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Peru

Peru Innovation Stats

Definitions

  • Military expenditure > % of GDP: Military expenditure (% of GDP). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Military expenditure > Current LCU: Military expenditure (current LCU). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.)
  • Military expenditure > Current LCU per capita: Military expenditure (current LCU). Military expenditures data from SIPRI are derived from the NATO definition, which includes all current and capital expenditures on the armed forces, including peacekeeping forces; defense ministries and other government agencies engaged in defense projects; paramilitary forces, if these are judged to be trained and equipped for military operations; and military space activities. Such expenditures include military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions of military personnel and social services for personnel; operation and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid (in the military expenditures of the donor country). Excluded are civil defense and current expenditures for previous military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and destruction of weapons. This definition cannot be applied for all countries, however, since that would require much more detailed information than is available about what is included in military budgets and off-budget military expenditure items. (For example, military budgets might or might not cover civil defense, reserves and auxiliary forces, police and paramilitary forces, dual-purpose forces such as military and civilian police, military grants in kind, pensions for military personnel, and social security contributions paid by one part of government to another.). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Nobel laureates: Nobel laureates.
  • Patent applications, nonresidents: Patent applications, nonresidents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • Patent applications, nonresidents per million: Patent applications, nonresidents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Patent applications, residents: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector per thousand people: Total number of researchers employed by private for-profit enterprises. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Government sector per million people: Total number of researchers employed in the government sector. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Private non-profit sector: Total number of researchers employed in the private non-profit sector.
  • Research and development personnel > By sector > Private non-profit sector (Headcounts) per million people: Total number of researchers in the private non-profit sector. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Research and development personnel > Technicians: Total number of male and female technicians, defined as people who possess technical knowledge and are experienced in their fields of work. Technicians are below researchers, and often work under their supervision.
  • Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • Scientific and technical journal articles per million: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
STAT AMOUNT DATE RANK HISTORY
Military expenditure > % of GDP 1.25% 2012 83th out of 133
Military expenditure > Current LCU 6.74 billion 2012 83th out of 136
Military expenditure > Current LCU per capita 224.82 2012 112th out of 136
Nobel laureates 1 2010 73th out of 75
Patent applications, nonresidents 1,129 2011 29th out of 87
Patent applications, nonresidents per million 38.12 2011 36th out of 87
Patent applications, residents 39 2011 68th out of 85
Patent applications, residents per million 1.32 2011 76th out of 85
Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector per thousand people 0.0251 2004 41st out of 48
Research and development personnel > By sector > Government sector per million people 83.05 2004 39th out of 54
Research and development personnel > By sector > Private non-profit sector 5 2004 28th out of 37
Research and development personnel > By sector > Private non-profit sector (Headcounts) per million people 0.182 Number 2004 30th out of 37
Research and development personnel > Technicians 1,757 2004 35th out of 70
Scientific and technical journal articles 158.6 2009 76th out of 191
Scientific and technical journal articles per million 5.48 2009 115th out of 191

SOURCES: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security.; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: List of countries by Nobel laureates per capita (All prizes) ("Which country has the best brains?" . BBC News . 2010-10-10 . Retrieved 2010-10-10 .); World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Intellectual Property Indicators and www.wipo.int/econ_stat. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.; World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Intellectual Property Indicators and www.wipo.int/econ_stat. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; UNESCO Institute for Statistics Original html. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Source tables; National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators.; National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.

Citation

Peru Economy > Innovation Profiles (Subcategories)

Research and development personnel 16