People > Major infectious diseases > Animal contact diseases: Countries Compared

DEFINITION: This entry is derived from People > Major infectious diseases, which lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note: The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.
food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the local economy:
Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit fever, jaundice, and diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.
Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.
Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.
vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:
Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium; transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito; parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain; endemic in 100, mostly tropical, ...
Full definition.
Afghanistan rabies
Angola rabies
Bangladesh rabies
Benin rabies
Burkina Faso rabies
Burma rabies
Burundi rabies
Cameroon rabies
Central African Republic rabies
Chad rabies
Congo, Republic of the rabies
Cote d'Ivoire rabies
Democratic Republic of the Congo rabies
Equatorial Guinea rabies
Ethiopia rabies
Gabon rabies
Ghana rabies
Guinea rabies
Guinea-Bissau rabies
India rabies
Kenya rabies
Liberia rabies
Madagascar rabies
Malawi rabies
Mali rabies
Mauritania rabies
Mozambique rabies
Niger rabies
Nigeria rabies
Pakistan rabies
Rwanda rabies
Senegal rabies
Sierra Leone rabies
Somalia rabies
South Sudan rabies
Sri Lanka rabies
Sudan rabies
Tanzania rabies
The Gambia rabies
Togo rabies
Uganda rabies
Zambia rabies
Zimbabwe rabies


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