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Uganda

Uganda Environment Stats

Definitions

  • Acidification: Percentage of country with acidification excedence
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: From a map of acidification excedence, all areas at risk within each country were added together in order to calculate the percentage of the entire country at risk of excedence. See pages 21-22 of the 2001 ESI report for more details on how the acidification excedence map was produced.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (constant 2000 US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion.
  • Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted net national income (current US$). Adjusted net national income is GNI minus consumption of fixed capital and natural resources depletion. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened: Bird species, threatened. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened: Fish species, threatened. Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum: GEF benefits index for biodiversity (0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum). GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential).
  • Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened: Mammal species, threatened. Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Biodiversity > Number: GEF benefits index for biodiversity is a composite index of relative biodiversity potential for each country based on the species represented in each country, their threat status, and the diversity of habitat types in each country. The index has been normalized so that values run from 0 (no biodiversity potential) to 100 (maximum biodiversity potential)."
  • Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened: Plant species (higher), threatened. Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
  • Biodiversity richness: Caldecott, J.O., M.D. Jenkins, T. Johnson and B. Groombridge. 1994. Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and Endemism. In World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Biodiversity Series No. 3 (N. Mark Collins, ed.) pp. 17. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • CFC > Consumption: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used.
  • CFC > Consumption per 1000: CFC consumption
    Units: Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) Tons (Metric Tons x ODP)
    Units: The indicator was obtained by multiplying the Total CFCs emissions (metric tons per ozone depletion potential) with the Per capita CFCs emissions (obtained by dividing the total CFCs emissions by the population in 1997). In calculating the ESI, the base-10 logarithm of this variable was used. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • CO2 Emissions per 1000: CO2: Total Emissions (excluding land-use) Units: thousand metric tonnes of carbon dioxide. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • CPIA business regulatory environment rating > 1=low to 6=high per million: CPIA business regulatory environment rating (1=low to 6=high). Business regulatory environment assesses the extent to which the legal, regulatory, and policy environments help or hinder private businesses in investing, creating jobs, and becoming more productive. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Carbon efficiency: Carbon economic efficiency (CO2 emissions per dollar GDP)
    Units: Metric Tons/US Dollar GDP
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2000 US$ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000: CO2 emissions (kt). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
  • Ecological footprint: Ecological footprint per capita
    Units: Hectares per Person
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring."
  • Endangered species > Bird species: Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Endangered species > Fish species > Number: Fish species are based on Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number: Higher plants are native vascular plant species. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Endangered species > Mammal species > Number: Mammal species are mammals excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known."
  • Forest area > Sq. km: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not.
  • Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita: Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters: Renewable internal freshwater resources flows refer to internal renewable resources (internal river flows and groundwater from rainfall) in the country.
  • Marine fish catch: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons
  • Marine fish catch per 1000: Total marine fish catch
    Units: Metric Tons. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • NOx emissions per populated area: NOx emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • National parks > Number of parks: Number of parks.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity: Percentage of population who responded yes when asked if they believed global warming was a result of human activities. In this survey, global warming refers to the current rise in earth's temperature and not climate change as a whole.
  • Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness: Percentage of each country's population who claimed knowing "something" or a "great deal" about climate change when asked: "How much do you know about global warming or climate change?"
  • Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Organic water pollutant (BOD) emissions (kg per day). Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons.
  • Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people: Consumption of all Ozone-Depleting Substances in ODP metric tons. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Proportion of land area under protection: Terrestrial areas protected to total surface area, percentage.
  • Protected area: Environmentally protected area (1997)
  • SO2 emissions per populated area: SO2 emissions per populated land area
    Units: 1000 Metric Tons/Sq. Km. of Populated Land Area
    Units: We obtained the total emissions for each country by summarizing emissions data, originally available as a grid map with 1 degree x 1 degree cells. Air pollution is generally greatest in densely populated areas. To take this into account, we used the Gridded Population of the World dataset available from CIESIN and calculated the total land area in each country inhabited with a population density of greater than 5 persons per sq. km. We then used this land area as a denominator for the emissions data.
  • Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved sanitation facilities, total.
  • Threatened species: Number of Threatened Species (1990-99)
  • Waste > Local garbage collected: Municipal waste collected.
  • Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people: Municipal waste collected. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Water > Availability: Water availability per capita (1961-1990 (avg.))
    Units: Thousands Cubic Meters/Person
    Units: This variable measures internal renewable water (average annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge generated from endogenous precipitation)
  • Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration: Dissolved oxygen concentration
    Units: Milligrams/Liter
    Units: The country values represent averages of the station-level values for the three year time period 1994-96, exceptwhere data were only available for an earlier time period (1988-1993). The number of stations per country varies depending on country size; number of bodies of water; and level of participation in the GEMS monitoring system. The data from "The Wellbeing of Nations" included a smaller subset of stations representing outfalls of major watersheds. An analysis of a sample of countries with numerous stations found that the data for stations in the subset is broadly comparable to the data for all GEMS stations in those countries.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, rural.
  • Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural: Proportion of the population using improved drinking water sources, total.
  • Water > Percent of water resources used: Proportion of total water resources used, percentage.
  • Water > Severe water stress: Percent of country's territory under severe water stress
    Units: Percent of Land Area
    Units: This data is derived from the WaterGap 2.1 gridded hydrological model developed by the Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Germany. The modellers derived, for each country, grid cell by grid cell estimates of whether the water consumption exceeds 40 percent of the water available in that particular grid cell. These were then converted to land area equivalents in order to calculate the percentage of the territory under severe water stress.
  • Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day: Emissions of organic water pollutants are measured by biochemical oxygen demand, which refers to the amount of oxygen that bacteria in water will consume in breaking down waste. This is a standard water-treatment test for the presence of organic pollutants."
STAT AMOUNT DATE RANK HISTORY
Acidification 0.0 2001 69th out of 141
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ $11.93 billion 2011 49th out of 83
Adjusted net national income > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $339.51 2011 75th out of 83
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ $14.31 billion 2011 94th out of 154
Adjusted net national income > Current US$ per capita $407.25 2011 145th out of 154
Biodiversity > Bird species, threatened 22 2013 47th out of 209
Biodiversity > Fish species, threatened 61 2013 25th out of 209
Biodiversity > GEF benefits index for biodiversity > 0 = no biodiversity potential to 100 = maximum 2.77 2008 82nd out of 204
Biodiversity > Mammal species, threatened 22 2013 38th out of 209
Biodiversity > Number 2.77 2008 79th out of 197
Biodiversity > Plant species > Higher, threatened 41 2013 56th out of 209
Biodiversity richness 2 1994 27th out of 53
CFC > Consumption 6.05 1997 98th out of 107
CFC > Consumption per 1000 0.000274 1997 98th out of 107
CO2 Emissions per 1000 0.0537 2003 167th out of 174
CO2 emissions > Kt 1,710.62 kt 2003 142nd out of 194
CO2 emissions > Kt > Per capita 0.064 kt per 1,000 people 2003 187th out of 194
CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 0.0637 kt 2003 183th out of 189
CPIA business regulatory environment rating > 1=low to 6=high per million 0.11 2012 66th out of 80
Carbon efficiency 0.15 CO2 emissions/$ GDP 1998 135th out of 141
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.28 2010 146th out of 182
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt 3,784.34 2010 127th out of 198
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Kt per 1000 0.111 2010 184th out of 198
Climate change > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 0.111 2010 184th out of 198
Current issues draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching 2011
Ecological footprint 0.88 2000 125th out of 141
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2000 US$ of GDP $0.32 2007 153th out of 171
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Kt 3,202.34 2007 121st out of 187
Emissions > CO2 emissions > Metric tons per capita 0.1 2007 176th out of 187
Endangered species > Bird species 18 2008 45th out of 197
Endangered species > Fish species > Number 54 2008 15th out of 197
Endangered species > Higher plant species > Number 38 2008 52nd out of 197
Endangered species > Mammal species > Number 21 2008 40th out of 197
Forest area > Sq. km 36,270 km² 2005 81st out of 193
Forest area > Sq. km > Per capita 1.26 km² per 1,000 people 2005 136th out of 193
Freshwater > Renewable internal freshwater resources > Total > Billion cubic meters 39 2008 82nd out of 167
Freshwater > Withdrawal 0.3 2002 11th out of 11
Marine fish catch 0.0 1999 113th out of 139
Marine fish catch per 1000 0.0 1999 113th out of 139
NOx emissions per populated area 0.26 thousand metric tons/squ 2000 64th out of 141
National parks > Number of parks 10 2014 10th out of 27
Pollution > Climate change > Agrees climate change is caused by human activity 66% 2014 33th out of 128
Pollution > Climate change > Climate change awareness 35% 2014 112th out of 128
Pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 2,105.11 2000 69th out of 72
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption 0.12 2011 149th out of 164
Pollution > Ozone depleting substance consumption per million people 0.00341 2011 156th out of 163
Proportion of land area under protection 11.45% 2012 120th out of 217
Protected area 9.6% 1997 43th out of 147
SO2 emissions per populated area 160 thousand metric tons/squ 2000 106th out of 141
Sanitation > Population with improved sanitation > Urban and rural 35.02 2011 157th out of 188
Threatened species 67 1990 27th out of 158
Waste > Local garbage collected 224,238.01 tonnes 2006 66th out of 72
Waste > Local garbage collected per thousand people 7.55 tonnes 2006 71st out of 71
Water > Availability 1 thousand cubic metres 1990 106th out of 141
Water > Dissolved oxygen concentration 7.04 mls/litre 1994 88th out of 141
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Rural 71.74 2011 145th out of 190
Water > Drinking water > Population with improved drinking water sources > Urban and rural 74.79 2011 159th out of 194
Water > Percent of water resources used 0.481% 2000 125th out of 140
Water > Severe water stress 0.0 2000 107th out of 140
Water pollution > Organic water pollutant > BOD emissions > Kg per day 17,472.72 2002 48th out of 67

SOURCES: Stockholm Environment Institute at York, Acidification in Developing Countries: Ecosystem Sensitivity and the Critical Loads Approach at the Global scale, 2000 via ciesin.org; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium; The Changing Wealth of Nations: Measuring Sustainable Development in the New Millennium. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase database, www.fishbase.org.; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, "Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility" (2006).; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre; Kiran Dev Pandey, Piet Buys, Ken Chomitz, and David Wheeler's, ""Biodiversity Conservation Indicators: New Tools for Priority Setting at the Global Environment Facility"" (2006).; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org; UNEP, Production and Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances, 1986-1998, October 1999. via ciesin.org. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Resources Institute. 2003. Carbon Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing, 1850 to 2000. Available on-line through the Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) at Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Development Indicators database; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank Group, CPIA database (http://www.worldbank.org/ida). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), Living Planet Report 2000, Gland, Switzerland: 2000, and Redefining Progress.; United Nations Environmental Program and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species.; Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (eds). 2008. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org. version (07/2008). Accessed: 28 September 2008.; Food and Agriculture Organisation, AQUASTAT data.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; FAOSTAT on-line database; FAOSTAT on-line database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Data Version 1.1, B1Illustrative Marker Scenario with model IMAGE; Wikipedia: List of national parks (Africa); Wikipedia: Climate change opinion by country; Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Jacaranda Atlas; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations World Statistics Pocketbook and Statistical Yearbook; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGAP 2.1B, 2001 via ciesin.org; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Global Environmental Monitoring System/Water Quality Monitoring System, with data for an additional 29 countries from Prescott-Allen,R. The Well being of Nations, Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, WaterGap 2.1, 2000 via ciesin.org; 1998 study by Hemamala Hettige, Muthukumara Mani, and David Wheeler, ""Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited"" (available at www.worldbank.org/nipr). The data were updated through 2005 by the World Bank's Development Research Group using the same methodology as the initial study.

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