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Country vs country: Finland and United States compared: Economy stats

Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

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  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Debt > External > Per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • Gross National Income per capita: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar). The ratio of the PPP conversion factor to the official exchange rate (also referred to as the national price level) makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D;, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% of the population to the average income of the poorest 20% of the population.
  • Tax > Tax rates: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Poverty > Poverty by individual and household characteristics > Poverty rate > Children: Group-specific poverty rates are headcounts of how many people of a population group fall below the poverty line, in percentage of the total number in that population group. The poverty line used here is 50% of the median household disposable income, adjusted for household size. Children are persons with less than 18 years of age, working-age people are persons between age 18 and 65 and adults are persons aged 18 and over. A worker is an adult with a non-zero annual earning or self-employment income. In addition to poverty rates, indicators show here include the poverty risk (i.e. the age-specific poverty rate divided by the poverty rate for the entire population, times 100) and the share of various population groups that are counted as poor.

    Income is defined as household disposable income in a particular year. It consists of earnings, self-employment and capital income and public cash transfers; income taxes and social security contributions paid by households are deducted. The income of the household is attributed to each of its members, with an adjustment to reflect differences in needs for households of different sizes (i.e. the needs of a household composed of four people are assumed to be twice as large as those of a person living alone).
  • Size of economy > Share of world GDP : Percent of world GDP (exchange rates).

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  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average: Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average). Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP: Gross government debt as % of GDP (IMF).

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  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating): Overall rating of each country's adherence to the corporate governance guidelines set forth in three prominent economical essays. The ratings are out of 10, with 10 meaning full adherence.
  • Gross National Income > Per $ GDP: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop Per $ GDP figures expressed per $100 of Gross Domestic Product.
  • GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
  • Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP (constant 2000 US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Tractors: Imports of Tractors, by country, in thousands USD
  • Inflation: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."
  • GNI > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • New businesses registered > Number > Per capita: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index: Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
    2000 = 100
  • Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. 
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations: Exports of Chocolate/cocoa preparations, by country, in thousands USD
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Outbound tourist spending: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Imports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
  • GDP > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU: Taxes on international trade (current LCU). Taxes on international trade include import duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes.
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > External per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Currency > Monetary unit: Country currency.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted savings: education expenditure (current US$). Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Investment > External financial assets: Gross financial assets privately owned by residents of the country, mainly in the form of bank deposits, insurances and securities, in EUR.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Technological achievement: Technology Achievement Index
    Units: Score
  • Inequality > Gini coefficient > Level: Income is defined as household disposable income in a particular year. It consists of earnings, self-employment and capital income and public cash transfers; income taxes and social security contributions paid by households are deducted. The income of the household is attributed to each of its members, with an adjustment to reflect differences in needs for households of different sizes (i.e. the needs of a household composed of four people are assumed to be twice as large as those of a person living alone).

    Income inequality among individuals is measured here by five indicators. The Gini Coefficient is based on the comparison of cumulative proportions of the population against cumulative proportions of income they receive, and it ranges between 0 in the case of perfect equality and 1 in the case of perfect inequality. The mean log deviation is the average value of the logarithm of the ratio of mean income to the income of each decile. The squared coefficient of variation is the variance of average income of each decile, divided by the square of the average income of the entire population. The P90/P10 ratio is the ratio of the upper bound value of the ninth decile (i.e. the 10% of people with highest income) to that of the first. The P50/P10 ratio is the ratio of median income to the upper bound value of the first decile. The mean log deviation and inter-decile ratios have a lower value of 1 and no upper bound, while the squared coefficient of variation has a lower bound of 0 and upper bound of infinity.
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Economic aid > Donor: The net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita, PPP (current international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > Government debt > Net government debt, share of GDP: Net government debt as % of GDP (IMF).
  • Overall productivity > PPP: Estimates: GDP (PPP) per person employed, US$
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth: GDP growth (annual %).
  • Total > Reserves in months of imports: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. This item shows reserves expressed in terms of the number of months of imports of goods and services which could be paid for.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net barter terms of trade: Net barter terms of trade are the ratio of the export price index to the corresponding import price index measured relative to the base year 2000.
    2000 = 100
  • International tourism > Number of departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited.
  • Tax > Total tax wedge > Single worker: The percentage of gross earnings given up in tax, including any social security contributions. Calculated for a single worker without children, earning 100 % of the average wage. Data for 2001, and only for selected OECD countries.
  • Poverty and inequality > Income inequality 1993-2011: Income inequality 1993-2011 (latest available).
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Patents granted: Patents granted to residents per million people 1998.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here.
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • GDP in 1970: Gross domestic product GDP by exchange rate billion US dollar in 1970.
  • Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU: GDP per capita (current LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations: Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations). Ease of doing business ranks economies from 1 to 189, with first place being the best. A high ranking (a low numerical rank) means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GNI per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Labor force per thousand people: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking: Doing Business records all generic procedures that are officially required for an entrepreneur to start up and operate an industrial or commercial business. These include obtaining all necessary licenses and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications or inscriptions with relevant authorities. After a study of laws, regulations and publicly available information on business entry, a detailed list of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirements is developed. Subsequently, local incorporation lawyers and government officials complete and verify the data on applicable procedures, the time and cost of complying with each procedure under normal circumstances and the paid-in minimum capital. On average 4 law firms participate in each country. Information is also collected on the sequence in which procedures are to be completed and whether procedures may be carried out simultaneously. It is assumed that any required information is readily available and that all government and nongovernment agencies involved in the start-up process function efficiently and without corruption. If answers by local experts differ, inquiries continue until the data are reconciled. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Productivity > GDP per hour worked: Figures for 2005. The Conference Board, Labor Productivity and Per Capita Income Levels and the Effects of Working Hours and Labor Utilization, 2009.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > Components of taxation > Personal income tax: Personal Income tax as a percentage of total tax collected by the country. Data is for 2002.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics: Exports of Perfume/toilet/cosmetics, by country, in thousands USD
  • Investment > External financial assets per capita: Financial assets in 2013 EUR billions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Exports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc: Imports of Silver/platinum etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking: Every economy has established a complex system of laws and institutions intended to protect the interests of workers and to guarantee a minimum standard of living for its population. The OECD Job Study and the International Encyclopedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations identify 4 areas subject to statutory regulation in all countries: employment, social security, industrial relations and occupational health and safety. Doing Business focuses on the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This year data on social security payments by the employer and pension benefits, including the mandatory retirement age, have been added. The data on hiring and firing workers are based on a detailed survey of employment and social security regulations. The survey is completed by local law firms. The employment laws of most countries are available online in the NATLEX database, published by the International Labour Organization. In all cases both actual laws and secondary sources are used to ensure accuracy. Conflicting answers are further checked against 2 additional sources, including a local legal treatise on employment regulation. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on international trade (current LCU). Taxes on international trade include import duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut: The year in which the first IKEA opened in each country. The first IKEA opened in Sweden in 1958.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate: Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations.
  • Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Median household income (PPP): Median Household Income $PPP.
  • Bank capital to assets ratio: Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets.
  • Summary: Country economy.
  • Researchers in RandD > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Computer equipment: Imports of Computer equipment, by country, in thousands USD
  • GDP growth > Duration 1980-2000: Gross domestic product GDP growth rate from 1980 to 2000
  • Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU per capita: Social contributions (current LCU). Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Computer equipment: Exports of Computer equipment, by country, in thousands USD
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > Government debt > Net government debt, share of GDP per million people: Net government debt as % of GDP (IMF). Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Gross savings: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income payments > BoP > Current US$: Income payments refer to employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100: Real effective exchange rate index (2005 = 100). Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > External > Per $ GDP: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • IKEA > First store opening year: Date the first IKEA store, a home products retail chain, was opened in different countries.
  • Inflation > Duration 1990-2000: Average annual change in consumer price index (%) 1990 - 2000
  • Oil > Exports: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)


  • GDP > PPP: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars.
  • Oil > Production: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Tourist departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure."
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$: Final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Taxes > Taxes on the average worker > Taxes on the average worker: The taxes included in the measure are personal income taxes, employees’ social security contributions and employers’ social security contributions. For the few countries that have them, it also includes payroll taxes. The amount of these taxes paid in relation to the employment of one average worker is expressed as a percentage of their labour cost (gross wage plus employers’ social security contributions and payroll tax).

    An average worker is defined as somebody who earns the average income of full-time workers of the country concerned in sectors C-K of the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC). The average worker is single, meaning that he or she does not receive any tax relief in respect of a spouse, unmarried partner or child.
  • Business efficiency: Based upon a business efficiency index where '100' represents the highest level of business efficiency.
  • Oil > Consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Innovation: Innovation
    Units: Unitless Scale
  • GDP > PPP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Saving rate: ""Saving rate"" or gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers."
  • Commitment to foreign aid: Relative commitment to aid and military expenditure. Official development assistance compared with military expenditure, 1995 %.
  • Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Bank liquid > Reserves to bank assets ratio: Ratio of bank liquid reserves to bank assets is the ratio of domestic currency holdings and deposits with the monetary authorities to claims on other governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, the private sector, and other banking institutions.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross capital formation > Current US$: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • Investment > Foreign investment > Commitment to Development Index (investment): This is a sub-index of the Commitment to Development Index (CDI), which ranks rich countries’ policies is terms of how beneficial they are to the world’s five billion poorest people. The investment sub-index ranks the support each country provides for foreign direct investment (FDI) in developing countries, such as insurance schemes, guarantees and tax treaties. For further information, please refer to cgdev.org/cdi
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Aid > Untied given: ODA that is untied, million US$.
  • Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption: Percentage of country's total income or consumption that belongs to the poorest 5% of its citizens.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America.
  • Steel > Production: Production of crude steel in million tonnes.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU per capita: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
  • Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • Terms of trade: Terms of trade (1980 = 100) 1999. The ratio of the export price index to the import price index measured relative to the base year 1980. A value of more than 100 implies that the price of exports has risen relative to the price of imports.
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Economy growth: Measures growth in the economy or ""economy growth"". Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources."
  • Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU: Social contributions (current LCU). Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments.
  • Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit is the sum of net credit to the nonfinancial public sector, credit to the private sector, and other accounts. Data are in current local currency.
  • Intellectual property > Patents granted: No. of Patents Granted.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government spending in research and development: Government spending on R&D; as % of GDP (1999).
  • Trade > Export growth: Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments."
  • GDP > CIA Factbook per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting."
  • Tax > Components of taxation > Property tax: Property tax as a percentage of total tax collected by the country. Data is for 2000.
  • Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > Gross domestic product: What does gross domestic product mean? "Gross" signifies that no deduction has been made for the depreciation of machinery, buildings and other capital products used in production. "Domestic" means that it is production by the resident institutional units of the country. As many products are used to produce other products it is necessary to define production in terms of value added.

    GDP can be measured in three different ways: as output less intermediate consumption (i.e. value added) plus taxes less subsidies on products (such as VAT); as the income earned from production by summing employee compensation, the gross operating surplus of enterprises and government, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises and net taxes on production and imports (VAT, payroll tax, import duties, etc, less subsidies); or as the expenditure on the goods and services produced by summing final consumption expenditures, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports less imports.
  • Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > GDP per capita: What does gross domestic product mean? "Gross" signifies that no deduction has been made for the depreciation of machinery, buildings and other capital products used in production. "Domestic" means that it is production by the resident institutional units of the country. As many products are used to produce other products it is necessary to define production in terms of value added.

    GDP can be measured in three different ways: as output less intermediate consumption (i.e. value added) plus taxes less subsidies on products (such as VAT); as the income earned from production by summing employee compensation, the gross operating surplus of enterprises and government, the gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises and net taxes on production and imports (VAT, payroll tax, import duties, etc, less subsidies); or as the expenditure on the goods and services produced by summing final consumption expenditures, gross fixed capital formation, changes in inventories and exports less imports.
  • Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average: Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Public expenditure > Social expenditure > Public social expenditure: Public social expenditure comprises cash benefits, direct "in-kind” provision of goods and services, and tax breaks with social purposes. To be considered "social”, benefits have to address one or more social goals. Benefits may be targeted at low-income households, but they may also be for the elderly, disabled, sick, unemployed, or young persons. Programmes regulating the provision of social benefits have to involve: a) redistribution of resources across households, or b) compulsory participation. Social benefits are regarded as public when general government (that is central, state, and local governments, including social security funds) controls relevant financial flows. The expenditures shown here refer only to public social benefits and exclude similar benefits provided by private charities.
  • Oil > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU per capita: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Plus: Direct purchases abroad by residents per capita: Amount of money country's residents spent while abroad. For instance, American tourists spent a total of $132.4 billion while in foreign countries. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Net current transfers from abroad > Current US$: Net current transfers from abroad (current US$). Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 per million: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ per capita: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1975-2000: GDP per capita annual growth rate (%) from 1975 to 2000
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Current international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports > Goods and services > Current U: Exports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Inbound tourism income > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Oil > Proved reserves per capita: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Government > Finance minister: The name of each country's finance minister. A finance minister is a cabinet member in charge of overseeing and regulating the economic and monetary activity of a country. Certain countries have different titles for their finance minister, such as the UK's "Chancellor of the Exchequer" or the United States' "Secretary of the Treasury".
  • Trade > Exports > Manufactured: Manufactured exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$: International tourism, receipts (current US$). International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure.
  • Electricity > Consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Net current transfers from abroad > Constant LCU: Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Natural gas > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Tractors per 1000: Imports of Tractors, by country, in thousands USD. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $ per capita: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Transnational corporations > Affiliates: Number of foreign affiliates to transnational corporations
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Constant 2005 international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Intellectual property > Patents granted per million people: No. of Patents Granted. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Oil > Consumption per thousand people: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Foreign direct investment > FDI > FDI flows and stocks > Inward FDI stocks: Foreign direct investment is defined as investment by a resident entity in one economy with the objective of obtaining a lasting interest in an enterprise resident in another economy. The lasting interest means the existence of a long-term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise and a significant degree of influence by the direct investor on the management of the direct investment enterprise. The ownership of at least 10% of the voting power, representing the influence by the investor, is the basic criterion used. Hence, control by the foreign investor is not required.

    Inward stocks are the direct investments held by non-residents in the reporting economy; outward stocks are the investments of the reporting economy held abroad.

    The stock tables also show the distribution of stocks according to broad sectors of the industry, namely manufacturing and services.

    Negative flows may generally indicate disinvestments or the impact of substantial reimbursements of inter-company loans.
  • Oil > Imports: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Veneer plywood etc: Imports of Veneer/plywood/etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU per capita: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Total > Reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross capital formation > Constant 2000 US$: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > Leading export market: Country or customs union which is the main recipient of exports.
  • Trade > Exports > Merchandise exports by the reporting economy > Current US$: Merchandise exports by the reporting economy (current US$). Merchandise exports by the reporting economy are the total merchandise exports by the reporting economy to the rest of the world, as reported in the IMF's Direction of trade database. Data are in current US$.
  • Companies > Trademark applications, direct nonresident per million: Trademark applications, direct nonresident. Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Oil > Production per thousand people: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Income payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Income payments refer to employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Poverty > Population under $11 a day: Population below line - proportion receiving less than $11 per day in income (purchasing power parity). Data from most recent available between the period 1983 to 2000.
  • Innovation > Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment) per thousand people: Number of full-time employed researchers in private for-profit enterprises. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts for travel items > Current US$: International tourism, receipts for travel items (current US$). International tourism receipts for travel items are expenditures by international inbound visitors in the reporting economy. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Economic aid > Donor per capita: The net official development assistance (ODA) from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations to developing countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as financial assistance that is concessional in character, has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of the less developed countries (LDCs), and contains a grant element of at least 25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or private flows. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Wholesale price index: Wholesale price index refers to a mix of agricultural and industrial goods at various stages of production and distribution, including import duties. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency.
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita (constant LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: Final consumption expenditure (constant LCU). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant local currency.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Current LCU: Final consumption expenditure (current LCU). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). Data are in current local currency.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Liquid propane butane: Exports of Liquid propane/butane, by country, in thousands USD
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Net trade in goods > US$: Net trade in goods is the difference between exports and imports of goods. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Trade in services is not included. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Intellectual property > Patent applications: No. of Patent Applications.
  • Stocks traded > Turnover ratio: Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Exports > Per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Productivity > GDP per hour worked > 2009: The Conference Board, Labor Productivity and Per Capita Income Levels and the Effects of Working Hours and Labor Utilization, 2009.
  • Aid > Giving > Commitment to Development Index (aid): Each country's score on the Commitment to Development Index for aid giving. The scores shouldn't be interpreted as the monetary amount of aid given, instead, the scores are general rating of how the country aids development.
  • Intellectual property > Copyright > Copyright duration relative to life of author: This stat compares the copyright duration of an original intellectual creation after its author's death. Although the definition is very variable, an original intellectual work can be described as the previously unpublished work of artistic or divulgative nature. As an almost universal rule, the copyright last for the entire life of the author or authors, plus a given number of years (typically 50 to 70). You can check this page for copyright terms concerning works published for the first time after the author's death, works published in non-printed form (like audiovisual creations) and other special cases. Once the copyright term expires, the work becomes public domain, and therefore can be freely used by anyone.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor > GDP to market exchange rate ratio: PPP conversion factor (GDP) to market exchange rate ratio. Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. The ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the result obtained by dividing the PPP conversion factor by the market exchange rate. The ratio, also referred to as the national price level, makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Income > PPP conversion factor, GDP > LCU per international $: PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per international $). Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for GDP.
  • Income > PPP conversion factor, private consumption > LCU per international $: PPP conversion factor, private consumption (LCU per international $). Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for private consumption (i.e., household final consumption expenditure).
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: GNI, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income > Constant LCU: Gross national income is derived as the sum of GNP and the terms of trade adjustment. Data are in constant local currency.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home per capita: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Electricity > Production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income payments > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Income payments refer to employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gold > Reserves > Tonnes > December 2010: Gold reserves of different countries as of December 2010. Figures are in tonnes.
  • Electricity > Exports per capita: This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Electricity > Exports: This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
  • Electricity > Imports: This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism, receipts (current US$). International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Innovation > Military expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditure (current LCU). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Trade > Exports > Primary: Primary exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
  • Oil > Exports per thousand people: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)
    . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.

  • Government spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU per capita: Goods and services expense (current LCU). Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies and other transfers (current LCU). Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind.
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ > Per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Milk products excl butter cheese: Exports of Milk products excl. butter/cheese, by country, in thousands USD
  • Government debt > Deficit and financing > Central government debt > Total > Current LCU: Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year."
  • Companies > Trademark applications, total: Trademark applications, total. Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Pharmaceuticals excl medicaments: Imports of Pharmaceuticals excl. medicaments, by country, in thousands USD
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Transfers > Workers' remittances > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Workers' remittances are current transfers by migrants who are employed or intend to remain employed for more than a year in another economy in which they are considered residents. Some developing countries classify workers' remittances as a factor income receipt (and thus as a component of GNI). The World Bank adheres to international guidelines in defining GNI, and its classification of workers' remittances may therefore differ from national practices. This item shows receipts by the reporting country. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Net taxes: Net taxes on products (net indirect taxes) are the sum of product taxes less subsidies. Product taxes are those taxes payable by producers that relate to the production, sale, purchase or use of the goods and services. Subsidies are grants on the current account made by general government to private enterprises and unincorporated public enterprises. The grants may take the form of payments to ensure a guaranteed price or to enable maintenance of prices of goods and services below costs of production, and other forms of assistance to producers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports of goods > Services > Income and wo: Exports of goods and services are the total value of goods and services exported as well as income and workers' remittances received. Workers' remittances include compensation of employees. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP in 1970 per million: Gross domestic product GDP by exchange rate billion US dollar in 1970. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Merchandise > Exports > Current US$: Merchandise exports show the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP per unit of energy use: GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2000 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
  • Goods imports > BoP > Current US$: Goods imports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Economic structure > Value added by activity > Value added in construction: Gross value added is defined as output minus intermediate consumption and equals the sum of employee compensation, gross operating surplus of government and corporations, gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises and taxes less subsidies on production and imports, except for net taxes on products. The shares of each sector are calculated by dividing the value added in each sector by total value added. Total value added is less than GDP because it excludes value-added tax (VAT) and other product taxes.

    In the following analysis, tables and graphs for some industry branches are grouped together as follows: “industry” consists of mining and quarrying, manufacturing, and production and distribution of electricity, gas and water; “trade” consists of retail and wholesale trade and repair services; “real estate” covers rents for dwellings including the imputed rents of owner-occupiers; “government” includes public administration, law and order and defence.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: High-technology exports are products with high R&D; intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
STAT Finland United States HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $133.40 billion
Ranked 26th.
$2.45 trillion
Ranked 1st. 18 times more than Finland

Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 53.5 CIA
Ranked 54th.
72.5 CIA
Ranked 35th. 36% more than Finland
Overview Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Trade is important with exports accounting for over one third of GDP in recent years. Finland is strongly competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in high-tech exports such as mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU in recent years and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in 2009, with Finland experiencing one of the deepest contractions in the euro zone. A recovery of exports, domestic trade, and household consumption stimulated economic growth in 2010-11. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio, turning previously strong budget surpluses into deficits, but Finland has taken action to ensure it will meet EU deficit targets by 2013 and retains its triple-A credit rating. Finland's main challenge in 2013 will be to stimulate growth in the face of weak demand in EU export markets and government austerity measures meant to reduce its budget deficit. Longer-term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth. The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $49,800. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income. Imported oil accounts for nearly 55% of US consumption. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the United States into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, making this the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, in October 2008 the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009 the US Congress passed and President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012 the federal government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through 2011, the direct costs of the wars totaled nearly $900 billion, according to US government figures. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries. In March 2010, President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million American citizens by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on health care - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010. In July 2010, the president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight. In December 2012, the Federal Reserve Board announced plans to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short term rates near zero until unemployment drops to 6.5% from the December rate of 7.8%, or until inflation rises above 2.5%. Long-term problems include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits - including significant budget shortages for state governments.
Exports $76.46 billion
Ranked 46th.
$1.56 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 20 times more than Finland

Fiscal year calendar year 1
GDP $250.02 billion
Ranked 40th.
$15.68 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 63 times more than Finland

GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 27.1%
Ranked 105th. 42% more than United States
19.1%
Ranked 160th.

GDP > Per capita $35,964.77 per capita
Ranked 20th.
$45,759.46 per capita
Ranked 8th. 27% more than Finland

GDP > Per capita > PPP $35,800.00
Ranked 23th.
$51,700.00
Ranked 6th. 44% more than Finland

GDP > Purchasing power parity $194.10 billion
Ranked 54th.
$16.24 trillion
Ranked 1st. 84 times more than Finland

GDP per capita $46,178.59
Ranked 13th.
$49,965.27
Ranked 10th. 8% more than Finland

Gross National Income $123.00 billion
Ranked 27th.
$9.78 trillion
Ranked 1st. 80 times more than Finland
Public debt 53.1% of GDP
Ranked 54th.
70% of GDP
Ranked 37th. 32% more than Finland

Tourist arrivals 3.58 million
Ranked 46th.
57.94 million
Ranked 3rd. 16 times more than Finland

Unemployment rate 7.8%
Ranked 54th.
8.1%
Ranked 47th. 4% more than Finland

Inflation rate > Consumer prices 3.2%
Ranked 115th. 52% more than United States
2.1%
Ranked 160th.

GDP > Real growth rate -0.8%
Ranked 166th.
2.8%
Ranked 106th.

Human Development Index 0.941
Ranked 14th.
0.944
Ranked 10th. About the same as Finland
Inequality > GINI index 26.88
Ranked 39th.
40.81
Ranked 16th. 52% more than Finland
Distribution of family income > Gini index 26.8
Ranked 13th.
45
Ranked 9th. 68% more than Finland

Exports per capita $14,121.88
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than United States
$4,972.70
Ranked 50th.

GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 3.3%
Ranked 153th. 3 times more than United States
1.2%
Ranked 191st.

GDP > Composition by sector > Services 69.6%
Ranked 46th.
79.7%
Ranked 15th. 15% more than Finland

Debt > External > Per capita $51,770.94 per capita
Ranked 11th. 27% more than United States
$40,678.76 per capita
Ranked 12th.

GINI index 26.88
Ranked 38th.
40.81
Ranked 16th. 52% more than Finland
GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $6.61
Ranked 50th. 40 times more than United States
$0.16
Ranked 139th.

Budget > Expenditures $139.10 billion
Ranked 3rd.
$3.54 trillion
Ranked 1st. 25 times more than Finland

Debt > External $599.30 billion
Ranked 21st.
$15.93 trillion
Ranked 1st. 27 times more than Finland

Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -2.3% of GDP
Ranked 77th.
-6.8% of GDP
Ranked 157th. 3 times more than Finland

Imports $72.13 billion
Ranked 39th.
$2.30 trillion
Ranked 1st. 32 times more than Finland

Tourist arrivals > Per capita 683.16 per 1,000 people
Ranked 47th. 4 times more than United States
190.7 per 1,000 people
Ranked 91st.

GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $34,978.13
Ranked 22nd.
$47,587.30
Ranked 7th. 36% more than Finland

Industries metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second largest industrial output in world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
Economic freedom 74
Ranked 16th.
76
Ranked 10th. 3% more than Finland

Gross National Income per capita $23,708.52
Ranked 13th.
$34,319.53
Ranked 5th. 45% more than Finland
Exports > Commodities electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0%
Imports per capita $13,322.15
Ranked 23th. 82% more than United States
$7,336.40
Ranked 47th.

Exports > Main exports Machinery and electronics, paper and paper products, chemicals Computers and electrical machinery, vehicles, chemical products, food and live animals, military equipment and aircraft
Development > Human Development Index 0.892
Ranked 22nd.
0.937
Ranked 3rd. 5% more than Finland

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 71.2%
Ranked 42nd.
79.7%
Ranked 14th. 12% more than Finland
Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio 1.15
Ranked 11th. 15% more than United States
1
Ranked 24th.

Technology index 5.92
Ranked 3rd.
6.24
Ranked 1st. 5% more than Finland
International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 15.82$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 84th. 60% more than United States
9.9$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 97th.

Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio 3.8
Ranked 21st.
8.4
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Finland
Tax > Tax rates 39.07
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than United States
15.91
Ranked 3rd.

Labor force 2
Ranked 201st.
155
Ranked 39th. 78 times more than Finland

GNI per capita $47,760.00
Ranked 13th.
$48,620.00
Ranked 11th. 2% more than Finland
Exchange rates euros (EUR) per US dollar -<br />0.78 (2012 est.)<br />0.72 (2011 est.)<br />0.76 (2010 est.)<br />0.72 (2009 est.)<br />0.68 (2008 est.) <strong>British pounds per US dollar: </strong>0.6324 (2012 est.), 0.624 (2011 est.), 0.6472 (2010), 0.6175 (2009), 0.5302 (2008)<br /><strong>Canadian dollars per US dollar:</strong> (2012 est.), 1.001 (2012 est.), 0.9895 (2011 est), 1.0302 (2010 est.), 1.1431 (2009), 1.0364 (2008)<br /><strong>Chinese yuan per US dollar:</strong> (2011 est.), 6.311 (2012 est.), 6.4615 (20111 est.), 6.7703 (2010 est.), 6.8314 (2009), 6.9385 (2008)<br /><strong>euros per US dollar:</strong> 0.7838 (2012 est.), 0.7185 (2011 est.), 0.755 (2010 est.), 0.7198 (2009), 0.6827 (2008)<br /><strong>Japanese yen per US dollar:</strong> 79.42 (2012 est.), 79.81 (2011 est.), 87.78 (2010), 93.57 (2009), 103.58 (2008)
Poverty > Poverty by individual and household characteristics > Poverty rate > Children 4.17%
Ranked 28th.
20.59%
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than Finland
Central bank discount rate 1.5%
Ranked 47th. 3 times more than United States
0.5%
Ranked 122nd.

Size of economy > Share of world GDP 0.38%
Ranked 33th.
31.49%
Ranked 1st. 83 times more than Finland
GDP per person 44,580.7
Ranked 12th.
45,989.18
Ranked 9th. 3% more than Finland

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average $5.34
Ranked 119th. 5 times more than United States
$1.00
Ranked 147th.

Agriculture > Products barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
Consumer spending 54.12
Ranked 102nd.
71.37
Ranked 53th. 32% more than Finland

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate 30.5%
Ranked 45th.
35%
Ranked 35th. 15% more than Finland

Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita $38,224.11
Ranked 15th.
$52,608.35
Ranked 5th. 38% more than Finland

GDP per capita in 1950 $4,131.00
Ranked 15th.
$9,573.00
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Finland
Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP 53.34 IMF
Ranked 59th.
106.53 IMF
Ranked 11th. Twice as much as Finland
Current account balance $-3,679,000,000.00
Ranked 143th.
$-440,400,000,000.00
Ranked 180th. 120 times more than Finland

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $1,585.45
Ranked 37th. 7 times more than United States
$234.27
Ranked 105th.

Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating) 6.38
Ranked 8th.
7.16
Ranked 4th. 12% more than Finland
Gross National Income > Per $ GDP $81.35 per $100
Ranked 1st.
$83.23 per $100
Ranked 1st. 2% more than Finland
GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 25,712.68 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 13th.
37,267.33 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 4th. 45% more than Finland

World trade > Exports 88.93 billion
Ranked 30th.
1.58 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 18 times more than Finland

Budget > Revenues per capita $12,413.88
Ranked 20th. 84% more than United States
$6,763.09
Ranked 33th.

Budget > Revenues > Per capita $23,709.26 per capita
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than United States
$8,527.60 per capita
Ranked 29th.

Consumer price index 106.19%
Ranked 144th.
113.41%
Ranked 105th. 7% more than Finland

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals 4.19 million
Ranked 50th.
62.71 million
Ranked 3rd. 15 times more than Finland

Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $38,414.46
Ranked 14th.
$45,335.90
Ranked 10th. 18% more than Finland

Exports > Partners Sweden 11.1%, Russia 9.9%, Germany 9.3%, Netherlands 6.3%, US 6.2%, UK 5.1%, China 4.6% Canada 18.9%, Mexico 14%, China 7.2%, Japan 4.5%
Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita 8,754.06$
Ranked 11th. 58% more than United States
5,533.71$
Ranked 25th.

Imports > Commodities foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys)
Trade > Imports > By good > Tractors 114,607
Ranked 21st.
2.23 million
Ranked 1st. 19 times more than Finland
Inflation 108.35
Ranked 149th.
109.85
Ranked 143th. 1% more than Finland

GNI > Current US$ per capita 36,776.62$
Ranked 11th.
42,124.23$
Ranked 5th. 15% more than Finland

New businesses registered > Number > Per capita 1.98 per 1,000 people
Ranked 25th.
2.28 per 1,000 people
Ranked 26th. 15% more than Finland

International tourism > Number of arrivals 2.08 million
Ranked 51st.
49.21 million
Ranked 3rd. 24 times more than Finland

GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 32,152.62 PPP $
Ranked 15th.
41,889.57 PPP $
Ranked 2nd. 30% more than Finland

GDP > Official exchange rate $244.30 billion
Ranked 43th.
$16.02 trillion
Ranked 1st. 66 times more than Finland

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index 104.8%
Ranked 50th. 13% more than United States
92.75%
Ranked 64th.

Real interest rate 3.2%
Ranked 95th. 4% more than United States
3.08%
Ranked 86th.

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure 145.61 billion USD
Ranked 23th.
10.44 trillion USD
Ranked 2nd. 72 times more than Finland

GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -43.1%
Ranked 76th. 3 times more than United States
-16.9%
Ranked 4th.
Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $134.40 billion
Ranked 34th.
$2.65 trillion
Ranked 1st. 20 times more than Finland

Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations 61,777
Ranked 22nd.
502,876
Ranked 6th. 8 times more than Finland
Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels 28.38 billion
Ranked 46th.
2.36 trillion
Ranked 1st. 83 times more than Finland

Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US $60.08 million
Ranked 146th.
$134.71 billion
Ranked 3rd. 2242 times more than Finland

GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $44,375.23
Ranked 13th.
$47,264.02
Ranked 8th. 7% more than Finland

Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita 758.23 BoP $
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than United States
371.4 BoP $
Ranked 35th.

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number 221,000
Ranked 8th.
5.87 million
Ranked 1st. 27 times more than Finland
Currency euro US dollar
Economic growth > Per capita -8.45
Ranked 154th. 2 times more than United States
-3.47
Ranked 111th.

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita 42.39 per 1,000 people
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than United States
19.98 per 1,000 people
Ranked 19th.
Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 119
Ranked 54th.
4,102
Ranked 3rd. 34 times more than Finland

Outbound tourist spending 5.53 billion
Ranked 34th.
117.97 billion
Ranked 2nd. 21 times more than Finland

Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc 2.11 million
Ranked 23th.
116.2 million
Ranked 1st. 55 times more than Finland
Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU 11.45 billion
Ranked 73th.
1.4 trillion
Ranked 15th. 122 times more than Finland

GDP > Per $ GDP $35,964.77 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 20th.
$45,759.46 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 8th. 27% more than Finland

Trade > Imports per capita $12,885.60
Ranked 15th. 2 times more than United States
$6,152.08
Ranked 42nd.

Trade > Exports $73.53 billion
Ranked 39th.
$1.27 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 17 times more than Finland

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita -106.712 BoP $
Ranked 119th.
340.7 BoP $
Ranked 23th.

Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU 1,000,000
Ranked 100th.
31.87 billion
Ranked 32nd. 31868 times more than Finland

GNI 238.08 billion
Ranked 31st.
14.01 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 59 times more than Finland

Debt > External per capita $51,278.95
Ranked 12th. 26% more than United States
$40,666.44
Ranked 13th.

Government spending 28.85 billion
Ranked 27th.
1.74 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 60 times more than Finland

Currency > Monetary unit 1 euro = 100 cents 1 US dollar = 100 cents
Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU 90.48 billion
Ranked 42nd.
12.26 trillion
Ranked 8th. 135 times more than Finland

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 167.25 billion
Ranked 111th.
14.23 trillion
Ranked 18th. 85 times more than Finland

Tax > Tax payments > Number 8
Ranked 166th.
11
Ranked 139th. 38% more than Finland

GDP > Current LCU 155320000000 12416510000000
Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $15,812.12
Ranked 19th.
$30,898.88
Ranked 1st. 95% more than Finland

GDP per capita in 1900 $1,620.00
Ranked 20th.
$4,096.00
Ranked 3rd. 3 times more than Finland
GDP per capita > Constant LCU 27908.54 37267.33
Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Europe 1.71 million
Ranked 35th.
10.7 million
Ranked 10th. 6 times more than Finland

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 19,283.67$
Ranked 8th.
28,053.8$
Ranked 3rd. 45% more than Finland

Industrial > Production growth rate 6%
Ranked 56th. 82% more than United States
3.3%
Ranked 92nd.

Trade > Imports $69.11 billion
Ranked 38th.
$1.90 trillion
Ranked 1st. 28 times more than Finland

GDP per capita in 1973 $10,768.00
Ranked 14th.
$16,607.00
Ranked 2nd. 54% more than Finland
Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.778
Ranked 53th. 4 times more than United States
0.201
Ranked 98th.

Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$ per capita $3,086.77
Ranked 6th. 32% more than United States
$2,338.08
Ranked 12th.

Commercial bank prime lending rate 2.06%
Ranked 177th.
3.25%
Ranked 170th. 58% more than Finland

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita 5,242.12
Ranked 31st.
7,520.82
Ranked 17th. 43% more than Finland

Investment > External financial assets €237 billion
Ranked 36th.
€42.17 trillion
Ranked 1st. 178 times more than Finland

Budget > Expenditures per capita $12,180.82
Ranked 23th. 11% more than United States
$10,981.93
Ranked 24th.

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million 21.98
Ranked 37th. 68% more than United States
13.07
Ranked 49th.

Technological achievement 0.74
Ranked 1st. 1% more than United States
0.73
Ranked 2nd.
Inequality > Gini coefficient > Level 0.269 Different summary measure
Ranked 24th.
0.381 Different summary measure
Ranked 4th. 42% more than Finland
Imports > Partners Russia 17.7%, Sweden 14.8%, Germany 13.9%, Netherlands 8.1%, China 4.4% China 19%, Canada 14.1%, Mexico 12%, Japan 6.4%, Germany 4.7%
International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita 672.69$
Ranked 20th. Twice as much as United States
337.12$
Ranked 32nd.

Economic aid > Donor $1.02 billion
Ranked 17th.
$23.53 billion
Ranked 1st. 23 times more than Finland
Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $ $38,220.00
Ranked 15th.
$52,610.00
Ranked 5th. 38% more than Finland

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $ $38,271.42
Ranked 20th.
$51,748.56
Ranked 8th. 35% more than Finland

Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ $11.08 billion
Ranked 68th.
$574.27 billion
Ranked 4th. 52 times more than Finland

Debt > Government debt > Net government debt, share of GDP -50.933 IMF
Ranked 93th.
87.86 IMF
Ranked 10th.
Overall productivity > PPP $54,294.20
Ranked 14th.
$74,624.70
Ranked 2nd. 37% more than Finland
Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ $206.96 billion
Ranked 48th.
$16.51 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 80 times more than Finland

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita $38,271.42
Ranked 20th.
$51,748.56
Ranked 8th. 35% more than Finland

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $31,609.52
Ranked 22nd.
$45,335.90
Ranked 7th. 43% more than Finland

Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $85.61 billion
Ranked 48th.
$9.70 trillion
Ranked 1st. 113 times more than Finland

Trade > Exports per capita $13,709.71
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than United States
$4,105.70
Ranked 46th.

Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth -0.209%
Ranked 151st.
2.21%
Ranked 111th.

Total > Reserves in months of imports 1.59
Ranked 109th. 73% more than United States
0.92
Ranked 120th.

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ 134.89 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 32nd.
11.05 trillion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 1st. 82 times more than Finland

Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita 16,791.47
Ranked 37th.
39,342.95
Ranked 20th. 2 times more than Finland

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita 37,529.36$
Ranked 11th.
43,695.99$
Ranked 5th. 16% more than Finland

Net barter terms of trade 85.65%
Ranked 31st.
97.17%
Ranked 22nd. 13% more than Finland

International tourism > Number of departures 6.04 million
Ranked 20th.
63.5 million
Ranked 3rd. 11 times more than Finland

Tax > Total tax wedge > Single worker 45.9%
Ranked 7th. 53% more than United States
30%
Ranked 21st.
Poverty and inequality > Income inequality 1993-2011 26.88 latest available
Ranked 27th.
40.81 latest available
Ranked 3rd. 52% more than Finland
GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita 25,758.98
Ranked 14th.
35,518
Ranked 8th. 38% more than Finland

Patents granted 187 per million people
Ranked 9th.
289 per million people
Ranked 3rd. 55% more than Finland
Investment > Gross fixed 20% of GDP
Ranked 94th. 55% more than United States
12.9% of GDP
Ranked 139th.

Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU 72.42 billion
Ranked 67th.
2.54 trillion
Ranked 19th. 35 times more than Finland

GDP > CIA Factbook $142.20 billion
Ranked 48th.
$10.99 trillion
Ranked 1st. 77 times more than Finland

Gross national saving 19.6% of GDP
Ranked 77th. 57% more than United States
12.5% of GDP
Ranked 118th.

Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ $34,719.74
Ranked 19th.
$45,989.18
Ranked 6th. 32% more than Finland

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 2.8%
Ranked 159th. 3 times more than United States
1.1%
Ranked 194th.
GDP in 1970 $11.10
Ranked 20th.
$1,025.50
Ranked 1st. 92 times more than Finland
Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ 1.9 billion BoP $
Ranked 56th.
15.77 billion BoP $
Ranked 8th. 8 times more than Finland

GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $35,964.77 per capita
Ranked 20th.
$45,759.46 per capita
Ranked 8th. 27% more than Finland

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $11.08 billion
Ranked 72nd.
$150.20 billion
Ranked 18th. 14 times more than Finland

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$ $86,288.00
Ranked 21st.
$372,950.00
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than Finland

Stock of domestic credit $265.30 billion
Ranked 37th.
$16.17 trillion
Ranked 1st. 61 times more than Finland

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ 3.06 billion$
Ranked 40th.
122.94 billion$
Ranked 1st. 40 times more than Finland

GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 56.4%
Ranked 134th.
68.6%
Ranked 80th. 22% more than Finland
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 25.9%
Ranked 114th. 35% more than United States
19.2%
Ranked 161st.
Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU 35,561.61
Ranked 112th.
51,748.56
Ranked 98th. 46% more than Finland

Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations 12
Ranked 177th. 3 times more than United States
4
Ranked 185th.

Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita -53,011.17 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 69th.
38,102.24 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 22nd.

Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $31,571.97
Ranked 17th.
$46,084.41
Ranked 3rd. 46% more than Finland

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure 139.47 billion
Ranked 40th.
11.15 trillion
Ranked 1st. 80 times more than Finland

Labor force per thousand people 0.00038
Ranked 169th.
0.000489
Ranked 115th. 29% more than Finland

Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking 18
Ranked 137th. 6 times more than United States
3
Ranked 152nd.
Productivity > GDP per hour worked 45.22
Ranked 11th.
49.52
Ranked 9th. 10% more than Finland
Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita 26,894.51 USD
Ranked 7th.
33,496.5 USD
Ranked 5th. 25% more than Finland

Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$ $6.01 billion
Ranked 37th.
$117.29 billion
Ranked 2nd. 20 times more than Finland

Tax > Components of taxation > Personal income tax 31.2%
Ranked 9th.
37.7%
Ranked 5th. 21% more than Finland
Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Africa 4,123
Ranked 81st.
251,654
Ranked 16th. 61 times more than Finland

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ $46.88 billion
Ranked 45th.
$2.55 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 54 times more than Finland

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita $8,657.79
Ranked 20th. 7% more than United States
$8,113.69
Ranked 21st.

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita 2,124.99
Ranked 62nd.
4,477.99
Ranked 46th. 2 times more than Finland

Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics 82,614
Ranked 36th.
3.41 million
Ranked 3rd. 41 times more than Finland
Investment > External financial assets per capita €45,004.72
Ranked 20th.
€133,164.46
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Finland

Trade > Exports > By good > Passenger cars etc 710,711
Ranked 24th.
21.75 million
Ranked 7th. 31 times more than Finland
Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services per capita 18,538.13
Ranked 27th. 3 times more than United States
6,995.23
Ranked 62nd.

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ -559,821,400 BoP $
Ranked 119th.
100.68 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st.

Market value of publicly traded shares $143.10 billion
Ranked 34th.
$15.64 trillion
Ranked 1st. 109 times more than Finland

Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc 7,929
Ranked 32nd.
3.43 million
Ranked 1st. 433 times more than Finland
GDP deflator 106.08
Ranked 160th.
112.4
Ranked 146th. 6% more than Finland

High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita $3.18 million per 1,000 people
Ranked 6th. 4 times more than United States
$760,722.33 per 1,000 people
Ranked 24th.

Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking 84
Ranked 70th. 14 times more than United States
6
Ranked 148th.
Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU per capita 0.191
Ranked 99th.
102.28
Ranked 64th. 537 times more than Finland

Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $31,609.52
Ranked 22nd.
$45,335.90
Ranked 7th. 43% more than Finland

Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.192$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 97th. 3% more than United States
0.187$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 112th.

Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP $0.37 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 62nd. 5 times more than United States
$0.08 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 152nd.

Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut 1,996
Ranked 22nd. 1% more than United States
1,985
Ranked 31st.

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate 26%
Ranked 56th.
40%
Ranked 4th. 54% more than Finland

Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted 0.839
Ranked 11th. 2% more than United States
0.821
Ranked 16th.
Budget > Expenditures > Per capita $21,762.12 per capita
Ranked 10th. 2 times more than United States
$9,065.55 per capita
Ranked 26th.

Stock of direct foreign investment > Abroad $186.70 billion
Ranked 24th.
$4.45 trillion
Ranked 1st. 24 times more than Finland

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ $158.69 billion
Ranked 35th.
$18.67 trillion
Ranked 1st. 118 times more than Finland

GDP > Median household income (PPP) $42,230.00
Ranked 15th.
$53,046.00
Ranked 7th. 26% more than Finland
Bank capital to assets ratio 8.8%
Ranked 35th.
10.4%
Ranked 11th. 18% more than Finland

Summary A eurozone member since 2002, Finland has an export-driven economy. Phone maker Nokia is its biggest company The US is the world&#039;s leading industrial power. Its recovery from the 2008 economic crisis has been sluggish
Researchers in RandD > Per million people 7,832.21 per million people
Ranked 1st. 70% more than United States
4,605.01 per million people
Ranked 4th.

Trade > Imports > By good > Computer equipment 1.02 million
Ranked 27th.
52.98 million
Ranked 1st. 52 times more than Finland
GDP growth > Duration 1980-2000 56%
Ranked 26th. The same as United States
56%
Ranked 25th.
Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU per capita 4,445.95
Ranked 29th. 53% more than United States
2,905.93
Ranked 37th.

Trade > Exports > By good > Computer equipment 212,288
Ranked 26th.
15.23 million
Ranked 4th. 72 times more than Finland
Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ $207.21 billion
Ranked 53th.
$16.24 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 78 times more than Finland

Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita 2,675.85 BoP $
Ranked 17th. 67% more than United States
1,606.16 BoP $
Ranked 22nd.

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$ $21,108.13
Ranked 15th.
$30,898.88
Ranked 3rd. 46% more than Finland

Debt > Government debt > Net government debt, share of GDP per million people -9.672 IMF
Ranked 94th.
0.277 IMF
Ranked 77th.
Industrial production growth rate -5.2%
Ranked 160th.
3.2%
Ranked 79th.

Gross savings 47.19 billion
Ranked 29th.
1.38 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 29 times more than Finland

Gross domestic savings 49.44 billion
Ranked 35th.
1.61 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 33 times more than Finland

Patent applications > Residents 1,799
Ranked 16th.
231,588
Ranked 2nd. 129 times more than Finland

Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ 85.41 billion BoP $
Ranked 32nd.
2.46 trillion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 29 times more than Finland

Income payments > BoP > Current US$ 14.32 billion BoP $
Ranked 25th.
463.35 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 32 times more than Finland

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100 95.43
Ranked 77th. 7% more than United States
89.58
Ranked 88th.

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 25,712.7 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 13th.
37,380.07 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 4th. 45% more than Finland

GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita 28,604.81 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 15th.
37,380.07 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 2nd. 31% more than Finland

Debt > External > Per $ GDP $1,202.70 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 13th. 58% more than United States
$760.50 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 31st.

Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 6,246.18 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 7th. 35% more than United States
4,623.68 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 12th.

IKEA > First store opening year 1996 1985
Inflation > Duration 1990-2000 1.5%
Ranked 146th.
2.7%
Ranked 122nd. 80% more than Finland
Oil > Exports 133,600 bbl/day
Ranked 57th.
1.92 million bbl/day
Ranked 9th. 14 times more than Finland

GDP > PPP $155.49 billion
Ranked 51st.
$11.63 trillion
Ranked 1st. 75 times more than Finland
GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ 28,604.79 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 15th.
37,267.33 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 2nd. 30% more than Finland

Oil > Production 8,718 bbl/day
Ranked 87th.
9.69 million bbl/day
Ranked 3rd. 1111 times more than Finland

Tourist departures 5.85 million
Ranked 21st.
63.55 million
Ranked 4th. 11 times more than Finland

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita 39,935.32$
Ranked 15th.
57,519.54$
Ranked 6th. 44% more than Finland

Spending > Final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ $200.67 billion
Ranked 38th.
$13.70 trillion
Ranked 1st. 68 times more than Finland

Tax > GDP > Current US$ $247.55 billion
Ranked 41st.
$16.24 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 66 times more than Finland

GDP > PPP > Current international $ per capita 32,152.65 PPP $
Ranked 15th.
42,016.29 PPP $
Ranked 2nd. 31% more than Finland

Taxes > Taxes on the average worker > Taxes on the average worker 43.66%
Ranked 9th. 46% more than United States
29.98%
Ranked 22nd.
Business efficiency 82.63
Ranked 6th.
100
Ranked 1st. 21% more than Finland
Oil > Consumption 217,400 bbl/day
Ranked 53th.
19.15 million bbl/day
Ranked 1st. 88 times more than Finland

Innovation 29.1
Ranked 2nd.
30.3
Ranked 1st. 4% more than Finland
GDP > PPP per capita $29,740.61
Ranked 15th.
$39,712.68
Ranked 2nd. 34% more than Finland
Saving rate 19.83
Ranked 50th. 2 times more than United States
9.77
Ranked 96th.

Commitment to foreign aid 18%
Ranked 13th. 6 times more than United States
3%
Ranked 18th.
Lending interest rate 3.69%
Ranked 142nd.
6.19%
Ranked 118th. 68% more than Finland

Bank liquid > Reserves to bank assets ratio 2
Ranked 143th. 3 times more than United States
0.76
Ranked 160th.

Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.352$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 100th. 2 times more than United States
0.154$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 163th.

Gross capital formation > Current US$ 39.04 billion$
Ranked 28th.
2.24 trillion$
Ranked 1st. 57 times more than Finland

Public institution index 6.48
Ranked 3rd. 13% more than United States
5.74
Ranked 21st.
Investment > Foreign investment > Commitment to Development Index (investment) 5.1
Ranked 15th. 2% more than United States
5
Ranked 16th.
Net income > BoP > Current US$ -278,101,900 BoP $
Ranked 69th.
11.29 billion BoP $
Ranked 5th.

GNI > PPP > Current international $ 168.45 billion PPP $
Ranked 49th.
12.45 trillion PPP $
Ranked 1st. 74 times more than Finland

Aid > Untied given $598.80 million
Ranked 17th.
$17,845.09 million
Ranked 1st. 30 times more than Finland

Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption 9.62%
Ranked 1st. 77% more than United States
5.44%
Ranked 30th.
Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market 139.8 billion USD
Ranked 27th.
10.46 trillion USD
Ranked 1st. 75 times more than Finland

Steel > Production 3.1 million tonnes
Ranked 35th.
58.1 million tonnes
Ranked 5th. 19 times more than Finland

Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU per capita 37,401.56
Ranked 91st.
51,447.71
Ranked 73th. 38% more than Finland

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ per capita $25,592.24
Ranked 12th.
$35,518.00
Ranked 4th. 39% more than Finland

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita 25,944.55 USD
Ranked 8th.
33,572.88 USD
Ranked 3rd. 29% more than Finland

Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 116.59
Ranked 157th.
117.56
Ranked 152nd. 1% more than Finland

Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index 0.757
Ranked 8th. 11% more than United States
0.681
Ranked 22nd.
Terms of trade 116
Ranked 17th. The same as United States
116
Ranked 15th.
Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$ $6.81 billion
Ranked 24th.
$-378,434,537,000.00
Ranked 143th.

Economy growth -8.02
Ranked 155th. 3 times more than United States
-2.63
Ranked 111th.

Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU 23.96 billion
Ranked 40th.
905.45 billion
Ranked 8th. 38 times more than Finland

Net domestic credit > Current LCU 121976000000 11970270000000
Intellectual property > Patents granted 4,675
Ranked 14th.
224,505
Ranked 2nd. 48 times more than Finland

GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 40.5%
Ranked 92nd. 3 times more than United States
13.5%
Ranked 182nd.
Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita 1,814.09 BoP $
Ranked 12th.
-2,678.39 BoP $
Ranked 134th.

Government spending in research and development 0.93% of GDP
Ranked 2nd. 21% more than United States
0.77% of GDP
Ranked 5th.
Trade > Export growth 4.75
Ranked 79th.
8.37
Ranked 54th. 76% more than Finland

GDP > CIA Factbook per capita $27,277.89
Ranked 18th.
$37,882.45
Ranked 2nd. 39% more than Finland

New businesses registered > Number 10,424
Ranked 38th.
676,830
Ranked 1st. 65 times more than Finland

Tax > Components of taxation > Property tax 2.5%
Ranked 15th.
10.1%
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than Finland
Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > Gross domestic product $183.60 Billion US dollars, curre
Ranked 26th.
$13,741.60 Billion US dollars, curre
Ranked 1st. 75 times more than Finland
Gross Domestic Product > GDP > Size of GDP > GDP per capita $34,717.98 US dollars, current price
Ranked 15th.
$45,488.88 US dollars, current price
Ranked 3rd. 31% more than Finland
Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$ 11.37 billion BoP $
Ranked 25th.
-716,730,000,000 BoP $
Ranked 137th.

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average 0.8 1
GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption 25.1%
Ranked 16th. 29% more than United States
19.5%
Ranked 53th.
Public expenditure > Social expenditure > Public social expenditure 26.1%
Ranked 7th. 64% more than United States