Government > Democracy and rights > Electoral system: Countries Compared

DEFINITION: Political scientist Robert A. Dahl compares the constitutions of countries which have been “steadily democratic since 1950” on the characteristic of electoral system (First Past the Post electoral system; Single-Member District Plurality, also known as First Past the Post (FPTP): There is one seat per district, the candidate with the most votes wins it; Proportional Representation: There are multiple seats for each voting district, allocation is based on either party lists, multi-member proportional (MMP), single transferable vote (STV) or semi-PR; FrenchTtwo-RoundSsystem; Alternative Vote (AV)).
Australia Lower House AV; Upper House PR (STV)
Austria PR (list)
Belgium PR (list)
Canada FPTP
Costa Rica PR (list)
Denmark PR (list)
Finland PR (list)
France 2 round
Germany PR (MMP)
Iceland PR (list)
India FPTP
Ireland PR (STV)
Israel PR (list)
Italy PR (MMP)
Japan Semi-PR
Luxembourg PR (list)
Netherlands PR (list)
New Zealand PR (MMP) since 1993
Norway PR (list)
Sweden PR (list)
Switzerland PR (list)
United Kingdom FPTP
United States FPTP


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