# Economy > Inequality Stats: compare key data on South Africa & United States

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#### Definitions

• GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
• Income share held by fourth 20%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
• Income share held by highest 10%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles.
• Income share held by highest 20%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
• Income share held by lowest 10%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles.
• Income share held by lowest 20%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
• Income share held by second 20%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
• Income share held by third 20%: Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles. Percentage shares by quintile may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
STAT South Africa United States HISTORY
GINI index 57.77
Ranked 2nd. 42% more than United States
40.81
Ranked 16th.
Income share held by fourth 20% 18.81%
Ranked 39th.
22.41%
Ranked 16th. 19% more than South Africa
Income share held by highest 10% 44.93%
Ranked 2nd. 51% more than United States
29.85%
Ranked 16th.
Income share held by highest 20% 62.65%
Ranked 1st. 37% more than United States
45.82%
Ranked 16th.
Income share held by lowest 10% 1.28%
Ranked 36th.
1.88%
Ranked 30th. 47% more than South Africa
Income share held by lowest 20% 3.06%
Ranked 37th.
5.44%
Ranked 28th. 78% more than South Africa
Income share held by second 20% 5.6%
Ranked 41st.
10.68%
Ranked 25th. 91% more than South Africa
Income share held by third 20% 9.88%
Ranked 41st.
15.66%
Ranked 25th. 59% more than South Africa

SOURCES: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp).

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