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Country vs country: Russia and United Kingdom compared: Economy stats

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Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar). The ratio of the PPP conversion factor to the official exchange rate (also referred to as the national price level) makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals.
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Big Mac Index: Price of a McDonald's Big Mac in US Dollars at current exchange rates. January 12th, 2006.
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Debt > External > Per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Population below poverty line > Per capita: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income per capita: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average: Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average). Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D;, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Tax > Tax rates: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • GDP > PPP: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004.
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% of the population to the average income of the poorest 20% of the population.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP: Gross government debt as % of GDP (IMF).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate: Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Inflation: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • New businesses registered > Number > Per capita: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 trillion $ gross domestic product.
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate: Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations.
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating): Overall rating of each country's adherence to the corporate governance guidelines set forth in three prominent economical essays. The ratings are out of 10, with 10 meaning full adherence.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Interest rates > Central bank discount rate: Compares the annualized interest rate set by centrals banks over loans requested by commercial banks to meet temporary shortages of funds. Through these loans, central banks can influence the commercial banks' interest rates as a tool of monetary policy. Usually their interest rates are lower than the ones offered by commercial banks, which lend it at a higher rate to make their profit.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Debt > External per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Bank capital to assets ratio: Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net current transfers from abroad > Constant LCU: Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Total > Reserves in months of imports: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. This item shows reserves expressed in terms of the number of months of imports of goods and services which could be paid for.
  • Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth: GDP growth (annual %).
  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. 
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • Investment > External financial assets per capita: Financial assets in 2013 EUR billions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Big Mac Index > Per $ GDP: Price of a McDonald's Big Mac in US Dollars at current exchange rates. January 12th, 2006. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 14.1 billion $ gross domestic product.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Outbound tourist spending: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars.
  • Investment > External financial assets: Gross financial assets privately owned by residents of the country, mainly in the form of bank deposits, insurances and securities, in EUR.
  • Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index: Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
    2000 = 100
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Also included are taxes and money spent by citizens while abroad. . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • GDP > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut: The year in which the first IKEA opened in each country. The first IKEA opened in Sweden in 1958.
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100: Real effective exchange rate index (2005 = 100). Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • GDP > PPP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU per capita: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
  • Debt > Net current transfers from abroad > Current LCU: Net current transfers from abroad (current LCU). Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in current local currency.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GNI per capita, Atlas method > Current US$: GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$). GNI per capita (formerly GNP per capita) is the gross national income, converted to U.S. dollars using the World Bank Atlas method, divided by the midyear population. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • International tourism > Number of departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited.
  • Currency > Monetary unit: Country currency.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Patents granted: Patents granted to residents per million people 1998.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average: Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Deposit interest rate: Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits.
  • Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations: Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations). Ease of doing business ranks economies from 1 to 189, with first place being the best. A high ranking (a low numerical rank) means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators.
  • Trade > Exports: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • Debt > External > Per $ GDP: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Oil > Exports: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)


  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$: Portfolio investment excluding liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves covers transactions in equity securities and debt securities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum: US imports of bauxite and aluminum, USD Thousands, 2004
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • Government > Finance minister: The name of each country's finance minister. A finance minister is a cabinet member in charge of overseeing and regulating the economic and monetary activity of a country. Certain countries have different titles for their finance minister, such as the UK's "Chancellor of the Exchequer" or the United States' "Secretary of the Treasury".
  • Labor force > By occupation > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita (constant LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency.
  • GNI > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit is the sum of net credit to the nonfinancial public sector, credit to the private sector, and other accounts. Data are in current local currency.
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • Overall productivity > PPP: Estimates: GDP (PPP) per person employed, US$
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ per capita: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking: Every economy has established a complex system of laws and institutions intended to protect the interests of workers and to guarantee a minimum standard of living for its population. The OECD Job Study and the International Encyclopedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations identify 4 areas subject to statutory regulation in all countries: employment, social security, industrial relations and occupational health and safety. Doing Business focuses on the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This year data on social security payments by the employer and pension benefits, including the mandatory retirement age, have been added. The data on hiring and firing workers are based on a detailed survey of employment and social security regulations. The survey is completed by local law firms. The employment laws of most countries are available online in the NATLEX database, published by the International Labour Organization. In all cases both actual laws and secondary sources are used to ensure accuracy. Conflicting answers are further checked against 2 additional sources, including a local legal treatise on employment regulation. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Net trade in goods and services > Current US$: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Wholesale price index: Wholesale price index refers to a mix of agricultural and industrial goods at various stages of production and distribution, including import duties. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Business efficiency: Based upon a business efficiency index where '100' represents the highest level of business efficiency.
  • Tourist departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure."
  • Oil > Production: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption: Percentage of country's total income or consumption that belongs to the poorest 5% of its citizens.
  • Transnational corporations > Affiliates: Number of foreign affiliates to transnational corporations
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Gross savings: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU per capita: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > General government final consumption expenditure > Current LCU: General government final consumption expenditure (current LCU). General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current local currency.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking: Doing Business records all generic procedures that are officially required for an entrepreneur to start up and operate an industrial or commercial business. These include obtaining all necessary licenses and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications or inscriptions with relevant authorities. After a study of laws, regulations and publicly available information on business entry, a detailed list of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirements is developed. Subsequently, local incorporation lawyers and government officials complete and verify the data on applicable procedures, the time and cost of complying with each procedure under normal circumstances and the paid-in minimum capital. On average 4 law firms participate in each country. Information is also collected on the sequence in which procedures are to be completed and whether procedures may be carried out simultaneously. It is assumed that any required information is readily available and that all government and nongovernment agencies involved in the start-up process function efficiently and without corruption. If answers by local experts differ, inquiries continue until the data are reconciled. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Labor force per thousand people: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Electricity > Production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number per million: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita, PPP (current international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per unit of energy use: GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2000 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
  • Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries, and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.
  • Tax > Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions."
  • Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
    Additional details:
    • Gibraltar: negligible (2013)


  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Income > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income > Constant LCU: Gross national income is derived as the sum of GNP and the terms of trade adjustment. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$ per capita: International tourism, expenditures (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Health expenditure per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in international dollars converted using 2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) rates.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Electricity > Consumption per capita: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU per capita: Social contributions (current LCU). Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies and other transfers (current LCU). Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind.
  • Oil > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Innovation: Innovation
    Units: Unitless Scale
  • Trade balance with US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Economic importance: Globalpolicy.org
  • Purchasing power parity > Household final > Consumption expenditure > PPP > Current international $: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to current international dollars using purchasing power parity rates."
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Constant 2005 international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market: Total amount of money spent by nation's consumers, or households, in their domestic market. Amount includes, but is not limited to, goods, rent, and government fees such as fines and permits. Taxes are included as well. For instance, in 2011 American consumers spent $10.46 trillion in America.
  • Savings > Gross savings > Current US$: Gross savings (current US$). Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP (constant 2000 US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Electricity > Consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Gross savings > Current US$: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Commercial service imports > Current US$: Commercial service imports are total service imports minus imports of government services not included elsewhere. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993) as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. Definitions may vary among reporting economies.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Companies > New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered (number). New businesses registered are the number of new limited liability corporations registered in the calendar year.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1975-2000: GDP per capita annual growth rate (%) from 1975 to 2000
  • Balance of payments > Reserves and other items > Total > Reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports of goods > Services and income: Exports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) exports, exports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) receipts. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Trade > Exports less imports: External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Saving rate: ""Saving rate"" or gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports of goods > Services > Income and wo: Exports of goods and services are the total value of goods and services exported as well as income and workers' remittances received. Workers' remittances include compensation of employees. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Balance of payments > Financial > Reserves: Changes in net reserves is the net change in a country's holdings of international reserves resulting from transactions on the current, capital, and financial accounts. These include changes in holdings of monetary gold, SDRs, foreign exchange assets, reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, and other claims on nonresidents that are available to the central authority. The measure is net of liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves, and counterpart items for valuation changes and exceptional financing items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > Median household income (PPP): Median Household Income $PPP.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures per 1000: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Oil > Imports: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Oil > Exports per thousand people: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)
    . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.

  • Balance of payments > Shares > Current US$: Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate: Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits."
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Deposit interest rate: Deposit interest rate is the rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits."
  • Oil > Consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Currency > DEC alternative conversion factor > LCU per US$: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Constant LCU: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Total > Reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > PPP conversion factor > Private > Consumption > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for private consumption (i.e., household final consumption expenditure)."
  • Purchasing power parity > PPP conversion factor > GDP to market exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. The ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the result obtained by dividing the PPP conversion factor by the market exchange rate. The ratio, also referred to as the national price level, makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States."
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ > Per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Intellectual property > Patents granted: No. of Patents Granted.
  • Debt > Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments (current LCU). Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents.
  • Government spending > Goods and services expense > Current LCU per capita: Goods and services expense (current LCU). Goods and services include all government payments in exchange for goods and services used for the production of market and nonmarket goods and services. Own-account capital formation is excluded. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage (current US$). Carbon dioxide damage is estimated to be $20 per ton of carbon (the unit damage in 1995 U.S. dollars) times the number of tons of carbon emitted. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$: Adjusted savings: education expenditure (current US$). Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted savings: education expenditure (current US$). Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Goods imports > BoP > Current US$: Goods imports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Changes in net > Reserves > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Changes in net reserves is the net change in a country's holdings of international reserves resulting from transactions on the current, capital, and financial accounts. These include changes in holdings of monetary gold, SDRs, foreign exchange assets, reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, and other claims on nonresidents that are available to the central authority. The measure is net of liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves, and counterpart items for valuation changes and exceptional financing items. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: High-technology exports are products with high R&D; intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Inbound tourism income > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Companies > Stock market > Business extent of disclosure index > 0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure: Business extent of disclosure index (0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure). Disclosure index measures the extent to which investors are protected through disclosure of ownership and financial information. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher values indicating more disclosure.
  • Innovation > Technicians in R&D > Per million people: Technicians in R&D; (per million people). Technicians in R&D; and equivalent staff are people whose main tasks require technical knowledge and experience in engineering, physical and life sciences (technicians), or social sciences and humanities (equivalent staff). They participate in R&D; by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers.
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Research and development spending: Research and development (R&D;) expenditures for most recent year available between 1990 and 2000.
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Inflation > Duration 1990-2000: Average annual change in consumer price index (%) 1990 - 2000
  • Balance of payments > Reserves and other items > Total > Reserves in months of imports: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. This item shows reserves expressed in terms of the number of months of imports of goods and services they could pay for [Reserves/(Imports/12)]."
  • Government expenditure: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports > Goods and services > Current U: Exports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Imports > Goods and services > Current : Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Researchers in RandD > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
  • Economy growth: Measures growth in the economy or ""economy growth"". Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources."
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > No. of stores: The number of IKEA outlets in each country.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Constant LCU: GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ per capita: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports to US: in US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures for travel items > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures for travel items (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$: International tourism, receipts (current US$). International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Gross savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Oil > Proved reserves per capita: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Goods > Exports > BoP > Current US$: Goods exports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tourism receipts > International per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax revenue as percentage of GDP: Heritage Foundation (2012).
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Current international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > GNI per capita > PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Patent applications > Nonresidents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Entrepreneurship > Closing a Business > Index ranking: Doing Business studies the time and cost of bankruptcy proceedings involving domestic entities. The data are derived from survey responses by local law firms. Answers are provided by a senior partner at each firm in cooperation with 1 or 2 junior associates. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Innovation > Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • Stocks traded > Turnover ratio: Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period.
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$ > Per capita: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Debt > Net current transfers from abroad > Constant LCU per capita: Net current transfers from abroad (constant LCU). Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > External balance on goods and services > Current US$ per capita: External balance on goods and services (current US$). External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Gross national expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Gross national expenditure (current US$). Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$ per capita: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Savings > Gross savings > Current LCU per capita: Gross savings (current LCU). Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: NPISHs final consumption expenditure per capita: Amount of money taken in by households from non-profit institutions serving households. NPISHs have little, if any, government funding and influence. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Constant LCU: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (constant LCU). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Current US$: Final consumption expenditure (current US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 per million: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current LCU: Household final consumption expenditure (current LCU). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current local currency.
  • Spending > General government final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: General government final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Natural gas > Production per capita: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
STAT Russia United Kingdom HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $416.80 billion
Ranked 12th.
$986.10 billion
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Russia

Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -0.1% of GDP
Ranked 41st.
-8.2% of GDP
Ranked 163th. 82 times more than Russia

Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 12.2 CIA
Ranked 139th.
90 CIA
Ranked 17th. 7 times more than Russia
Overview Russia has undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, moving from a globally-isolated, centrally-planned economy to a more market-based and globally-integrated economy. Economic reforms in the 1990s privatized most industry, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. The protection of property rights is still weak and the private sector remains subject to heavy state interference. In 2011, Russia became the world's leading oil producer, surpassing Saudi Arabia; Russia is the second-largest producer of natural gas; Russia holds the world's largest natural gas reserves, the second-largest coal reserves, and the eighth-largest crude oil reserves. Russia is also a top exporter of metals such as steel and primary aluminum. Russia's reliance on commodity exports makes it vulnerable to boom and bust cycles that follow the volatile swings in global prices. The government since 2007 has embarked on an ambitious program to reduce this dependency and build up the country's high technology sectors, but with few visible results so far. The economy had averaged 7% growth in the decade following the 1998 Russian financial crisis, resulting in a doubling of real disposable incomes and the emergence of a middle class. The Russian economy, however, was one of the hardest hit by the 2008-09 global economic crisis as oil prices plummeted and the foreign credits that Russian banks and firms relied on dried up. According to the World Bank the government's anti-crisis package in 2008-09 amounted to roughly 6.7% of GDP. The economic decline bottomed out in mid-2009 and the economy began to grow again in the third quarter of 2009. High oil prices buoyed Russian growth in 2011-12 and helped Russia reduce the budget deficit inherited from 2008-09. Russia has reduced unemployment to a record low and has lowered inflation below double digit rates. Russia joined the World Trade Organization in 2012, which will reduce trade barriers in Russia for foreign goods and services and help open foreign markets to Russian goods and services. At the same time, Russia has sought to cement economic ties with countries in the former Soviet space through a Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, and, in the next several years, through the creation of a new Russia-led economic bloc called the Eurasian Economic Union. Russia has had difficulty attracting foreign direct investment and has experienced large capital outflows in the past several years, leading to official programs to improve Russia's international rankings for its investment climate. Russia's adoption of a new oil-price-based fiscal rule in 2012 and a more flexible exchange rate policy have improved its ability to deal with external shocks, including volatile oil prices. Russia's long-term challenges also include a shrinking workforce, rampant corruption, and underinvestment in infrastructure. The UK, a leading trading power and financial center, is the second largest economy in Europe after Germany. Over the past two decades, the government has greatly reduced public ownership and contained the growth of social welfare programs. Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 2% of the labor force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil resources, but its oil and natural gas reserves are declining and the UK became a net importer of energy in 2005. Services, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account by far for the largest proportion of GDP while industry continues to decline in importance. After emerging from recession in 1992, Britain's economy enjoyed the longest period of expansion on record during which time growth outpaced most of Western Europe. In 2008, however, the global financial crisis hit the economy particularly hard, due to the importance of its financial sector. Sharply declining home prices, high consumer debt, and the global economic slowdown compounded Britain's economic problems, pushing the economy into recession in the latter half of 2008 and prompting the then BROWN (Labour) government to implement a number of measures to stimulate the economy and stabilize the financial markets; these include nationalizing parts of the banking system, temporarily cutting taxes, suspending public sector borrowing rules, and moving forward public spending on capital projects. Facing burgeoning public deficits and debt levels, in 2010 the CAMERON-led coalition government (between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats) initiated a five-year austerity program, which aimed to lower London's budget deficit from over 10% of GDP in 2010 to nearly 1% by 2015. In November 2011, Chancellor of the Exchequer George OSBORNE announced additional austerity measures through 2017 because of slower-than-expected economic growth and the impact of the euro-zone debt crisis. The CAMERON government raised the value added tax from 17.5% to 20% in 2011. It has pledged to reduce the corporation tax rate to 21% by 2014. The Bank of England (BoE) implemented an asset purchase program of up to £375 billion (approximately $605 billion) as of December 2012. During times of economic crisis, the BoE coordinates interest rate moves with the European Central Bank, but Britain remains outside the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). In 2012, weak consumer spending and subdued business investment weighed on the economy. GDP fell 0.1%, and the budget deficit remained stubbornly high at 7.7% of GDP. Public debt continued to increase.
Exports $528.00 billion
Ranked 8th. 12% more than United Kingdom
$473.00 billion
Ranked 10th.

GDP $2.01 trillion
Ranked 9th.
$2.44 trillion
Ranked 7th. 21% more than Russia

GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 37.6%
Ranked 41st. 78% more than United Kingdom
21.1%
Ranked 146th.

GDP > Per capita $14,832.60 per capita
Ranked 55th.
$35,046.59 per capita
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Russia

GDP > Per capita > PPP $17,500.00
Ranked 57th.
$36,600.00
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Russia

GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $15,654.30
Ranked 53th.
$35,152.70
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Russia

GDP per capita $14,037.03
Ranked 44th.
$38,514.46
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Russia

Gross National Income $253.00 billion
Ranked 17th.
$1.48 trillion
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Russia
Population below poverty line 12.7%
Ranked 27th.
14%
Ranked 18th. 10% more than Russia

Public debt 7.7% of GDP
Ranked 143th.
88.7% of GDP
Ranked 19th. 12 times more than Russia

Unemployment rate 5.5%
Ranked 83th.
8%
Ranked 51st. 45% more than Russia

Fiscal year calendar year 6
Inflation rate > Consumer prices 5.1%
Ranked 75th. 82% more than United Kingdom
2.8%
Ranked 126th.

Exports per capita $3,678.60
Ranked 56th.
$7,480.92
Ranked 41st. 2 times more than Russia

Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio 0.49
Ranked 69th.
1.1
Ranked 18th. 2 times more than Russia

Human Development Index 0.795
Ranked 61st.
0.939
Ranked 15th. 18% more than Russia
Tourist arrivals > Per capita 168.27 per 1,000 people
Ranked 94th.
494.59 per 1,000 people
Ranked 64th. 3 times more than Russia

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 58.4%
Ranked 101st.
78.5%
Ranked 19th. 34% more than Russia
Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate 13%
Ranked 74th.
40%
Ranked 23th. 3 times more than Russia

Inequality > GINI index 43.67
Ranked 12th. 21% more than United Kingdom
35.97
Ranked 16th.
GDP > Purchasing power parity $2.49 trillion
Ranked 6th. 7% more than United Kingdom
$2.31 trillion
Ranked 8th.

Budget > Revenues > Per capita $2,114.90 per capita
Ranked 58th.
$18,987.68 per capita
Ranked 15th. 9 times more than Russia

Exports > Commodities petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufactures manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco
Imports per capita $2,338.83
Ranked 91st.
$10,177.53
Ranked 34th. 4 times more than Russia

Big Mac Index $1.60
Ranked 53th.
$3.32
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Russia
Distribution of family income > Gini index 41.7
Ranked 7th. 4% more than United Kingdom
40
Ranked 1st.

Budget > Expenditures $418.00 billion
Ranked 12th.
$1.19 trillion
Ranked 6th. 3 times more than Russia

Debt > External > Per capita $2,721.79 per capita
Ranked 53th.
$171,942.20 per capita
Ranked 3rd. 63 times more than Russia

Tourist arrivals 23.68 million
Ranked 11th.
30.14 million
Ranked 7th. 27% more than Russia

Population below poverty line > Per capita 0.112% per 1 million people
Ranked 24th.
0.232% per 1 million people
Ranked 24th. 2 times more than Russia

Development > Human Development Index 0.788
Ranked 55th.
0.875
Ranked 26th. 11% more than Russia

GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $0.12
Ranked 149th.
$0.58
Ranked 109th. 5 times more than Russia

Budget > Revenues per capita $1,840.03
Ranked 64th.
$14,881.68
Ranked 17th. 8 times more than Russia

Gross National Income per capita $1,733.48
Ranked 78th.
$25,038.93
Ranked 9th. 14 times more than Russia
GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 2,444.58 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 67th.
26,890.73 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 11th. 11 times more than Russia

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average $30.84
Ranked 72nd. 49 times more than United Kingdom
$0.63
Ranked 162nd.

Central bank discount rate 8.25%
Ranked 7th. 17 times more than United Kingdom
0.5%
Ranked 49th.

Technology index 3.65
Ranked 66th.
4.92
Ranked 17th. 35% more than Russia
GDP > Composition by sector > Services 58%
Ranked 97th.
78.2%
Ranked 20th. 35% more than Russia

GINI index 39.93
Ranked 13th. 11% more than United Kingdom
35.97
Ranked 14th.
GDP per person 8,684.48
Ranked 52nd.
35,164.86
Ranked 22nd. 4 times more than Russia

GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 10,844.58 PPP $
Ranked 51st.
33,238.21 PPP $
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Russia

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 9.69$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 98th.
18$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 77th. 86% more than Russia

Tax > Tax rates 33.54
Ranked 33th.
38.26
Ranked 18th. 14% more than Russia

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita 1,838.98$
Ranked 36th.
4,722.68$
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Russia

Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU 5.19 trillion
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
1.53 trillion
Ranked 17th.

Imports $335.70 billion
Ranked 15th.
$643.50 billion
Ranked 5th. 92% more than Russia

Exports > Main exports Oil and oil products, natural gas, wood and wood products, metals, chemicals, weapons and military equipment Manufactured goods, chemicals, foodstuffs
GDP > PPP $1.41 trillion
Ranked 10th.
$1.83 trillion
Ranked 6th. 30% more than Russia
Consumer price index 199.77%
Ranked 14th. 77% more than United Kingdom
112.76%
Ranked 111th.

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 12.63 trillion
Ranked 20th. 10 times more than United Kingdom
1.31 trillion
Ranked 62nd.

Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio 7.6
Ranked 8th. 6% more than United Kingdom
7.2
Ranked 2nd.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $3,352.57
Ranked 22nd. 4 times more than United Kingdom
$939.55
Ranked 58th.

GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 4.4%
Ranked 134th. 6 times more than United Kingdom
0.7%
Ranked 204th.

GDP > Real growth rate 3.4%
Ranked 92nd. 17 times more than United Kingdom
0.2%
Ranked 152nd.

Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP 10.88 IMF
Ranked 164th.
90.31 IMF
Ranked 16th. 8 times more than Russia
Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU 17.31 trillion
Ranked 12th. 96 times more than United Kingdom
180.31 billion
Ranked 76th.

Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US $36.75 billion
Ranked 7th. 48% more than United Kingdom
$24.80 billion
Ranked 14th.

Consumer spending 53.78
Ranked 103th.
65.31
Ranked 66th. 21% more than Russia

Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate 6.69%
Ranked 64th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
2.72%
Ranked 130th.

Debt > External $631.80 billion
Ranked 20th.
$10.09 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 16 times more than Russia

Inflation 152.32
Ranked 18th. 37% more than United Kingdom
111.28
Ranked 134th.

Industries complete range of mining and extractive industries producing coal, oil, gas, chemicals, and metals; all forms of machine building from rolling mills to high-performance aircraft and space vehicles; defense industries including radar, missile production, and advanced electronic components, shipbuilding; road and rail transportation equipment; communications equipment; agricultural machinery, tractors, and construction equipment; electric power generating and transmitting equipment; medical and scientific instruments; consumer durables, textiles, foodstuffs, handicrafts machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroad equipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, other consumer goods
Economic freedom 51.1
Ranked 139th.
74.8
Ranked 14th. 46% more than Russia

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.174
Ranked 108th.
0.467
Ranked 75th. 3 times more than Russia

New businesses registered > Number > Per capita 3.47 per 1,000 people
Ranked 14th.
7.4 per 1,000 people
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Russia

Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP 30.08% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 37th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
5.97% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 27th.

Exchange rates Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar -<br />30.84 (2012 est.)<br />29.38 (2011 est.)<br />30.37 (2010 est.)<br />31.74 (2009)<br />24.85 (2008) British pounds (GBP) per US dollar -<br />0.63 (2012 est.)<br />0.62 (2011 est.)<br />0.65 (2010 est.)<br />0.62 (2009)<br />0.53 (2008)
Labor force 75
Ranked 51st. 2 times more than United Kingdom
32
Ranked 83th.

GDP per capita > Constant LCU 68766.06 17772.08
Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita 36,335.34
Ranked 21st. 49% more than United Kingdom
24,452.9
Ranked 30th.

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita 48.15 per 1,000 people
Ranked 8th.
73.79 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th. 53% more than Russia
GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $10,372.99
Ranked 57th.
$36,276.82
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Russia

High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita $36,298.68 per 1,000 people
Ranked 53th.
$1.01 million per 1,000 people
Ranked 20th. 28 times more than Russia

GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -22.1%
Ranked 14th.
-33.8%
Ranked 52nd. 53% more than Russia
Trade > Imports per capita $1,666.56
Ranked 72nd.
$8,776.13
Ranked 27th. 5 times more than Russia

GDP > Current LCU 21598000000000 1209334000000
Agriculture > Products grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, vegetables, fruits; beef, milk cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish
Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita 87,995.22
Ranked 63th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
20,784.57
Ranked 113th.

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 2,564.72$
Ranked 53th.
23,830.31$
Ranked 4th. 9 times more than Russia

Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ $537.82 billion
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
$105.19 billion
Ranked 23th.

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate 20%
Ranked 81st.
28%
Ranked 48th. 40% more than Russia

GNI per capita $10,650.00
Ranked 47th.
$37,780.00
Ranked 24th. 4 times more than Russia
Trade > Exports per capita $2,645.57
Ranked 53th.
$6,513.45
Ranked 38th. 2 times more than Russia

GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $14,832.60 per capita
Ranked 55th.
$35,046.59 per capita
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Russia

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU 304.6 billion
Ranked 25th. 52% more than United Kingdom
199.9 billion
Ranked 33th.

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals 24.93 million
Ranked 10th.
29.31 million
Ranked 8th. 18% more than Russia

Currency Russian ruble British pound
Budget > Expenditures per capita $2,395.55
Ranked 57th.
$18,531.85
Ranked 13th. 8 times more than Russia

GDP > Official exchange rate $2.00 trillion
Ranked 8th.
$2.44 trillion
Ranked 6th. 22% more than Russia

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 276
Ranked 32nd.
2,179
Ranked 8th. 8 times more than Russia

Business > Companies > Corporate governance (overall rating) 3.9
Ranked 30th.
7.6
Ranked 1st. 95% more than Russia
Stock of broad money None None
Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Europe 19.69 million
Ranked 5th.
21.74 million
Ranked 4th. 10% more than Russia

International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita 131.3$
Ranked 51st.
1,225.19$
Ranked 12th. 9 times more than Russia

Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $ 13.92 0.6
Gross national saving 29.5% of GDP
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
11% of GDP
Ranked 121st.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 37.5%
Ranked 43th. 80% more than United Kingdom
20.8%
Ranked 152nd.
Economic growth > Per capita -7.82
Ranked 151st. 40% more than United Kingdom
-5.58
Ranked 137th.

Tax > Tax payments > Number 7
Ranked 174th.
8
Ranked 162nd. 14% more than Russia

Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 340.7 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 47th.
6,050.1 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 9th. 18 times more than Russia

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$ 374.63 billion$
Ranked 11th.
1.44 trillion$
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than Russia

Commercial bank prime lending rate 9.1%
Ranked 97th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
4.22%
Ranked 160th.

Current account balance $71.43 billion
Ranked 7th.
$-93,600,000,000.00
Ranked 179th.

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels 357.6 billion
Ranked 5th.
360.77 billion
Ranked 4th. 1% more than Russia

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita 9,276.02$
Ranked 11th.
50,779.86$
Ranked 9th. 5 times more than Russia

Current account balance per capita $483.53
Ranked 26th.
0.0
Ranked 109th.

Debt > Interest rates > Central bank discount rate 8.25%
Ranked 43th. 17 times more than United Kingdom
0.5%
Ranked 90th.
Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita 105.84 BoP $
Ranked 70th.
2,636.82 BoP $
Ranked 7th. 25 times more than Russia

Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.182$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 116th. 10% more than United Kingdom
0.166$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 125th.

Real interest rate -7.49%
Ranked 124th.
2.61%
Ranked 88th.

Debt > External per capita $2,707.95
Ranked 53th.
$171,348.98
Ranked 3rd. 63 times more than Russia

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$ $991.53 billion
Ranked 12th.
$1.63 trillion
Ranked 6th. 64% more than Russia

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita 2,130.67
Ranked 61st.
3,185.45
Ranked 53th. 50% more than Russia

Bank capital to assets ratio 12.5%
Ranked 4th. 47% more than United Kingdom
8.5%
Ranked 48th.

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita $6,093.79
Ranked 42nd.
$47,755.58
Ranked 11th. 8 times more than Russia

Net current transfers from abroad > Constant LCU -14458190000 -10125320000
Total > Reserves in months of imports 10.84
Ranked 5th. 20 times more than United Kingdom
0.55
Ranked 127th.

Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth 3.44%
Ranked 85th. 13 times more than United Kingdom
0.273%
Ranked 148th.

International tourism > Number of arrivals 22.2 million
Ranked 8th.
29.97 million
Ranked 6th. 35% more than Russia

GDP > CIA Factbook $1.28 trillion
Ranked 10th.
$1.67 trillion
Ranked 6th. 30% more than Russia

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure 857.56 billion USD
Ranked 7th.
1.65 trillion USD
Ranked 3rd. 92% more than Russia

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 4.2%
Ranked 131st. 6 times more than United Kingdom
0.7%
Ranked 208th.
Investment > Gross fixed 23.2% of GDP
Ranked 58th. 67% more than United Kingdom
13.9% of GDP
Ranked 136th.

Investment > External financial assets per capita €3,178.94
Ranked 45th.
€88,413.11
Ranked 11th. 28 times more than Russia

Big Mac Index > Per $ GDP $0.04 per $14.1 billion of GDP
Ranked 59th. 77% more than United Kingdom
$0.02 per $14.1 billion of GDP
Ranked 60th.
Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita $6,908.00
Ranked 45th.
$25,730.86
Ranked 11th. 4 times more than Russia

Outbound tourist spending 28.12 billion
Ranked 10th.
84.22 billion
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Russia

GNI 1.19 trillion
Ranked 13th.
2.22 trillion
Ranked 7th. 86% more than Russia

GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ 9,647.96 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 51st.
29,570.6 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Russia

Investment > External financial assets €453 billion
Ranked 25th.
€5.61 trillion
Ranked 4th. 12 times more than Russia

Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ 4.69 billion BoP $
Ranked 29th.
29.84 billion BoP $
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than Russia

High-technology > Exports > Current US$ $5.11 billion
Ranked 31st.
$61.77 billion
Ranked 9th. 12 times more than Russia

Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million 185.33
Ranked 17th.
244.5
Ranked 10th. 32% more than Russia

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index 149.25%
Ranked 1st. 47% more than United Kingdom
101.3%
Ranked 54th.

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita 15.73 BoP $
Ranked 82nd.
917.67 BoP $
Ranked 9th. 58 times more than Russia

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure per capita 5,974.63 USD
Ranked 33th.
26,057.87 USD
Ranked 9th. 4 times more than Russia

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ per capita $6,749.95
Ranked 46th.
$25,658.46
Ranked 11th. 4 times more than Russia

Consumption > Consumption by sector > Equals: Household final consumption expenditure in domestic market per capita 5,906.42 USD
Ranked 14th.
25,891.58 USD
Ranked 2nd. 4 times more than Russia

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million 1.92
Ranked 91st.
34.46
Ranked 25th. 18 times more than Russia

GDP > Per $ GDP $14,832.60 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 55th.
$35,046.59 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 21st. 2 times more than Russia

Lending interest rate 10.68%
Ranked 75th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
4.65%
Ranked 133th.

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita 2,491.43
Ranked 57th.
5,705.97
Ranked 25th. 2 times more than Russia

Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut 2,000
Ranked 19th. 1% more than United Kingdom
1,987
Ranked 30th.

Government spending 46.59 billion
Ranked 19th.
333.79 billion
Ranked 7th. 7 times more than Russia

GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita 9,645.5 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 50th.
29,571.68 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Russia

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita $4,671.39
Ranked 34th.
$4,909.40
Ranked 31st. 5% more than Russia

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita $23,500.96
Ranked 47th.
$37,455.93
Ranked 22nd. 59% more than Russia

Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $8,997.77
Ranked 37th.
$20,354.36
Ranked 7th. 2 times more than Russia

Budget > Expenditures > Per capita $1,853.19 per capita
Ranked 63th.
$20,386.26 per capita
Ranked 13th. 11 times more than Russia

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100 133.95
Ranked 9th. 50% more than United Kingdom
89.33
Ranked 89th.

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita 6,959.57
Ranked 71st.
25,728.95
Ranked 15th. 4 times more than Russia

Industrial production growth rate 3.1%
Ranked 81st.
-4%
Ranked 157th.

Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita 125.32 BoP $
Ranked 61st.
5,642.01 BoP $
Ranked 7th. 45 times more than Russia

Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita 581.1 BoP $
Ranked 22nd.
-821.241 BoP $
Ranked 112th.

Industrial > Production growth rate 8.3%
Ranked 28th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
1.9%
Ranked 123th.

GDP > PPP per capita $9,792.19
Ranked 53th.
$30,604.93
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than Russia
GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 49.2%
Ranked 159th.
65.8%
Ranked 89th. 34% more than Russia
GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 29.7%
Ranked 123th.
31.6%
Ranked 116th. 6% more than Russia
Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU per capita 120,629.4
Ranked 35th. 42 times more than United Kingdom
2,851.71
Ranked 119th.

Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 185.44
Ranked 33th. 51% more than United Kingdom
122.99
Ranked 124th.

Debt > Net current transfers from abroad > Current LCU 106.65 billion
Ranked 35th.
-20,685,000,000
Ranked 118th.

Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita 436,130.07
Ranked 40th. 18 times more than United Kingdom
24,746.17
Ranked 129th.

Tax > GNI per capita, Atlas method > Current US$ $12,700.00
Ranked 45th.
$38,670.00
Ranked 19th. 3 times more than Russia

International tourism > Number of departures 28.42 million
Ranked 6th.
66.49 million
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than Russia

Currency > Monetary unit 1 rouble = 100 kopecks 1 pound sterling = 100 pence
Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita -133,534.619 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 86th.
910,125.61 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 5th.

Market value of publicly traded shares $845.40 billion
Ranked 6th.
$3.11 trillion
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Russia

Patents granted 131 per million people
Ranked 12th. 60% more than United Kingdom
82 per million people
Ranked 18th.
Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ $18,962.61
Ranked 40th.
$36,495.76
Ranked 16th. 92% more than Russia

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average 28.28 0.54
Deposit interest rate 3.99%
Ranked 69th.
4.48%
Ranked 119th. 12% more than Russia

Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations 92
Ranked 97th. 9 times more than United Kingdom
10
Ranked 179th.

Trade > Exports $376.70 billion
Ranked 12th.
$405.60 billion
Ranked 10th. 8% more than Russia

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ $968.84 billion
Ranked 12th.
$1.62 trillion
Ranked 6th. 67% more than Russia

Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $497.80 billion
Ranked 17th.
$1.32 trillion
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than Russia

Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$ $36.91 billion
Ranked 9th.
$64.63 billion
Ranked 5th. 75% more than Russia

GDP > CIA Factbook per capita $8,865.87
Ranked 56th.
$27,968.85
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than Russia

Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index 0.647
Ranked 27th.
0.709
Ranked 18th. 10% more than Russia
Debt > External > Per $ GDP $286.04 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 86th.
$3,530.89 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 2nd. 12 times more than Russia

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number 6.89 million
Ranked 1st. 56% more than United Kingdom
4.42 million
Ranked 3rd.
International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ 7.4 billion$
Ranked 24th.
39.57 billion$
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Russia

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $ $23,500.96
Ranked 47th.
$37,455.93
Ranked 22nd. 59% more than Russia

Oil > Exports 7.3 million bbl/day
Ranked 2nd. 6 times more than United Kingdom
1.31 million bbl/day
Ranked 19th.

Household spending 250.2 billion
Ranked 16th.
1.13 trillion
Ranked 5th. 5 times more than Russia

Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$ $-2,179,405,900.00
Ranked 120th.
$54.24 billion
Ranked 6th.

Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP $0.23 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 90th.
$0.43 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 30th. 82% more than Russia

Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ 201.77 billion BoP $
Ranked 18th.
954.8 billion BoP $
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Russia

Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum 1.72 million
Ranked 2nd. 59 times more than United Kingdom
29,162
Ranked 22nd.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $537.60 billion
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
$105.10 billion
Ranked 24th.

Government > Finance minister Anton Siluanov George Osborne
Labor force > By occupation > Industry 27.4%
Ranked 32nd. 51% more than United Kingdom
18.2%
Ranked 100th.

Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU 87,995.22
Ranked 63th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
20,784.57
Ranked 113th.

Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU 26.58 trillion
Ranked 12th. 8 times more than United Kingdom
3.24 trillion
Ranked 36th.

GNI > Current US$ per capita 5,204.22$
Ranked 51st.
37,303.51$
Ranked 10th. 7 times more than Russia

Net domestic credit > Current LCU 4460766000000 2032084000000
GDP deflator 219.46
Ranked 64th. 94% more than United Kingdom
112.98
Ranked 142nd.

Overall productivity > PPP $16,114.30
Ranked 42nd.
$50,825.40
Ranked 21st. 3 times more than Russia
Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ per capita $3,746.99
Ranked 33th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
$1,663.74
Ranked 67th.

Tax > GDP > Current LCU 62.6 trillion
Ranked 15th. 40 times more than United Kingdom
1.56 trillion
Ranked 76th.

Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking 57
Ranked 97th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
15
Ranked 139th.
Trade > Imports $237.30 billion
Ranked 18th.
$546.50 billion
Ranked 6th. 2 times more than Russia

Stock of domestic credit $922.60 billion
Ranked 16th.
$3.76 trillion
Ranked 5th. 4 times more than Russia

Patent applications > Residents 27,712
Ranked 6th. 68% more than United Kingdom
16,523
Ranked 7th.

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure 998.93 billion
Ranked 10th.
1.63 trillion
Ranked 4th. 63% more than Russia

Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Net trade in goods and services > Current US$ $91.82 billion
Ranked 3rd.
$-60,321,331,061.58
Ranked 140th.

World trade > Exports 341.65 billion
Ranked 13th.
601.63 billion
Ranked 7th. 76% more than Russia

Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$ $49.43 billion
Ranked 5th.
$-27,060,601,906.50
Ranked 136th.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita 51.71$
Ranked 81st.
657.09$
Ranked 31st. 13 times more than Russia

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 718.3$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 34th.
1,390.85$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 13th. 94% more than Russia

Wholesale price index 225.9%
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than United Kingdom
106.66%
Ranked 67th.

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ 263.25 billion$
Ranked 7th.
284.42 billion$
Ranked 5th. 8% more than Russia

Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita $22,716.89
Ranked 37th.
$37,342.92
Ranked 16th. 64% more than Russia

Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ -12,764,060,000 BoP $
Ranked 115th.
6.05 billion BoP $
Ranked 2nd.

Business efficiency 43.59
Ranked 45th.
68.52
Ranked 20th. 57% more than Russia
Tourist departures 36.54 million
Ranked 6th.
69.01 million
Ranked 3rd. 89% more than Russia

Oil > Production 10.13 million bbl/day
Ranked 2nd. 7 times more than United Kingdom
1.39 million bbl/day
Ranked 20th.

Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption 6.46%
Ranked 16th. 5% more than United Kingdom
6.14%
Ranked 14th.
Transnational corporations > Affiliates 7,793
Ranked 13th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
2,683
Ranked 28th.
Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP $0.16 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 126th.
$0.46 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than Russia

Imports > Commodities machinery, vehicles, pharmaceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, steel manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs
Gross savings 279.11 billion
Ranked 9th. 5% more than United Kingdom
265.08 billion
Ranked 10th.

World Bank exchange rate 31.74
Ranked 70th. 50 times more than United Kingdom
0.64
Ranked 167th.

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Total 22.2 million
Ranked 7th.
29.97 million
Ranked 6th. 35% more than Russia

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $4,259.77
Ranked 44th.
$24,119.89
Ranked 6th. 6 times more than Russia

Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU per capita 185,180.41
Ranked 37th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
51,222.99
Ranked 76th.

Spending > General government final consumption expenditure > Current LCU 11.66 trillion
Ranked 11th. 34 times more than United Kingdom
341.22 billion
Ranked 50th.

Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$ $486.58 billion
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than United Kingdom
$88.60 billion
Ranked 20th.

Labor force > By occupation > Services 64.7%
Ranked 12th.
80.4%
Ranked 1st. 24% more than Russia
Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking 31
Ranked 124th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
9
Ranked 146th.
Labor force per thousand people 0.000526
Ranked 102nd. 4% more than United Kingdom
0.000505
Ranked 108th.

Gender income ratio 0.64%
Ranked 12th. 5% more than United Kingdom
0.61%
Ranked 18th.
Electricity > Production 925.9 billion kWh
Ranked 4th. 3 times more than United Kingdom
346 billion kWh
Ranked 11th.

Tax > Tax payments > Number per million 0.0488
Ranked 183th.
0.127
Ranked 177th. 3 times more than Russia

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Americas 457,301
Ranked 44th.
4.6 million
Ranked 5th. 10 times more than Russia

Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services 597.54 billion
Ranked 9th.
780.14 billion
Ranked 4th. 31% more than Russia

Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ 1.59 billion BoP $
Ranked 16th.
9.07 billion BoP $
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Russia

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ 2.25 billion BoP $
Ranked 26th.
55.27 billion BoP $
Ranked 3rd. 25 times more than Russia

Public institution index 3.54
Ranked 86th.
6.23
Ranked 7th. 76% more than Russia
Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $ $22,720.00
Ranked 37th.
$37,340.00
Ranked 16th. 64% more than Russia

Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $15,177.27
Ranked 55th.
$32,671.24
Ranked 19th. 2 times more than Russia

GDP per unit of energy use 2.04 PPP 2000 $/kg of oil eq.
Ranked 110th.
7.25 PPP 2000 $/kg of oil eq.
Ranked 24th. 4 times more than Russia

Taxes and other revenues 20.8% of GDP
Ranked 142nd.
40.4% of GDP
Ranked 37th. 94% more than Russia

Tax > Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours 320
Ranked 51st. 3 times more than United Kingdom
110
Ranked 151st.

Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture 7.9%
Ranked 127th. 6 times more than United Kingdom
1.4%
Ranked 176th.

Exports > Partners Netherlands 14.4%, China 6.4%, Italy 5.3%, Germany 4.5% Germany 11.3%, US 10.5%, Netherlands 8.8%, France 7.4%, Ireland 6.2%, Belgium 5.1%
Gross domestic savings 321.44 billion
Ranked 10th. 32% more than United Kingdom
244.27 billion
Ranked 13th.

Household spending per capita 1,763.85
Ranked 53th.
18,342.65
Ranked 6th. 10 times more than Russia

Financial sector > Interest rates > Real interest rate 12.67%
Ranked 31st.
-0.73%
Ranked 97th.

Income > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP $0.86
Ranked 12th. 4 times more than United Kingdom
$0.24
Ranked 106th.

Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.216$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 142nd.
0.3$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 120th. 39% more than Russia

Gross national expenditure > Current US$ per capita 4,610.67$
Ranked 50th.
37,925.82$
Ranked 5th. 8 times more than Russia

Gross National Income > Constant LCU 11211450000000 1098318000000
Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ $874.66 billion
Ranked 16th.
$3.02 trillion
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Russia

Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$ per capita $258.16
Ranked 60th.
$1,029.87
Ranked 26th. 4 times more than Russia

Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $1,316.32
Ranked 48th.
$3,321.67
Ranked 16th. 3 times more than Russia

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita 4,457.35$
Ranked 56th.
37,737.52$
Ranked 10th. 8 times more than Russia

Electricity > Consumption per capita 6,043.27 kWh
Ranked 9th. 8% more than United Kingdom
5,614.6 kWh
Ranked 31st.

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ 1.32 trillion$
Ranked 2nd.
3.06 trillion$
Ranked 3rd. 2 times more than Russia

Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU per capita 24,436.91
Ranked 16th. 12 times more than United Kingdom
1,960.66
Ranked 44th.

Government spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU 9.49 trillion
Ranked 7th. 26 times more than United Kingdom
361.03 billion
Ranked 34th.

Oil > Proved reserves 60 billion bbl
Ranked 8th. 21 times more than United Kingdom
2.86 billion bbl
Ranked 29th.

Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ 83.18 billion BoP $
Ranked 5th.
-49,458,680,000 BoP $
Ranked 135th.

Innovation 20.6
Ranked 28th.
27
Ranked 4th. 31% more than Russia
Trade balance with US $-1,680,000,000.00
Ranked 206th. 16% more than United Kingdom
$-1,454,200,000.00
Ranked 202nd.
Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Africa 26,909
Ranked 59th.
654,000
Ranked 7th. 24 times more than Russia

Economic importance 4.2
Ranked 15th.
22.2
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than Russia
Purchasing power parity > Household final > Consumption expenditure > PPP > Current international $ $1.27 trillion
Ranked 8th.
$1.36 trillion
Ranked 7th. 7% more than Russia

Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $1.93 trillion
Ranked 8th.
$1.99 trillion
Ranked 7th. 3% more than Russia

Consumption >