People > Major infectious diseases > Water contact diseases: Countries Compared

DEFINITION: This entry is derived from People > Major infectious diseases, which lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note: The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.
food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the local economy:
Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit fever, jaundice, and diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.
Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.
Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.
vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:
Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium; transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito; parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain; endemic in 100, mostly tropical, ...
Full definition.
Angola schistosomiasis
Argentina leptospirosis
Bangladesh leptospirosis
Belize leptospirosis
Bhutan leptospirosis
Bolivia leptospirosis
Burkina Faso schistosomiasis
Burma leptospirosis
Burundi schistosomiasis
Cameroon schistosomiasis
Central African Republic schistosomiasis
Chad schistosomiasis
Colombia leptospirosis
Congo, Republic of the schistosomiasis
Cote d'Ivoire schistosomiasis
Democratic Republic of the Congo schistosomiasis
Dominican Republic leptospirosis
Ecuador leptospirosis
Egypt schistosomiasis
El Salvador leptospirosis
Ethiopia schistosomiasis
Gabon schistosomiasis
Ghana schistosomiasis
Guatemala leptospirosis
Guinea schistosomiasis
Guinea-Bissau schistosomiasis
Guyana leptospirosis
Haiti leptospirosis
Honduras leptospirosis
India leptospirosis
Kenya schistosomiasis
Liberia schistosomiasis
Madagascar schistosomiasis
Malawi schistosomiasis
Malaysia leptospirosis
Mali schistosomiasis
Mexico leptospirosis
Mozambique schistosomiasis
Namibia schistosomiasis
Nicaragua leptospirosis
Niger schistosomiasis
Nigeria leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
Peru leptospirosis
Philippines leptospirosis
Sao Tome and Principe schistosomiasis
Senegal schistosomiasis
Sierra Leone schistosomiasis
Somalia schistosomiasis
South Africa schistosomiasis
South Sudan schistosomiasis
Sri Lanka leptospirosis
Sudan schistosomiasis
Suriname leptospirosis
Swaziland schistosomiasis
Tanzania schistosomiasis and leptospirosis
Thailand leptospirosis
The Gambia schistosomiasis
Togo schistosomiasis
Uganda schistosomiasis
Vietnam leptospirosis
Yemen schistosomiasis
Zambia schistosomiasis
Zimbabwe schistosomiasis


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