Business disclosure index: Disclosure index measures the degree to which investors are protected through disclosure of ownership and financial information. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher values indicating more disclosure.
  • Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • Exchange rates > Recent years: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat."
  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • GDP after tax: Gross value added at factor cost (formerly GDP at factor cost) is derived as the sum of the value added in the agriculture, industry and services sectors. If the value added of these sectors is calculated at purchaser values, gross value added at factor cost is derived by subtracting net product taxes from GDP. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • Listed domestic companies: Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Fishing subsidies: Subsidies to the commercial fishing sector
    Units: US Dollars (Millions)
    Units: Data on itemized fishing subsidies were combined from Annex 1 of the WWF report. Where estimated ranges were given, the mid-point of the range was used. In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • Stocks traded > Turnover ratio: Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period.
  • Government expenditure: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Tourist departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure."
  • GDP > Constant LCU: GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade in goods: Trade in goods (% of GDP). Trade in goods as a share of GDP is the sum of merchandise exports and imports, measured in current U.S. dollars, divided by the value of GDP in U.S. dollars.
  • Currency code: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for each country.
  • Patent applications > Nonresidents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Ease of doing business: Ease of doing business index ranks economies from 1 to 183, with first place being the best. A high ranking means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index ranks the simple average of the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. 1=most business-friendly regulations"
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Money > Current LCU: Money is the sum of currency outside banks and demand deposits other than those of central government. This series, frequently referred to as M1 is a narrower definition of money than M2. Data are in current local currency.
  • Foreign investment > Share: The percentage share of total world foreign direct investment.
  • Net taxes: Net taxes on products (net indirect taxes) are the sum of product taxes less subsidies. Product taxes are those taxes payable by producers that relate to the production, sale, purchase or use of the goods and services. Subsidies are grants on the current account made by general government to private enterprises and unincorporated public enterprises. The grants may take the form of payments to ensure a guaranteed price or to enable maintenance of prices of goods and services below costs of production, and other forms of assistance to producers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Gross savings: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Trademark applications > Total: Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees."
  • GNI > Current LCU: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current local currency.
  • Services output: Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Services growth: Annual growth rate for value added in services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3."
  • Trademark applications > By residents: Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct resident trademark applications are those filed by domestic applicants directly at a given national IP office."
  • Other expense > Current LCU: Other expense is spending on dividends, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses, including provision for consumption of fixed capital.
  • Gross savings > Current LCU: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current local currency.
  • Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents.
  • Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are the difference between gross national income and public and private consumption, plus net current transfers.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$: Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Cash surplus/deficit > % of GDP: Cash surplus or deficit is revenue (including grants) minus expense, minus net acquisition of nonfinancial assets. In the 1986 GFS manual nonfinancial assets were included under revenue and expenditure in gross terms. This cash surplus or deficit is closest to the earlier overall budget balance (still missing is lending minus repayments, which are now a financing item under net acquisition of financial assets).
  • Expense > % of GDP: Expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends.
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Tax > Taxes on income > Profits and capital gains > % of revenue: Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
  • Inflation > GDP deflator > Annual %: Inflation as measured by the annual growth rate of the GDP implicit deflator shows the rate of price change in the economy as a whole. The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency.
  • Services > Etc. > Value added > Annual % growth: Annual growth rate for value added in services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3.
  • Net income from abroad > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$: Portfolio investment excluding liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves covers transactions in equity securities and debt securities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross capital formation > Current US$: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Changes in net > Reserves > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Changes in net reserves is the net change in a country's holdings of international reserves resulting from transactions on the current, capital, and financial accounts. These include changes in holdings of monetary gold, SDRs, foreign exchange assets, reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, and other claims on nonresidents that are available to the central authority. The measure is net of liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves, and counterpart items for valuation changes and exceptional financing items. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services > Current US$: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Import quantum/quantity index: Import volumes for low- and middle-income economies are from UNCTAD's quantum index series and for high-income economies from import data deflated by the IMFÂ’s trade price deflators.
    2000 = 100
  • Income payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Income payments refer to employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Interest payments > % of expense: Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents.
  • Net errors and omissions > Adjusted > BoP > Current US$: Net errors and omissions constitute a residual category needed to ensure that all debit and credit entries in the balance of payments statement sum to zero. In the International Financial Statistics presentation, this is equal to the difference between reserves and related items and the sum of the balances of the current, capital, and financial accounts. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Revenue > Excluding grants > % of GDP: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here.
  • Service > Exports > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Services (previously nonfactor services) refer to economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993), but definitions may nevertheless vary among reporting economies. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind.
  • Trade > Export quantum/quantity index: Export volumes for low- and middle-income economies are from UNCTAD's quantum index series and for high-income economies from export data deflated by the IMFÂ’s trade price deflators.
    2000 = 100
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services > Annual % growth: Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments.
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Exports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • External balance on goods and services > Current US$: External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > % of GDP: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Income share held by lowest 20%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index: Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
    2000 = 100
  • External balance on goods and services > % of GDP: External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services).
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Export value index: Export values are from UNCTAD's value indexes or from current values of merchandise exports.
    2000 = 100
  • Domestic credit provided by banking sector > % of GDP: Domestic credit provided by the banking sector includes all credit to various sectors on a gross basis, with the exception of credit to the central government, which is net. The banking sector includes monetary authorities and deposit money banks, as well as other banking institutions where data are available (including institutions that do not accept transferable deposits but do incur such liabilities as time and savings deposits). Examples of other banking institutions are savings and mortgage loan institutions and building and loan associations.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Commercial service imports > Current US$: Commercial service imports are total service imports minus imports of government services not included elsewhere. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993) as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. Definitions may vary among reporting economies.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Money and quasi money growth > Annual %: Average annual growth rate in money and quasi money. Money and quasi money comprise the sum of currency outside banks, demand deposits other than those of the central government, and the time, savings, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government. This definition is frequently called M2; it corresponds to lines 34 and 35 in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) International Financial Statistics (IFS). The change in the money supply is measured as the difference in end-of-year totals relative to the level of M2 in the preceding year.
  • Service imports > BoP > Current US$: Services (previously nonfactor services) refer to economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993), but definitions may nevertheless vary among reporting economies. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Quasi-liquid liabilities > % of GDP: Quasi-liquid liabilities are the sum of currency and deposits in the central bank (M0), plus time and savings deposits, foreign currency transferable deposits, certificates of deposit, and securities repurchase agreements, plus travelers checks, foreign currency time deposits, commercial paper, and shares of mutual funds or market funds held by residents. They equal the M3 money supply less transferable deposits and electronic currency (M1).
  • Gross savings > % of GNI: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net current transfers from abroad > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Liquid liabilities > M3 as % of GDP: Liquid liabilities are also known as broad money, or M3. They are the sum of currency and deposits in the central bank (M0), plus transferable deposits and electronic currency (M1), plus time and savings deposits, foreign currency transferable deposits, certificates of deposit, and securities repurchase agreements (M2), plus travelers checks, foreign currency time deposits, commercial paper, and shares of mutual funds or market funds held by residents.
  • Current account balance > % of GDP: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross value added at factor cost > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross value added at factor cost (formerly GDP at factor cost) is derived as the sum of the value added in the agriculture, industry and services sectors. If the value added of these sectors is calculated at purchaser values, gross value added at factor cost is derived by subtracting net product taxes from GDP. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross private capital flows > % of GDP: Gross private capital flows are the sum of the absolute values of direct, portfolio, and other investment inflows and outflows recorded in the balance of payments financial account, excluding changes in the assets and liabilities of monetary authorities and general government. The indicator is calculated as a ratio to GDP in U.S. dollars.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Per 1,000 people: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Central government debt > Total > % of GDP: Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
  • Goods > Exports > BoP > Current US$: Goods exports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth: Annual percentage growth of household final consumption expenditure based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country.
  • Gross capital formation > Annual % growth: Annual growth rate of gross capital formation based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
  • GNI > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Annual % growth: Average annual growth of gross fixed capital formation based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > % of GDP: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy and is divided by GDP.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Commercial service > Exports > Current US$: Commercial service exports are total service exports minus exports of government services not included elsewhere. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993) as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. Definitions may vary among reporting economies.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Bank liquid > Reserves to bank assets ratio: Ratio of bank liquid reserves to bank assets is the ratio of domestic currency holdings and deposits with the monetary authorities to claims on other governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, the private sector, and other banking institutions.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Bank nonperfoming loans to total gross loans: Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans are the value of nonperforming loans divided by the total value of the loan portfolio (including nonperforming loans before the deduction of specific loan-loss provisions). The loan amount recorded as nonperforming should be the gross value of the loan as recorded on the balance sheet, not just the amount that is overdue.
  • Trade > % of GDP: Trade is the sum of exports and imports of goods and services measured as a share of gross domestic product.
  • Gross capital formation > Current US$ > Per capita: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP per capita growth > Annual %: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Service > Exports > BoP > Current US$: Services (previously nonfactor services) refer to economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993), but definitions may nevertheless vary among reporting economies. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net trade in goods > BoP > Current US$: Net trade in goods is the difference between exports and imports of goods. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Trade in services is not included. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Money and quasi money > M2 as % of GDP: Money and quasi money comprise the sum of currency outside banks, demand deposits other than those of the central government, and the time, savings, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government. This definition of money supply is frequently called M2; it corresponds to lines 34 and 35 in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) International Financial Statistics (IFS).
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Merchandise > Exports > Current US$: Merchandise exports show the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Import value index: Import values are from UNCTAD's value indexes or from current values of merchandise imports.
    2000 = 100
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Exports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Exports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) exports, exports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) receipts. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ > Per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GNI > Current US$ > Per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ > Per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Goods > Exports > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Goods exports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Grants and other revenue > % of revenue: Grants and other revenue include grants from other foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; interest; dividends; rent; requited, nonrepayable receipts for public purposes (such as fines, administrative fees, and entrepreneurial income from government owner­ship of property); and voluntary, unrequited, nonrepayable receipts other than grants.
  • Gross capital formation > Constant 2000 US$: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Gross capital formation > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ > Per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per capita: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross savings > Current US$ > Per capita: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Gross value added at factor cost > Current US$ > Per capita: Gross value added at factor cost (formerly GDP at factor cost) is derived as the sum of the value added in the agriculture, industry and services sectors. If the value added of these sectors is calculated at purchaser values, gross value added at factor cost is derived by subtracting net product taxes from GDP. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • High-technology > Exports > % of manufactured > Exports: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery."
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure per capita growth > Annual %: Annual percentage growth of household final consumption expenditure per capita, which is calculated using household final consumption expenditure in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Trade > Imports > Per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Imports > Per $ GDP: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per capita: Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Income payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Income payments refer to employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Services > Etc. > Value added > Constant 2000 US$: Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Insurance and financial services > % of commercial service > Exports: Insurance and financial services cover freight insurance on goods exported and other direct insurance such as life insurance; financial intermediation services such as commissions, foreign exchange transactions, and brokerage services; and auxiliary services such as financial market operational and regulatory services.
  • Insurance and financial services > % of commercial service imports: Insurance and financial services cover freight insurance on goods exported and other direct insurance such as life insurance; financial intermediation services such as commissions, foreign exchange transactions, and brokerage services; and auxiliary services such as financial market operational and regulatory services.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ > Per capita: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP per unit of energy use: GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2000 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
  • Listed domestic companies > Per capita: Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per capita: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Market value of publicly traded shares > Per $ GDP: Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Market value of publicly traded shares > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Merchandise > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: Merchandise exports show the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Merchandise imports > Current US$: Merchandise imports show the c.i.f. value of goods received from the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Merchandise imports > Current US$ > Per capita: Merchandise imports show the c.i.f. value of goods received from the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Net current transfers > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net current transfers are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy provides or receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Net current transfers > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net current transfers are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy provides or receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Net current transfers from abroad > Current US$ > Per capita: Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Net errors and omissions > Adjusted > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net errors and omissions constitute a residual category needed to ensure that all debit and credit entries in the balance of payments statement sum to zero. In the International Financial Statistics presentation, this is equal to the difference between reserves and related items and the sum of the balances of the current, capital, and financial accounts. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Net errors and omissions > Adjusted > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net errors and omissions constitute a residual category needed to ensure that all debit and credit entries in the balance of payments statement sum to zero. In the International Financial Statistics presentation, this is equal to the difference between reserves and related items and the sum of the balances of the current, capital, and financial accounts. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 billion population.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Net income from abroad > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Net incurrence of liabilities > Foreign > % of GDP: Net incurrence of government liabilities includes foreign financing (obtained from nonresidents) and domestic financing (obtained from residents), or the means by which a government provides financial resources to cover a budget deficit or allocates financial resources arising from a budget surplus. The net incurrence of liabilities should be offset by the net acquisition of financial assets (a third financing item). The difference between the cash surplus or deficit and the three financing items is the net change in the stock of cash.
  • Net trade in goods > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net trade in goods is the difference between exports and imports of goods. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Trade in services is not included. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Constant 2000 US$: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Goods imports > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Goods imports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 trillion $ gross domestic product.
  • Population below poverty line > Per capita: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Portfolio investment excluding liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves covers transactions in equity securities and debt securities. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ > Per capita: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Service > Exports > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Services (previously nonfactor services) refer to economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993), but definitions may nevertheless vary among reporting economies. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Service imports > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Services (previously nonfactor services) refer to economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993), but definitions may nevertheless vary among reporting economies. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Services > Etc. > Value added > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Services > Etc. > Value added > Current US$ > Per capita: Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Share of household income > Highest 10%: The percentage of total national household income held by the top 10 percent of households. Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
  • Share of household income > Lowest 10%: The percentage of total national household income held by the bottom 10 percent of households. Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Total > Reserves > Includes gold > Current US$ > Per capita: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Total > Reserves minus gold > Current US$ > Per capita: Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Tourism expenditures > International > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Tourism receipts > International > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Income share held by third 20%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
STAT China United States HISTORY
Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million 1.85
Ranked 95th.
13.07
Ranked 49th. 7 times more than China

Debt > External $728.9 billion
Ranked 18th.
$15.93 trillion
Ranked 1st. 22 times more than China

Debt > External per capita $275.44
Ranked 106th.
$40,666.44
Ranked 13th. 148 times more than China

Distribution of family income > Gini index 47.4
Ranked 4th. 5% more than United States
45
Ranked 9th.

GDP $8.36 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$15.68 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 88% more than China

GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories 2.1%
Ranked 30th. 5 times more than United States
0.4%
Ranked 87th.
GDP per capita $6,188.19
Ranked 82nd.
$49,965.27
Ranked 10th. 8 times more than China

GINI index 46.9
Ranked 6th. 15% more than United States
40.81
Ranked 16th.
Gross National Income $1.13 trillion
Ranked 6th.
$9.78 trillion
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than China
Gross national saving 50.1% of GDP
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than United States
12.5% of GDP
Ranked 118th.

Household income or consumption by percentage share > Highest 10% 15%
Ranked 2nd.
30%
Ranked 15th. Twice as much as China
Human Development Index 0.755
Ranked 84th.
0.944
Ranked 10th. 25% more than China
Population below poverty line 13.4%
Ranked 7th.
15.1%
Ranked 34th. 13% more than China

Public debt 31.7% of GDP
Ranked 111th.
70% of GDP
Ranked 37th. 2 times more than China

Tourist arrivals 53.05 million
Ranked 5th.
57.94 million
Ranked 3rd. 9% more than China

GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 25.8%
Ranked 145th. 91% more than United States
13.5%
Ranked 182nd.
Imports > Commodities electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels, optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys)
GDP > Real growth rate 7.7%
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than United States
2.8%
Ranked 106th.

Fiscal year calendar year 1
Central bank discount rate 2.25%
Ranked 33th. 5 times more than United States
0.5%
Ranked 122nd.

Exchange rates Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar -<br />6.31 (2012 est.)<br />6.46 (2011 est.)<br />6.77 (2010 est.)<br />6.83 (2009)<br />6.94 (2008) <strong>British pounds per US dollar: </strong>0.6324 (2012 est.), 0.624 (2011 est.), 0.6472 (2010), 0.6175 (2009), 0.5302 (2008)<br /><strong>Canadian dollars per US dollar:</strong> (2012 est.), 1.001 (2012 est.), 0.9895 (2011 est), 1.0302 (2010 est.), 1.1431 (2009), 1.0364 (2008)<br /><strong>Chinese yuan per US dollar:</strong> (2011 est.), 6.311 (2012 est.), 6.4615 (20111 est.), 6.7703 (2010 est.), 6.8314 (2009), 6.9385 (2008)<br /><strong>euros per US dollar:</strong> 0.7838 (2012 est.), 0.7185 (2011 est.), 0.755 (2010 est.), 0.7198 (2009), 0.6827 (2008)<br /><strong>Japanese yen per US dollar:</strong> 79.42 (2012 est.), 79.81 (2011 est.), 87.78 (2010), 93.57 (2009), 103.58 (2008)
Exports > Commodities electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0%
GDP > Composition by sector > Services 43.7%
Ranked 145th.
79.7%
Ranked 15th. 82% more than China

GDP > Per capita > PPP $9,100
Ranked 92nd.
$51,700
Ranked 6th. 6 times more than China

Current account balance $193.1 billion
Ranked 2nd.
$-440,400,000,000
Ranked 180th.

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > % of GDP 44.94%
Ranked 42nd.
114.92%
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than China

Commercial bank prime lending rate 6%
Ranked 135th. 85% more than United States
3.25%
Ranked 170th.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 10.1%
Ranked 89th. 9 times more than United States
1.1%
Ranked 194th.
Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $1.34 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$2.65 trillion
Ranked 1st. 97% more than China

Imports $1.65 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
$2.3 trillion
Ranked 1st. 39% more than China

Taxes and other revenues 22.9% of GDP
Ranked 128th. 50% more than United States
15.3% of GDP
Ranked 2nd.

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita $4,313.71
Ranked 30th.
$68,092.78
Ranked 3rd. 16 times more than China

GDP > Purchasing power parity $12.26 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
$16.24 trillion
Ranked 1st. 32% more than China

GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital 45.7%
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than United States
14.8%
Ranked 162nd.
Stock of narrow money None None
Stock of direct foreign investment > Abroad $509 billion
Ranked 15th.
$4.45 trillion
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than China

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 44.6%
Ranked 145th.
79.7%
Ranked 14th. 79% more than China
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 45.3%
Ranked 25th. 2 times more than United States
19.2%
Ranked 161st.
Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, turnover ratio > % 164.44%
Ranked 2nd. 32% more than United States
124.6%
Ranked 6th.

Budget > Revenues $1.86 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$2.45 trillion
Ranked 1st. 32% more than China

Budget > Expenditures $1.99 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$3.54 trillion
Ranked 1st. 78% more than China

Overview Since the late 1970s China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role - in 2010 China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, creation of a diversified banking system, development of stock markets, rapid growth of the private sector, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors it considers important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive national champions. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, in July 2005 China revalued its currency by 2.1% against the US dollar and moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid 2005 to late 2008 cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2012 stood as the second-largest economy in the world after the US, having surpassed Japan in 2001. The dollar values of China's agricultural and industrial output each exceed those of the US; China is second to the US in the value of services it produces. Still, per capita income is below the world average. The Chinese government faces numerous economic challenges, including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic demand; (b) sustaining adequate job growth for tens of millions of migrants and new entrants to the work force; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2011 more than 250 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. In 2010-11, China faced high inflation resulting largely from its credit-fueled stimulus program. Some tightening measures appear to have controlled inflation, but GDP growth consequently slowed to under 8% for 2012. An economic slowdown in Europe contributed to China's, and is expected to further drag Chinese growth in 2013. Debt overhang from the stimulus program, particularly among local governments, and a property price bubble challenge policy makers currently. The government's 12th Five-Year Plan, adopted in March 2011, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent on exports in the future. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $49,800. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income. Imported oil accounts for nearly 55% of US consumption. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the United States into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, making this the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, in October 2008 the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009 the US Congress passed and President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012 the federal government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through 2011, the direct costs of the wars totaled nearly $900 billion, according to US government figures. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries. In March 2010, President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million American citizens by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on health care - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010. In July 2010, the president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight. In December 2012, the Federal Reserve Board announced plans to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short term rates near zero until unemployment drops to 6.5% from the December rate of 7.8%, or until inflation rises above 2.5%. Long-term problems include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits - including significant budget shortages for state governments.
Market value of publicly traded shares $3.67 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
$15.64 trillion
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than China

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ $5.83 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$21.38 trillion
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than China

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita $2,737.39
Ranked 57th.
$59,469.57
Ranked 6th. 22 times more than China

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $3.34 trillion
Ranked 1st. 22 times more than United States
$150.2 billion
Ranked 18th.

Stock of domestic credit $12.81 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$16.17 trillion
Ranked 1st. 26% more than China

GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 36%
Ranked 175th.
68.6%
Ranked 80th. 91% more than China
Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -1.7% of GDP
Ranked 63th.
-6.8% of GDP
Ranked 157th. 4 times more than China

GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -23.1%
Ranked 18th. 37% more than United States
-16.9%
Ranked 4th.
Exports > Partners US 17.2%, Hong Kong 15.8%, Japan 7.4%, South Korea 4.3% Canada 18.9%, Mexico 14%, China 7.2%, Japan 4.5%
Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$, % of GDP 44.24%
Ranked 42nd.
119.02%
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than China

Industrial production growth rate 7.9%
Ranked 27th. 2 times more than United States
3.2%
Ranked 79th.

Industries world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second largest industrial output in world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Imports > Partners Japan 9.8%, South Korea 9.2%, US 7.1%, Germany 5.1%, Australia 4.3% China 19%, Canada 14.1%, Mexico 12%, Japan 6.4%, Germany 4.7%
Household income or consumption by percentage share > Lowest 10% 3.5%
Ranked 29th. 75% more than United States
2%
Ranked 102nd.

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 2,494
Ranked 7th.
4,102
Ranked 3rd. 64% more than China

Labor force 798
Ranked 9th. 5 times more than United States
155
Ranked 39th.

Agriculture > Products world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 9.7%
Ranked 91st. 8 times more than United States
1.2%
Ranked 191st.

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$, % of GDP 69.71%
Ranked 10th.
136.28%
Ranked 2nd. 95% more than China

Stock of broad money None None
GDP > Official exchange rate $8.11 trillion
Ranked 1st.
$16.02 trillion
Ranked 1st. 98% more than China

Inflation rate > Consumer prices 2.6%
Ranked 137th. 24% more than United States
2.1%
Ranked 160th.

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > % of GDP 70.82%
Ranked 10th.
131.58%
Ranked 3rd. 86% more than China

GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption 13.5%
Ranked 122nd.
19.5%
Ranked 53th. 44% more than China
Exports $1.97 trillion
Ranked 1st. 26% more than United States
$1.56 trillion
Ranked 2nd.

Unemployment rate 6.5%
Ranked 67th.
8.1%
Ranked 47th. 25% more than China

GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 46.6%
Ranked 20th. 2 times more than United States
19.1%
Ranked 160th.

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ $3.7 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$18.67 trillion
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than China

Big Mac Index $1.3
Ranked 63th.
$3.15
Ranked 8th. 2 times more than China
Technology index 3.72
Ranked 60th.
6.24
Ranked 1st. 68% more than China
GDP > PPP $7.12 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
$11.63 trillion
Ranked 1st. 63% more than China
Consumer price index 106.78%
Ranked 143th.
113.41%
Ranked 105th. 6% more than China

Technological achievement 0.3
Ranked 41st.
0.73
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than China
Budget > Revenues per capita $858.93
Ranked 87th.
$6,763.09
Ranked 33th. 8 times more than China

Consumer spending 34.88
Ranked 123th.
71.37
Ranked 53th. 2 times more than China

Economic freedom 1.45
Ranked 128th.
3.2
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than China
Industrial > Production growth rate 11%
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than United States
3.3%
Ranked 92nd.

Real interest rate 1.6%
Ranked 98th.
3.08%
Ranked 86th. 93% more than China

Outbound tourist spending 40.99 billion
Ranked 6th.
117.97 billion
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than China

Business efficiency 63.22
Ranked 29th.
100
Ranked 1st. 58% more than China
GDP per person 3,744.36
Ranked 92nd.
45,989.18
Ranked 9th. 12 times more than China

Inflation 111.72
Ranked 132nd. 2% more than United States
109.85
Ranked 143th.

GDP deflator 232.21
Ranked 60th. 2 times more than United States
112.4
Ranked 146th.

Research and development spending 0.1%
Ranked 65th.
2.5%
Ranked 7th. 25 times more than China
Economic importance 6.5
Ranked 11th.
197.9
Ranked 1st. 30 times more than China
Patents granted 1 per million people
Ranked 60th.
289 per million people
Ranked 3rd. 289 times more than China
Budget > Expenditures per capita $949.39
Ranked 87th.
$10,981.93
Ranked 24th. 12 times more than China

Innovation 18.1
Ranked 41st.
30.3
Ranked 1st. 67% more than China
Background China is one of the global economic giants, with one the US managing to register a bigger <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_gdp_ppp-economy-gdp-ppp">GDP (PPP)</a>. Once an economic minnow, its turn-around came from the massive <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_gdp_gro_dur_198_200-gdp-growth-duration-1980-2000">GDP growth rate</a>&nbsp;in the two decades between 1980 and 2000, when the figure grew by 382% &nbsp;Being a communist state, China as a low <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_eco_fre-economy-economic-freedom">economic freedom</a>&nbsp;rating of just 1.43, and with a modest <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_bus_eff-economy-business-efficiency">business efficiency</a>&nbsp;rating of 63.219, there is room for China to grow even stronger. There is no disputing the fact that the US is the biggest economy in the world, with a steady <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/time.php?stat=eco_gdp&amp;country=us">GDP growth</a> to more than $13 trillion by 2006. It is top of the <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_eco_imp-economy-economic-importance">Economic Importance</a> table, and the <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_bus_eff-economy-business-efficiency">business efficiency</a> measure by which all other nations are compared. Perhaps surprisingly then, its <a href="http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_eco_fre-economy-economic-freedom">economic freedom</a> rating is only 6th in the world, behind Hong Kong, Singapore, Luxemburg, New Zealand and Ireland.
GDP > CIA Factbook $6.45 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
$10.99 trillion
Ranked 1st. 70% more than China

Macroeconomic environment index 4.78
Ranked 24th.
5.04
Ranked 14th. 5% more than China
Terms of trade 105
Ranked 28th.
116
Ranked 15th. 10% more than China
Growth competitiveness score 4.29
Ranked 44th.
5.82
Ranked 2nd. 36% more than China
Public institution index 4.39
Ranked 54th.
5.74
Ranked 21st. 31% more than China
GDP > Current LCU 18308500000000 12416510000000
Saving rate 53.62
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than United States
9.77
Ranked 96th.

Foreign investment $46,846
Ranked 2nd.
$124,435
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China
Transnational corporations > Affiliates 364,345
Ranked 1st. 19 times more than United States
19,103
Ranked 7th.
Steel > Production 567.8 million tonnes
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than United States
58.1 million tonnes
Ranked 5th.

Household spending per capita 812.01
Ranked 72nd.
26,782.83
Ranked 1st. 33 times more than China

Government spending 395.83 billion
Ranked 5th.
1.74 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than China

Economic growth > Per capita 8.54
Ranked 3rd.
-3.47
Ranked 111th.

World trade > Exports 1.33 trillion
Ranked 4th.
1.58 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 18% more than China

Research and development personnel 459 per million people
Ranked 51st.
4,103 per million people
Ranked 4th. 9 times more than China
Inequality > GINI index 41.53
Ranked 20th. 2% more than United States
40.81
Ranked 16th.
Currency Renminbi ; note - also referred to by the unit yuan US dollar
Credit information availability index 4
Ranked 59th.
6
Ranked 6th. 50% more than China
Gross domestic savings 2.6 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 61% more than United States
1.61 trillion
Ranked 3rd.

Transnational corporations > Parents 379
Ranked 23th.
3,387
Ranked 6th. 9 times more than China
Business disclosure index 10
Ranked 3rd. 43% more than United States
7
Ranked 37th.

Lending interest rate 5.58%
Ranked 126th.
6.19%
Ranked 118th. 11% more than China

Investment > Gross fixed 45.9% of GDP
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than United States
12.9% of GDP
Ranked 139th.

Exchange rates > Recent years yuan per US dollar - 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.277 (2003), 8.277 (2002), 8.2771 (2001) British pounds per US dollar - 0.5500 (2005), 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003), 0.6672 (2002), 0.6947 (2001); Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.2118 (2005), 1.3010 (2004), 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001); Japanese yen per US dollar - 110.22 (2005), 108.19 (2004), 115.93 (2003), 125.39 (2002), 121.53 (2001); euros per US dollar - 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.8866 (2003), 1.0626 (2002), 1.1175 (2001); Chinese yuan per US dollar - 8.1943 (2005), 8.2768 (2004), 8.2770 (2003), 8.2770 (2002), 8.2271 (2001)
Household spending 1.08 trillion
Ranked 6th.
8.22 trillion
Ranked 1st. 8 times more than China

Tourism receipts > International $31.84 billion
Ranked 7th.
$122.94 billion
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than China

GDP after tax 4.34 trillion
Ranked 2nd.
13.38 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than China

World Bank exchange rate 6.83
Ranked 95th. 7 times more than United States
1
Ranked 143th.

Listed domestic companies 1,440
Ranked 4th.
5,143
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than China

Fishing subsidies $54.7 million million
Ranked 14th.
$867.9 million million
Ranked 2nd. 16 times more than China
Stocks traded > Turnover ratio 136.44%
Ranked 5th. 6% more than United States
129.1%
Ranked 11th.

Government expenditure 650.27 billion
Ranked 6th.
2.43 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than China

Tourist departures 45.84 million
Ranked 5th.
63.55 million
Ranked 4th. 39% more than China

GDP > Constant LCU 7884433000000 11046430000000
GNI 5.03 trillion
Ranked 4th.
14.01 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than China

Tourism expenditures > International $21.36 billion
Ranked 6th.
$93.22 billion
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than China

Trade in goods 44.32
Ranked 110th. 2 times more than United States
18.99
Ranked 153th.
Currency code RMB ;CNY USD
Patent applications > Nonresidents 80,155
Ranked 2nd.
210,062
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China

Ease of doing business 78
Ranked 99th. 16 times more than United States
5
Ranked 168th.
Stock of money $2.09 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 52% more than United States
$1.37 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
Patent applications > Residents 194,579
Ranked 3rd.
231,588
Ranked 2nd. 19% more than China

Money > Current LCU 10690320000000 1343798000000
Exchange rates to USD 7.61 0.5418
Foreign investment > Share 6.4%
Ranked 2nd.
16.9%
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China
Net taxes 644.77 billion
Ranked 1st.
993.8 billion
Ranked 1st. 54% more than China

Gross savings 2.67 trillion
Ranked 1st. 94% more than United States
1.38 trillion
Ranked 2nd.

Trademark applications > Total 669,088
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United States
294,070
Ranked 3rd.

Industry > Value added 51.15 (2001) 24.88 (2000)
Stock of quasi money $3.44 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
$10.1 trillion
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China
GNI > Current LCU 18395650000000 12448410000000
Services output 1.23 trillion
Ranked 3rd.
8.44 trillion
Ranked 1st. 7 times more than China

Services growth 9.26
Ranked 8th. 15 times more than United States
0.63
Ranked 125th.

Trademark applications > By residents 590,525
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United States
246,220
Ranked 3rd.

Other expense > Current LCU 67956890000 53161000000
Gross savings > Current LCU 9273773000000 1515700000000
Interest payments > Current LCU 74137050000 253099000000
Adjusted savings > Gross savings > % of GNI 50.41% of GNI
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than United States
12.98% of GNI
Ranked 107th.

Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ 712.09 billion$
Ranked 2nd.
1.8 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 490.41$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than United States
138.73$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 102nd.

Cash surplus/deficit > % of GDP -2.12%
Ranked 57th.
-2.86%
Ranked 54th. 35% more than China

Expense > % of GDP 11.12%
Ranked 90th.
21.2%
Ranked 49th. 91% more than China

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Total 120.29 million
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than United States
49.21 million
Ranked 4th.

Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 262.41$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 38th.
1,732.37$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 6th. 7 times more than China

Tax > Taxes on income > Profits and capital gains > % of revenue 21.62%
Ranked 38th.
55.26%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than China

Inflation > GDP deflator > Annual % 3.92%
Ranked 107th. 30% more than United States
3.02%
Ranked 121st.

Services > Etc. > Value added > Annual % growth 10%
Ranked 14th. 2 times more than United States
4.45%
Ranked 95th.

Net income from abroad > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 4.76$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 29th. 85% more than United States
2.57$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 32nd.

Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$ -47,380,940,000 BoP $
Ranked 102nd.
-1,088,672,000,000 BoP $
Ranked 120th. 23 times more than China

Gross capital formation > Current US$ 970.92 billion$
Ranked 1st.
2.24 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than China

Changes in net > Reserves > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP -92.799 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 123th.
1.14 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 32nd.

Gross savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.507$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 2nd.
129.78$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 117th. 256 times more than China

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 1.02$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 35th.
1.04$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 22nd. 2% more than China

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ 2.27 trillion$
Ranked 5th.
12.91 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than China

Trade > Exports > Goods and services > Current US$ 836.89 billion$
Ranked 2nd.
1.17 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 40% more than China

Gross capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.435$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than United States
0.192$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 116th.

Gross national expenditure > Current US$ 2.11 trillion$
Ranked 4th.
12.3 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than China

Trade > Import quantum/quantity index 235.33%
Ranked 5th. 88% more than United States
125.07%
Ranked 19th.

Income payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 12.68 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 121st.
37.32 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 92nd. 3 times more than China

Interest payments > % of expense 4.17%
Ranked 74th.
9.61%
Ranked 25th. 2 times more than China

Net errors and omissions > Adjusted > BoP > Current US$ -16,440,580,000 BoP $
Ranked 137th.
10.41 billion BoP $
Ranked 5th.

Revenue > Excluding grants > % of GDP 9.47%
Ranked 93th.
18.44%
Ranked 59th. 95% more than China

Service > Exports > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita 57.04 BoP $ per capita
Ranked 109th.
1,271.17 BoP $ per capita
Ranked 45th. 22 times more than China

Subsidies and other transfers > % of expense 63.84%
Ranked 14th. 4% more than United States
61.36%
Ranked 15th.

Trade > Export quantum/quantity index 236.65%
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than United States
108.55%
Ranked 27th.

Trade > Exports > Goods and services > Annual % growth 24.25%
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than United States
8.41%
Ranked 81st.

Trade > Exports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.375 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 76th. 4 times more than United States
0.103 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 129th.

External balance on goods and services > Current US$ 124.8 billion$
Ranked 2nd.
-624,000,000,000$
Ranked 167th.

Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > % of GDP 50.96%
Ranked 137th.
86.13%
Ranked 58th. 69% more than China

Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.51$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 138th.
0.861$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 59th. 69% more than China

GDP > PPP > Current international $ 8.81 trillion PPP $
Ranked 2nd.
12.42 trillion PPP $
Ranked 1st. 41% more than China

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.387$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 133th.
0.703$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 59th. 82% more than China

Income share held by lowest 20% 4.25%
Ranked 9th.
5.44%
Ranked 27th. 28% more than China
Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ 67.82 billion BoP $
Ranked 2nd.
100.68 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 48% more than China

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index 92.48%
Ranked 65th.
92.75%
Ranked 64th. About the same as China

External balance on goods and services > % of GDP 5.59%
Ranked 29th.
-5.34%
Ranked 86th.

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 30.36 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 52nd. 4 times more than United States
8.11 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 88th.

Trade > Export value index 230.16%
Ranked 9th. 98% more than United States
116.02%
Ranked 25th.

Domestic credit provided by banking sector > % of GDP 135.66%
Ranked 22nd.
224.26%
Ranked 3rd. 65% more than China

Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ 5.32 billion BoP $
Ranked 8th.
24.5 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than China

Commercial service imports > Current US$ 83.17 billion$
Ranked 7th.
281.17 billion$
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China

Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.331 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 109th. 67% more than United States
0.198 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 127th.

Money and quasi money growth > Annual % 17.91%
Ranked 61st. 2 times more than United States
7.53%
Ranked 130th.

Service imports > BoP > Current US$ 83.8 billion BoP $
Ranked 7th.
314.58 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than China

Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.319 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 98th. Twice as much as United States
0.16 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 127th.

Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 70.45 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 68th.
4,623.68 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 12th. 66 times more than China

Quasi-liquid liabilities > % of GDP 104.58%
Ranked 6th. 96% more than United States
53.23%
Ranked 31st.

Gross savings > % of GNI 50.41% of GNI
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than United States
13% of GNI
Ranked 117th.

Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ 1.14 trillion$
Ranked 5th.
10.06 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than China

Net current transfers from abroad > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 11.36$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 92nd.
-6.978$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 134th.

GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ 7.84 trillion PPP 2000 $
Ranked 2nd.
11.05 trillion PPP 2000 $
Ranked 1st. 41% more than China

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Constant 2000 US$ 625.32 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 3rd.
7.6 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 12 times more than China

Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ 4.1 billion BoP $
Ranked 4th.
-4,351,000,000 BoP $
Ranked 114th.

Final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ 1.06 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 4th.
9.19 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 9 times more than China

Liquid liabilities > M3 as % of GDP 162.97
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than United States
68.1
Ranked 44th.

Current account balance > % of GDP 7.2%
Ranked 20th.
-6.37%
Ranked 87th.

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number 8 million
Ranked 1st. 36% more than United States
5.87 million
Ranked 1st.
Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ 821.14 billion$
Ranked 5th.
8.21 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than China

Gross value added at factor cost > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.89$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 88th.
0.931$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 43th. 5% more than China

Gross private capital flows > % of GDP 10.92%
Ranked 83th.
14.35%
Ranked 68th. 31% more than China

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Per 1,000 people 6.34 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th.
19.99 per 1,000 people
Ranked 19th. 3 times more than China
Central government debt > Total > % of GDP 11.61%
Ranked 56th.
47.17%
Ranked 19th. 4 times more than China

Goods > Exports > BoP > Current US$ 762.48 billion BoP $
Ranked 3rd.
898.46 billion BoP $
Ranked 2nd. 18% more than China

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Annual % growth 8%
Ranked 34th. 2 times more than United States
3.86%
Ranked 80th.

Gross capital formation > Annual % growth 10.9%
Ranked 38th. 8% more than United States
10.07%
Ranked 59th.

GNI > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 1$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 28th. About the same as United States
1$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 31st.

Gross fixed capital formation > Annual % growth 14.79%
Ranked 24th. 78% more than United States
8.29%
Ranked 56th.

Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 35.41 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 64th. 4 times more than United States
8.84 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 123th.

Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > % of GDP 3.54%
Ranked 64th. 4 times more than United States
0.88%
Ranked 123th.

Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 71.98 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 20th.
-63.746 BoP $ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 87th.

Commercial service > Exports > Current US$ 73.91 billion$
Ranked 9th.
354.02 billion$
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than China

Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ 160.82 billion BoP $
Ranked 2nd.
-791,508,800,000 BoP $
Ranked 137th.

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Southern Asia 599,435
Ranked 6th. 46% more than United States
411,277
Ranked 8th.

Bank liquid > Reserves to bank assets ratio 16.29
Ranked 50th. 21 times more than United States
0.76
Ranked 160th.

Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ 740.41 billion BoP $
Ranked 4th.
2.46 trillion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China

GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 6,757.27 PPP $
Ranked 75th.
41,889.57 PPP $
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than China

Bank nonperfoming loans to total gross loans 9.8%
Ranked 4th. 14 times more than United States
0.7%
Ranked 29th.

Trade > % of GDP 69.33%
Ranked 99th. 3 times more than United States
25.44%
Ranked 166th.

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Americas 2.15 million
Ranked 12th.
31.18 million
Ranked 1st. 15 times more than China

Gross capital formation > Current US$ > Per capita 744.28$ per capita
Ranked 66th.
7,642.63$ per capita
Ranked 11th. 10 times more than China

GDP per capita growth > Annual % 9.5%
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than United States
2.24%
Ranked 104th.

Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.423$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than United States
0.187$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 112th.

Service > Exports > BoP > Current US$ 74.4 billion BoP $
Ranked 9th.
376.79 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 5 times more than China

Net trade in goods > BoP > Current US$ 134.19 billion BoP $
Ranked 2nd.
-778,943,100,000 BoP $
Ranked 137th.

Money and quasi money > M2 as % of GDP 150.59
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than United States
71.96
Ranked 34th.

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ 1.89 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 4th.
11.05 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than China

Merchandise > Exports > Current US$ 761.95 billion$
Ranked 3rd.
904.38 billion$
Ranked 2nd. 19% more than China

International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ 24.71 billion$
Ranked 6th.
99.62 billion$
Ranked 1st. 4 times more than China

Net income > BoP > Current US$ 10.64 billion BoP $
Ranked 7th.
11.29 billion BoP $
Ranked 5th. 6% more than China

GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $7,368.68 per capita
Ranked 51st.
$45,759.46 per capita
Ranked 8th. 6 times more than China

Trade > Import value index 249.42%
Ranked 5th. 81% more than United States
137.56%
Ranked 16th.

GDP > Per capita $7,368.68 per capita
Ranked 51st.
$45,759.46 per capita
Ranked 8th. 6 times more than China

GDP > Official exchange rate > Per capita $4,288.19 per capita
Ranked 52nd.
$45,958.7 per capita
Ranked 12th. 11 times more than China

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ 772.12 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 4th.
7.59 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 10 times more than China

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 349.44$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 55th.
1,368.98$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 15th. 4 times more than China

Trade > Exports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.392 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 78th. 3 times more than United States
0.141 BoP $ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 126th.

GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita $5,005.43 per capita
Ranked 91st.
$37,791 per capita
Ranked 2nd. 8 times more than China

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita 1,448.78 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 92nd.
37,267.35 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 4th. 26 times more than China

GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ > Per capita 6,011.65 PPP 2000 $ per capita
Ranked 75th.
37,267.35 PPP 2000 $ per capita
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than China

GDP > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita 6,757.27 PPP $ per capita
Ranked 75th.
41,889.59 PPP $ per capita
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than China

GNI > Current US$ > Per capita 1,720.91$ per capita
Ranked 96th.
41,997.21$ per capita
Ranked 5th. 24 times more than China

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ > Per capita 1,739.93$ per capita
Ranked 90th.
43,564.23$ per capita
Ranked 5th. 25 times more than China

GNI > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita 6,790 PPP $ per capita
Ranked 65th.
42,000.01 PPP $ per capita
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than China

Goods > Exports > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita 584.5 BoP $ per capita
Ranked 87th.
3,031.12 BoP $ per capita
Ranked 42nd. 5 times more than China

Grants and other revenue > % of revenue 10.03%
Ranked 63th. 5 times more than United States
1.86%
Ranked 67th.

Gross capital formation > Constant 2000 US$ 777.35 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st.
2.1 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 3 times more than China

Gross capital formation > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita 595.9 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 47th.
7,160.09 constant 2000 US$ per c
Ranked 4th. 12 times more than China