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Economy > Innovation Stats: compare key data on Germany & United States

Definitions

  • Commitment to Development Index (technology): The technology component of the Commitment to Development Index analyzes policies of rich countries that support creation and dissemination of new technologies which can profoundly shape life in developing countries. A deduction in ranking is given to countries whose patent laws arguably go too far in advancing the interests of those who produce innovations at the expense of those who use them.
  • Global Innovation Index > Efficiency Ratio: The ratio of an innovation output index to an innovation friendliness index. A high score means that the innovation friendliness translates optimally into actual innovation.
  • Global Innovation Index > Innovation Input: An index designed to capture the innovation friendliness of the environment. It is made up of several sub-indicators in the following categories: Institutions (political environment, regulatory environment, business environment); human capital and research (education, tertiary education, research / development); infrastructure (ICT, general infrastructure, ecological sustainability); market sophistication (credit, investment, trade & competition); business sophistication (knowledge workers, innovation linkages, knowledge absorption).
  • Military expenditure > Current LCU per capita: Military expenditure (current LCU). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Nobel laureates: Nobel laureates.
  • Patent applications, nonresidents: Patent applications, nonresidents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • Patent applications, nonresidents per million: Patent applications, nonresidents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Patent applications, residents: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment) per thousand people: Number of full-time employed researchers in private for-profit enterprises. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Government sector (full time employment): Number of full-time employed researchers in the government sector.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Government sector (full time employment) per million people: Number of full-time employed researchers in the government sector. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Higher education sector (full time employment) per million people: Number of full-time employed researchers hired by post-secondary institutions such as universities and colleges. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • Scientific and technical journal articles per million: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Military expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditure (current LCU). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Military expenditure > % of GDP: Military expenditure (% of GDP). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Global Innovation Index > Innovation Output: An index designed to capture innovation power. It is made up of several sub-indicators in the following categories: Technology outputs (knowledge creation, knowledge impact, knowledge diffusion); creative outputs (intangible assets, creative goods and services, online creativity).
  • Global Innovation Index > Overall score: An index designed to capture innovation friendliness. It is an average of two sub-indices: one looking at the innovation friendliness of the environment, the other at innovation outputs.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment): Number of full-time employed researchers in private for-profit enterprises.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Higher education sector (full time employment): Number of full-time employed researchers hired by post-secondary institutions such as universities and colleges.
STAT Germany United States HISTORY
Commitment to Development Index (technology) 5
Ranked 14th. 2% more than United States
4.9
Ranked 15th.
Global Innovation Index > Efficiency Ratio 0.87
Ranked 6th. 18% more than United States
0.74
Ranked 15th.
Global Innovation Index > Innovation Input 59.78
Ranked 18th.
69.19
Ranked 3rd. 16% more than Germany
Military expenditure > Current LCU per capita 434.99
Ranked 95th.
2,174.09
Ranked 54th. 5 times more than Germany

Nobel laureates 104
Ranked 4th.
346
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Germany
Patent applications, nonresidents 12,458
Ranked 12th.
255,832
Ranked 1st. 21 times more than Germany

Patent applications, nonresidents per million 152.3
Ranked 13th.
821.06
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Germany

Patent applications, residents 46,986
Ranked 6th.
247,750
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Germany

Patent applications, residents per million 574.42
Ranked 4th.
795.12
Ranked 3rd. 38% more than Germany

Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment) per thousand people 2.34
Ranked 7th.
3.75
Ranked 3rd. 61% more than Germany

Research and development personnel > By sector > Government sector (full time employment) 51,783.48
Ranked 3rd. 8% more than United States
47,822
Ranked 3rd.

Research and development personnel > By sector > Government sector (full time employment) per million people 633.23
Ranked 7th. 4 times more than United States
166.26
Ranked 31st.

Research and development personnel > By sector > Higher education sector (full time employment) per million people 1,104.89
Ranked 23th. 66% more than United States
666.75
Ranked 22nd.

Scientific and technical journal articles 45,002.8
Ranked 6th.
208,600.8
Ranked 2nd. 5 times more than Germany

Scientific and technical journal articles per million 549.47
Ranked 20th.
679.99
Ranked 14th. 24% more than Germany

Military expenditure > Current LCU 35.62 billion
Ranked 59th.
682.48 billion
Ranked 19th. 19 times more than Germany

Military expenditure > % of GDP 1.34%
Ranked 80th.
4.2%
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than Germany

Global Innovation Index > Innovation Output 51.88
Ranked 9th. 1% more than United States
51.42
Ranked 11th.
Global Innovation Index > Overall score 55.83
Ranked 15th.
60.31
Ranked 5th. 8% more than Germany
Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector (full time employment) 191,000
Ranked 3rd.
1.13 million
Ranked 1st. 6 times more than Germany

Research and development personnel > By sector > Higher education sector (full time employment) 90,354.62
Ranked 5th.
186,049
Ranked 1st. 2 times more than Germany

SOURCES: Wikipedia: Commitment to Development Index (Commitment to Development Index) (http://www.cgdev.org/doc/CDI%202012/CDI%20Postcard_2012.pdf); "The Global Innovation Index" . World Intellectual Property Organization. 2013 . Retrieved 2014-02-18 .; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of countries by Nobel laureates per capita (All prizes) ("Which country has the best brains?" . BBC News . 2010-10-10 . Retrieved 2010-10-10 .); World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Intellectual Property Indicators and www.wipo.int/econ_stat. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.; World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Intellectual Property Indicators and www.wipo.int/econ_stat. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators.; National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables

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