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High income OECD countries Compared by Education > Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD

DEFINITION: Research and development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. R&D is a term covering three activities: basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

The main aggregate used for international comparisons is gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD). This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad.

CONTENTS

# COUNTRY AMOUNT DATE GRAPH
1 Sweden 3.63% 2009
2 Finland 3.41% 2009
3 Japan 3.32% 2009
4 South Korea 2.98% 2009
5 Switzerland 2.9% 2009
6 Iceland 2.77% 2009
7 United States 2.68% 2009
8 Austria 2.65% 2009
9 Denmark 2.54% 2009
10 Germany 2.53% 2009
11 France 2.08% 2009
12 Australia 2.01% 2009
=13 Canada 1.89% 2009
=13 Belgium 1.89% 2009
15 United Kingdom 1.76% 2009
16 Netherlands 1.73% 2009
17 Luxembourg 1.64% 2009
18 Norway 1.57% 2009
19 Czech Republic 1.53% 2009
20 Ireland 1.42% 2009
21 Portugal 1.18% 2009
22 New Zealand 1.16% 2009
23 Spain 1.12% 2009
24 Italy 1.09% 2009
=25 Poland 0.57% 2009
=25 Greece 0.57% 2009
27 Slovakia 0.47% 2009

Citation

High income OECD countries Compared by Education > Research and Development > RandD > Expenditure on RandD > Gross domestic expenditure on RandD

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