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Country vs country: Bulgaria and Romania compared: Economy stats

Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar). The ratio of the PPP conversion factor to the official exchange rate (also referred to as the national price level) makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average: Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average). Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income per capita: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals.
  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D;, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • Population below poverty line > Per capita: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% of the population to the average income of the poorest 20% of the population.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Inbound tourism income > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Tax > Tax rates: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > External > Per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 trillion $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • New businesses registered > Number > Per capita: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • Poverty and inequality > Population below $1 (PPP) per day: Percentage of population that lives on less than the equivalent of 1 USD per day.
  • Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum: US imports of bauxite and aluminum, USD Thousands, 2004
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP: Gross government debt as % of GDP (IMF).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Money and quasi money > M2 > Current LCU: Money and quasi money comprise the sum of currency outside banks, demand deposits other than those of the central government, and the time, savings, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government. This definition of money supply is frequently called M2; it corresponds to lines 34 and 35 in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) International Financial Statistics (IFS). Data are in current local currency.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Debt > External per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Size of economy > Share of world GDP : Percent of world GDP (exchange rates).

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  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Aid per capita > Current US$: Aid per capita includes both official development assistance (ODA) and official aid, and is calculated by dividing total aid by the midyear population estimate.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Bank liquid > Reserves to bank assets ratio: Ratio of bank liquid reserves to bank assets is the ratio of domestic currency holdings and deposits with the monetary authorities to claims on other governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, the private sector, and other banking institutions.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate: Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Exports of goods and services (constant 2000 US$). Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency.
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Inflation: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."
  • Investment > External financial assets per capita: Financial assets in 2013 EUR billions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty > Gap at $1 a day > PPP: Poverty gap is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence. Data showing as 0.5 signifies a poverty gap of less than 0.5 percent.
  • Outbound tourist spending: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita, PPP (current international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • IKEA > First store opening year: Date the first IKEA store, a home products retail chain, was opened in different countries.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth: GDP growth (annual %).
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Debt service: Total debt service (% of exports of goods and services). Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
  • Debt > Net current transfers from abroad > Current LCU: Net current transfers from abroad (current LCU). Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in current local currency.
  • Saving rate: ""Saving rate"" or gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers."
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Number of departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption: Percentage of country's total income or consumption that belongs to the poorest 5% of its citizens.
  • Investment > External financial assets: Gross financial assets privately owned by residents of the country, mainly in the form of bank deposits, insurances and securities, in EUR.
  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU per capita: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Tax > Average time to clear customs > Days: Average time to clear customs is the number of days to clear an imported good through customs.
  • GDP > PPP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Economic aid > Recipient: This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • GDP > PPP: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004.
  • Poverty > Share of all poor people: The percentage of the world's total poor who live in each nation. 'Poor' here is defined as lving below the global poverty line of US$1 per day.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports to US: in US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
    Additional details:
    • Gibraltar: negligible (2013)


  • Poverty > Poverty gap at national poverty line: Poverty gap at national poverty line is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall) as a percentage of
  • Bank capital to assets ratio: Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Poverty and inequality > Population below national poverty line > Total: Percentage of country's population that falls below its poverty line.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita (constant LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Technological achievement: Technology Achievement Index
    Units: Score
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut: The year in which the first IKEA opened in each country. The first IKEA opened in Sweden in 1958.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100: Real effective exchange rate index (2005 = 100). Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
  • Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit is the sum of net credit to the nonfinancial public sector, credit to the private sector, and other accounts. Data are in current local currency.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Currency > Real effective exchange rate index: Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs.
    2000 = 100
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average: Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • GDP > CIA Factbook per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Oil > Exports: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)


  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • Purchasing power parity > GNI per capita > PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Health expenditure per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in international dollars converted using 2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) rates.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong per million: Strength of legal rights index (0=weak to 10=strong). Strength of legal rights index measures the degree to which collateral and bankruptcy laws protect the rights of borrowers and lenders and thus facilitate lending. The index ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating that these laws are better designed to expand access to credit. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Oil > Production: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Economy growth: Measures growth in the economy or ""economy growth"". Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources."
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Debt > Interest payments > Current LCU: Interest payments (current LCU). Interest payments include interest payments on government debt--including long-term bonds, long-term loans, and other debt instruments--to domestic and foreign residents.
  • Innovation: Innovation
    Units: Unitless Scale
  • Electricity > Consumption per capita: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • GDP > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Bank and trade-related lending > PPG + PNG > NFL > Current US$ per capita: Bank and trade-related lending covers commercial bank lending and other private credits. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking: Doing Business records all generic procedures that are officially required for an entrepreneur to start up and operate an industrial or commercial business. These include obtaining all necessary licenses and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications or inscriptions with relevant authorities. After a study of laws, regulations and publicly available information on business entry, a detailed list of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirements is developed. Subsequently, local incorporation lawyers and government officials complete and verify the data on applicable procedures, the time and cost of complying with each procedure under normal circumstances and the paid-in minimum capital. On average 4 law firms participate in each country. Information is also collected on the sequence in which procedures are to be completed and whether procedures may be carried out simultaneously. It is assumed that any required information is readily available and that all government and nongovernment agencies involved in the start-up process function efficiently and without corruption. If answers by local experts differ, inquiries continue until the data are reconciled. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • GNI > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty > Population under $4 a day: Population below line - proportion receiving less than $4 per day in income (purchasing power parity). Data from most recent available between the period 1983 to 2000.
  • Trade > Exports: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Current international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking: Every economy has established a complex system of laws and institutions intended to protect the interests of workers and to guarantee a minimum standard of living for its population. The OECD Job Study and the International Encyclopedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations identify 4 areas subject to statutory regulation in all countries: employment, social security, industrial relations and occupational health and safety. Doing Business focuses on the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This year data on social security payments by the employer and pension benefits, including the mandatory retirement age, have been added. The data on hiring and firing workers are based on a detailed survey of employment and social security regulations. The survey is completed by local law firms. The employment laws of most countries are available online in the NATLEX database, published by the International Labour Organization. In all cases both actual laws and secondary sources are used to ensure accuracy. Conflicting answers are further checked against 2 additional sources, including a local legal treatise on employment regulation. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Total > Reserves in months of imports: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. This item shows reserves expressed in terms of the number of months of imports of goods and services which could be paid for.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Debt > Banks > Automated teller machines > ATMs > Per 100,000 adults: Automated teller machines (ATMs) (per 100,000 adults). Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > Constant LCU: GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • Trade > Export growth: Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments."
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here.
  • Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU: Social contributions (current LCU). Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments.
  • Labor force per thousand people: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > Carrefour > First store: Year in which Carrefour first entered each country.
  • Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • GDP > Median household income (PPP): Median Household Income $PPP.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Currency > Monetary unit: Country currency.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Per capita GDP: Per capita GDP of the Eastern Bloc countries, comprising of the former communist states of Eastern and Central Europe.
  • Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries, and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.
  • Patents granted: Patents granted to residents per million people 1998.
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports > Goods and services > Current U: Exports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Financial > Reserves: Changes in net reserves is the net change in a country's holdings of international reserves resulting from transactions on the current, capital, and financial accounts. These include changes in holdings of monetary gold, SDRs, foreign exchange assets, reserve position in the International Monetary Fund, and other claims on nonresidents that are available to the central authority. The measure is net of liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves, and counterpart items for valuation changes and exceptional financing items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Debt > External debt stocks per capita: External debt stocks, total (DOD, current US$). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Oil > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations: Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations). Ease of doing business ranks economies from 1 to 189, with first place being the best. A high ranking (a low numerical rank) means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators.
  • Natural gas > Production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting."
  • Oil > Consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Poverty > Gap at $2 a day > PPP: Poverty gap is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence. Data showing as 0.5 signifies a poverty gap of less than 0.5 percent.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$: International tourism, receipts (current US$). International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Electricity > Consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP (constant 2000 US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$: Portfolio investment excluding liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves covers transactions in equity securities and debt securities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Bank and trade-related lending > PPG + PNG > NFL > Current US$: Bank and trade-related lending covers commercial bank lending and other private credits. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations: Exports of Chocolate/cocoa preparations, by country, in thousands USD
  • Purchasing power parity > GNI > PPP > Current international $: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Debt > External > Per $ GDP: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Maximum tax rate for individuals: Individual (max).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    Mexico had range specified: 29%-3%

  • Trade > Exports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Exports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum per 1000: US imports of bauxite and aluminum, USD Thousands, 2004. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Oil > Exports per thousand people: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)
    . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.

  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Current US$: Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • National accounts > US$ at constant 2000 prices > Aggregate indicators > GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Scientific and technical journals > Articles published: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences."
  • Goods imports > BoP > Current US$: Goods imports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP per unit of energy use: GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2000 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
  • Oil > Consumption per thousand people: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Economic aid > Recipient per capita: This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Natural gas > Production per capita: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Expenditures for travel items > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Researchers in RandD > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
  • Innovation > Research and development personnel > By sector > Business enterprise sector per thousand people: Total number of researchers employed by private for-profit enterprises. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Government spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU per capita: Subsidies and other transfers (current LCU). Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government spending > Subsidies and other transfers > Current LCU: Subsidies and other transfers (current LCU). Subsidies, grants, and other social benefits include all unrequited, nonrepayable transfers on current account to private and public enterprises; grants to foreign governments, international organizations, and other government units; and social security, social assistance benefits, and employer social benefits in cash and in kind.
  • Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU: Taxes on international trade (current LCU). Taxes on international trade include import duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes.
  • Currency > DEC alternative conversion factor > LCU per US$: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services: Exports of goods and services as a % of GDP, 2000
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Portfolio investment > Bonds > PPG + PNG > NFL > Current US$: Portfolio bond investment consists of bond issues purchased by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home per capita: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Financial sector > Exchange rates and prices > GDP deflator > Base year varies by country: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • Trade > Exports > Goods: Goods imports refer to all movable goods (including nonmonetary gold) involved in a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Net trade in goods > US$: Net trade in goods is the difference between exports and imports of goods. The category includes goods previously included in services: goods received or sent for processing and their subsequent export or import in the form of processed goods, repairs on goods, and goods procured in ports by carriers. Trade in services is not included. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Electricity > Production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Private investment > Telecommunications: Investment in telecom projects with private participation covers infrastructure projects in telecommunications that have reached financial closure and directly or indirectly serve the public. Movable assets are excluded. The types of projects included are operations and management contracts, operations and management contracts with major capital expenditure, greenfield projects (in which a private entity or a public-private joint venture builds and operates a new facility), and divestitures. Investment commitments are the sum of investments in facilities and investments in government assets. Investments in facilities are the resources the project company commits to invest during the contract period either in new facilities or in expansion and modernisation of existing facilities. Investments in government assets are the resources the project company spends on acquiring government assets such as state-owned enterprises, rights to provide services in a specific area, or the use of specific radio spectrums. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Debt > Interest payments on external debt, long-term > INT, current US$ per capita: Interest payments on external debt, long-term (INT, current US$). Interest payments on long-term debt are actual amounts of interest paid by the borrower in currency, goods, or services in the year specified. Long-term external debt is defined as debt that has an original or extended maturity of more than one year and that is owed to nonresidents by residents of an economy and repayable in currency, goods, or services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Electricity > Imports per capita: This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ per capita: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Foreign aid > From Switzerland: Net bilateral aid flows from DAC donors are the net disbursements of official development assistance (ODA) or official aid from the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Net disbursements are gross disbursements of grants and loans minus repayments of principal on earlier loans. ODA consists of loans made on concessional terms (with a grant element of at least 25 percent, calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent) and grants made to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. Official aid refers to aid flows from official donors to countries and territories in part II of the DAC list of recipients: more advanced countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the countries of the former Soviet Union, and certain advanced developing countries and territories. Official aid is provided under terms and conditions similar to those for ODA. Part II of the DAC List was abolished in 2005. The collection of data on official aid and other resource flows to Part II countries ended with 2004 data. DAC members are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Commission of the European Communities. Regional aggregates include data for economies not specified elsewhere. World and income group totals include aid not allocated by country or region. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Foreign aid > From United States: Net bilateral aid flows from DAC donors are the net disbursements of official development assistance (ODA) or official aid from the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Net disbursements are gross disbursements of grants and loans minus repayments of principal on earlier loans. ODA consists of loans made on concessional terms (with a grant element of at least 25 percent, calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent) and grants made to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. Official aid refers to aid flows from official donors to countries and territories in part II of the DAC list of recipients: more advanced countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the countries of the former Soviet Union, and certain advanced developing countries and territories. Official aid is provided under terms and conditions similar to those for ODA. Part II of the DAC List was abolished in 2005. The collection of data on official aid and other resource flows to Part II countries ended with 2004 data. DAC members are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Commission of the European Communities. Regional aggregates include data for economies not specified elsewhere. World and income group totals include aid not allocated by country or region. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ > Per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GNI, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GNI per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Oil > Production per thousand people: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Gross savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, nonresidents per million: Patent applications, nonresidents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • IBRD loans and IDA credits > PPG DOD > Current US$: IBRD loans and IDA credits are extended by the World Bank Group. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) lends at market rates. Credits from the International Development Association (IDA) are at concessional rates. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Innovation > Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU per capita: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number per 1000: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Transnational corporations > Affiliates: Number of foreign affiliates to transnational corporations
  • Tax > Customs and other import duties > Current LCU: Customs and other import duties are all levies collected on goods that are entering the country or services delivered by nonresidents to residents. They include levies imposed for revenue or protection purposes and determined on a specific or ad valorem basis as long as they are restricted to imported goods or services.
  • Tax > Taxes on income > Profits and capital gains > Current LCU: Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation."
  • Tax > Social security contributions: Social contributions include social security contributions by employees, employers, and self-employed individuals, and other contributions whose source cannot be determined. They also include actual or imputed contributions to social insurance schemes operated by governments."
  • Oil > Imports: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Oil > Imports per thousand people: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Electricity > Production per capita: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1975-2000: GDP per capita annual growth rate (%) from 1975 to 2000
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Imports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Trade balance with US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Etc. > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ > Per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Services > Etc. > Value added > Constant 2000 US$: Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services > Constant 2000 US$: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Merchandise > Exports > Current US$: Merchandise exports show the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > Time to prepare and pay taxes > Hours: Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions."
  • Financial sector > Monetary holdings > Liabilities > Money and quasi money > M2 > Current LCU: Money and quasi money comprise the sum of currency outside banks, demand deposits other than those of the central government, and the time, savings, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government. This definition of money supply is frequently called M2; it corresponds to lines 34 and 35 in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) International Financial Statistics (IFS). Data are in current local currency."
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Net errors and omissions > Adjusted > BoP > Current US$: Net errors and omissions constitute a residual category needed to ensure that all debit and credit entries in the balance of payments statement sum to zero. In the International Financial Statistics presentation, this is equal to the difference between reserves and related items and the sum of the balances of the current, capital, and financial accounts. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports of goods > Services > Income and wo: Exports of goods and services are the total value of goods and services exported as well as income and workers' remittances received. Workers' remittances include compensation of employees. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Commercial service imports > Current US$ > Per capita: Commercial service imports are total service imports minus imports of government services not included elsewhere. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993) as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. Definitions may vary among reporting economies. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Commercial service imports > Current US$: Commercial service imports are total service imports minus imports of government services not included elsewhere. International transactions in services are defined by the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (1993) as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred, and consumed at the same time. Definitions may vary among reporting economies.
  • Royalty and license fees > Payments > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ per million: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Corporate tax: Corporate tax.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    Bangladesh had range specified: 45%-0%

    Maldives had range specified: 15%-0%

    Mexico had range specified: 30%-28%

    Spain had range specified: 30%-25%

    Sri Lanka had range specified: 35%-0%

    Switzerland had range specified: 25%-13%

  • Natural gas > Consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
  • Natural gas > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Natural gas > Proved reserves per capita: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Per 1,000 people: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Public and publicly guaranteed debt service > TDS > Current US$: Public and publicly guaranteed debt service (PPG) is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term obligations of public debtors and long-term private obligations guaranteed by a public entity. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows in reporting econ: Foreign direct investment (net) shows the net change in foreign investment in the reporting country. Foreign direct investment is defined as investment that is made to acquire a lasting management interest (usually of 10 percent of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in a country other than that of the investor (defined according to residency), the investor's purpose being an effective voice in the management of the enterprise. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • External debt > Debt outstanding > Use of IMF credit > DOD > Current US$: Use of IMF credit denotes members' drawings on the IMF other than those drawn against the country's reserve tranche position. Use of IMF credit includes purchases and drawings under Stand-By, Extended, Structural Adjustment, Enhanced Structural Adjustment, and Systemic Transformation Facility Arrangements, together with Trust Fund loans. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts for travel items > Current US$ per capita: International tourism, receipts for travel items (current US$). International tourism receipts for travel items are expenditures by international inbound visitors in the reporting economy. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations per million: Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations). Ease of doing business ranks economies from 1 to 189, with first place being the best. A high ranking (a low numerical rank) means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • International tourism > Receipts for travel items > Current US$: International tourism receipts for travel items are expenditures by international inbound visitors in the reporting economy. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Tourism receipts > International > Per $ GDP: Per $ GDP figures expressed per $1,000 gross domestic product
  • Trade > Tariffs > Binding coverage > All products: Binding coverage is the percentage of product lines with an agreed bound rate. Bound rates result from trade negotiations incorporated into a country's schedule of concessions and are thus enforceable.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ > Per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Interest rate spread > Lending rate minus deposit rate: Interest rate spread is the interest rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers minus the interest rate paid by commercial or similar banks for demand, time, or savings deposits."
  • Foreign aid > From European Commission: Net bilateral aid flows from DAC donors are the net disbursements of official development assistance (ODA) or official aid from the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC). Net disbursements are gross disbursements of grants and loans minus repayments of principal on earlier loans. ODA consists of loans made on concessional terms (with a grant element of at least 25 percent, calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent) and grants made to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. Official aid refers to aid flows from official donors to countries and territories in part II of the DAC list of recipients: more advanced countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the countries of the former Soviet Union, and certain advanced developing countries and territories. Official aid is provided under terms and conditions similar to those for ODA. Part II of the DAC List was abolished in 2005. The collection of data on official aid and other resource flows to Part II countries ended with 2004 data. DAC members are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Commission of the European Communities. Regional aggregates include data for economies not specified elsewhere. World and income group totals include aid not allocated by country or region. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Patent applications > Nonresidents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number per million: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Constant 2005 international $: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Purchasing power parity > PPP conversion factor > Private > Consumption > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for private consumption (i.e., household final consumption expenditure)."
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics: Exports of Perfume/toilet/cosmetics, by country, in thousands USD
STAT Bulgaria Romania HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $18.05 billion
Ranked 71st.
$55.69 billion
Ranked 52nd. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -0.5% of GDP
Ranked 45th.
-2.5% of GDP
Ranked 82nd. 5 times more than Bulgaria

Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 17.9 CIA
Ranked 134th.
37.2 CIA
Ranked 96th. 2 times more than Bulgaria
Overview Bulgaria, a former Communist country that entered the EU on 1 January 2007, averaged more than 6% annual growth from 2004 to 2008, driven by significant amounts of bank lending, consumption, and foreign direct investment. Successive governments have demonstrated a commitment to economic reforms and responsible fiscal planning, but the global downturn sharply reduced domestic demand, exports, capital inflows, and industrial production. GDP contracted by 5.5% in 2009, stagnated in 2010, despite a significant recovery in exports, grew 1.7% in 2011, and 1% in 2012. Despite having a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects. Romania, which joined the European Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment fueled strong GDP growth, but led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania''s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. Inflation rose in 2007-08, driven by strong consumer demand, high wage growth, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. As a result of the increase in fiscal and current account deficits and the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders. Worsening international financial markets, as well as a series of drastic austerity measures implemented to meet Romania''s obligations under the IMF-led bail-out agreement contributed to a GDP contraction of 6.6% in 2009, followed by a 1.1% GDP contraction in 2010. The economy returned to positive growth in 2011 due to strong exports, a better than expected harvest, and weak domestic demand. In 2012, however, growth slowed to less than 1%, partially due to slackening export demand and an extended drought that resulted in an exceptionally poor harvest. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. The Romanian authorities announced that they do not intend to draw funds under the agreement.
Exports $26.70 billion
Ranked 66th.
$51.29 billion
Ranked 57th. 92% more than Bulgaria

GDP $51.03 billion
Ranked 70th.
$169.40 billion
Ranked 51st. 3 times more than Bulgaria

GDP > Per capita $11,841.00 per capita
Ranked 66th. 7% more than Romania
$11,092.63 per capita
Ranked 69th.

GDP > Per capita > PPP $14,100.00
Ranked 68th. 11% more than Romania
$12,700.00
Ranked 75th.

GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $12,238.71
Ranked 68th. 4% more than Romania
$11,815.47
Ranked 72nd.

GDP per capita $6,986.04
Ranked 72nd.
$7,942.83
Ranked 66th. 14% more than Bulgaria

Gross National Income $13.24 billion
Ranked 66th.
$38.62 billion
Ranked 46th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Inflation rate > Consumer prices 3%
Ranked 118th.
3.3%
Ranked 109th. 10% more than Bulgaria

Population below poverty line 21.8%
Ranked 7th.
22.2%
Ranked 18th. 2% more than Bulgaria

Public debt 16.3% of GDP
Ranked 1st.
37.2% of GDP
Ranked 95th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Unemployment rate 11.1%
Ranked 36th. 98% more than Romania
5.6%
Ranked 78th.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 63%
Ranked 81st. 15% more than Romania
54.9%
Ranked 115th.
Exports per capita $3,655.21
Ranked 58th. 52% more than Romania
$2,404.94
Ranked 72nd.

Distribution of family income > Gini index 29.8
Ranked 31st.
33.2
Ranked 10th. 11% more than Bulgaria

Human Development Index 0.808
Ranked 55th. 2% more than Romania
0.792
Ranked 63th.
Tourist arrivals > Per capita 795.85 per 1,000 people
Ranked 38th. Twice as much as Romania
398.35 per 1,000 people
Ranked 71st.

GDP > Purchasing power parity $102.70 billion
Ranked 70th.
$271.40 billion
Ranked 48th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio 0.38
Ranked 92nd.
0.5
Ranked 64th. 32% more than Bulgaria

Fiscal year calendar year calendar year
GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 31.2%
Ranked 70th.
32.9%
Ranked 63th. 5% more than Bulgaria

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average $1.52
Ranked 142nd.
$3.47
Ranked 117th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Inequality > GINI index 29.24
Ranked 30th.
32.13
Ranked 20th. 10% more than Bulgaria

Imports per capita $4,264.42
Ranked 66th. 45% more than Romania
$2,942.29
Ranked 80th.

Gross National Income per capita $1,650.91
Ranked 81st.
$1,744.84
Ranked 77th. 6% more than Bulgaria
Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate 10%
Ranked 76th.
16%
Ranked 67th. 60% more than Bulgaria

GDP per capita in 1950 $1,651.00
Ranked 31st. 40% more than Romania
$1,182.00
Ranked 36th.
Technology index 3.82
Ranked 58th.
4.13
Ranked 46th. 8% more than Bulgaria
Development > Human Development Index 0.782
Ranked 57th.
0.786
Ranked 56th. 1% more than Bulgaria

Population below poverty line > Per capita 3% per 1 million people
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than Romania
1.16% per 1 million people
Ranked 15th.

GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $1.93
Ranked 79th. 3 times more than Romania
$0.60
Ranked 107th.

Exports > Commodities clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuels machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels
Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio 4.4
Ranked 4th.
4.9
Ranked 25th. 11% more than Bulgaria
Imports $31.15 billion
Ranked 62nd.
$62.75 billion
Ranked 45th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Budget > Expenditures $18.28 billion
Ranked 73th.
$59.95 billion
Ranked 47th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

GINI index 29.21
Ranked 33th.
31.05
Ranked 30th. 6% more than Bulgaria

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $1,492.21
Ranked 39th.
$1,854.56
Ranked 32nd. 24% more than Bulgaria

Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU 25.44 billion
Ranked 105th.
-24,760,309,777.411
Ranked 159th.

Tourist arrivals 5.78 million
Ranked 34th.
8.86 million
Ranked 23th. 53% more than Bulgaria

Budget > Revenues > Per capita $2,299.65 per capita
Ranked 55th.
$2,340.18 per capita
Ranked 54th. 2% more than Bulgaria

Inbound tourism income > Current US$ $4.83 billion
Ranked 45th. 84% more than Romania
$2.63 billion
Ranked 57th.

Tax > Tax rates 36.36
Ranked 25th. 18% more than Romania
30.91
Ranked 42nd.

GDP per person 6,423.35
Ranked 65th.
7,499.64
Ranked 60th. 17% more than Bulgaria

Exports > Main exports Chemicals and plastics, food and drink, tobacco, machine-building equipment Textiles and footwear, metal products, machinery, minerals
Budget > Revenues per capita $2,085.13
Ranked 57th.
$2,373.82
Ranked 52nd. 14% more than Bulgaria

Debt > External $36.52 billion
Ranked 65th.
$129.30 billion
Ranked 42nd. 4 times more than Bulgaria

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita 394.12$
Ranked 69th.
561.4$
Ranked 63th. 42% more than Bulgaria

Central bank discount rate 0.03%
Ranked 52nd.
5.25%
Ranked 22nd. 175 times more than Bulgaria

Debt > External > Per capita $4,763.17 per capita
Ranked 41st. 42% more than Romania
$3,346.19 per capita
Ranked 50th.

GDP > Composition by sector > Services 63.2%
Ranked 68th. 7% more than Romania
59.2%
Ranked 5th.

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 46.61 billion
Ranked 127th.
347.29 billion
Ranked 92nd. 7 times more than Bulgaria

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.861
Ranked 46th. 2 times more than Romania
0.356
Ranked 88th.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 113.55$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 16th. 9 times more than Romania
13.29$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 91st.

Consumer spending 66.05
Ranked 62nd. 8% more than Romania
61.21
Ranked 76th.

Consumer price index 129.63%
Ranked 55th.
231.6%
Ranked 11th. 79% more than Bulgaria

GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 5.6%
Ranked 122nd.
7.9%
Ranked 106th. 41% more than Bulgaria

GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 9,032.41 PPP $
Ranked 56th.
9,059.91 PPP $
Ranked 55th. About the same as Bulgaria

Industries electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuel electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP 705.51% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 27th. 3 times more than Romania
252.92% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 15th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -70.3%
Ranked 144th. 56% more than Romania
-45.2%
Ranked 80th.
GDP per capita in 1973 $5,284.00
Ranked 25th. 52% more than Romania
$3,477.00
Ranked 33th.
New businesses registered > Number > Per capita 6.74 per 1,000 people
Ranked 5th. 45% more than Romania
4.66 per 1,000 people
Ranked 10th.

GDP per capita > Constant LCU 4868.29 13274.54
Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US $4.59 billion
Ranked 40th.
$6.31 billion
Ranked 31st. 37% more than Bulgaria

Labor force 2
Ranked 192nd.
9
Ranked 126th. 5 times more than Bulgaria

Poverty and inequality > Population below $1 (PPP) per day 0.0
Ranked 43th.
$0.40%
Ranked 8th.

Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum 18
Ranked 80th.
4,894
Ranked 42nd. 272 times more than Bulgaria
GDP > Real growth rate 0.8%
Ranked 146th. 14% more than Romania
0.7%
Ranked 147th.

Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP 18.5 IMF
Ranked 152nd.
37.04 IMF
Ranked 105th. Twice as much as Bulgaria
International tourism > Number of arrivals 4.84 million
Ranked 36th. 48% more than Romania
3.27 million
Ranked 41st.

Economic growth > Per capita -4.47
Ranked 124th.
-8.37
Ranked 153th. 87% more than Bulgaria

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita 383.33 BoP $
Ranked 20th. 27% more than Romania
301.02 BoP $
Ranked 25th.

GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 2,071.47 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 79th.
2,258.65 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 72nd. 9% more than Bulgaria

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita 27.67 per 1,000 people
Ranked 9th. 53% more than Romania
18.1 per 1,000 people
Ranked 20th.
Economic freedom 65
Ranked 60th.
65.1
Ranked 59th. About the same as Bulgaria

GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $5,951.46
Ranked 77th.
$7,388.75
Ranked 70th. 24% more than Bulgaria

Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $52.21 billion
Ranked 52nd.
$75.46 billion
Ranked 45th. 45% more than Bulgaria

Current account balance $-669,500,000.00
Ranked 98th.
$-6,346,000,000.00
Ranked 155th. 9 times more than Bulgaria

Agriculture > Products vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestock wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Trade > Imports per capita $3,023.51
Ranked 55th. 8% more than Romania
$2,791.31
Ranked 57th.

Currency lev "new" leu was introduced in 2005; "old" leu was phased out in 2006; note - because of currency revaluation, 10,000 ROL = 1 RON
Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita -388.157 BoP $
Ranked 100th.
-393.056 BoP $
Ranked 101st. 1% more than Bulgaria

GNI per capita $6,640.00
Ranked 54th.
$8,140.00
Ranked 52nd. 23% more than Bulgaria
GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $11,841.00 per capita
Ranked 66th. 7% more than Romania
$11,092.63 per capita
Ranked 69th.

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 387
Ranked 23th. 5 times more than Romania
77
Ranked 60th.

Trade > Exports per capita $2,565.60
Ranked 58th. 6% more than Romania
$2,421.40
Ranked 59th.

Current account balance per capita 0.0
Ranked 77th.
0.0
Ranked 76th.

Money and quasi money > M2 > Current LCU 25876090000 93668980000
Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals 6.33 million
Ranked 39th.
7.61 million
Ranked 34th. 20% more than Bulgaria

Gross national saving 22.5% of GDP
Ranked 61st.
23.3% of GDP
Ranked 57th. 4% more than Bulgaria

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita 6,380.34
Ranked 146th.
16,284.27
Ranked 119th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels 6.04 billion
Ranked 81st.
10.59 billion
Ranked 63th. 75% more than Bulgaria

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita $912.60
Ranked 74th. 22% more than Romania
$746.72
Ranked 82nd.

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita 1,341.08$
Ranked 36th.
1,518.66$
Ranked 35th. 13% more than Bulgaria

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 2,411.04$
Ranked 56th.
3,542.96$
Ranked 40th. 47% more than Bulgaria

Budget > Expenditures per capita $2,325.37
Ranked 60th.
$2,892.06
Ranked 50th. 24% more than Bulgaria

Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ $20.51 billion
Ranked 55th.
$46.71 billion
Ranked 39th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Stock of broad money None None
Exchange rates leva (BGN) per US dollar -<br />1.52 (2012 est.)<br />1.41 (2011 est.)<br />1.48 (2010 est.)<br />1.4 (2009)<br />1.32 (2008) lei (RON) per US dollar -<br />3.47 (2012 est.)<br />3.05 (2011 est.)<br />3.18 (2010 est.)<br />3.05 (2009)<br />2.5 (2008)
Debt > External per capita $4,553.67
Ranked 41st. 32% more than Romania
$3,459.43
Ranked 47th.

Size of economy > Share of world GDP 0.04%
Ranked 76th.
0.11%
Ranked 56th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.238$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 47th. 3% more than Romania
0.231$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 54th.

Exports > Partners Germany 10.4%, Turkey 9.1%, Italy 8.7%, Romania 8.2%, Greece 7.3%, France 4% Germany 18.9%, Italy 12.3%, France 7.1%, Turkey 5.5%, Hungary 5.5%
Aid per capita > Current US$ 79.65$
Ranked 40th. 89% more than Romania
42.16$
Ranked 73th.

GDP > Official exchange rate $50.33 billion
Ranked 76th.
$167.10 billion
Ranked 57th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ 8,035.74 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 56th.
8,060.21 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 55th. About the same as Bulgaria

Investment > Gross fixed 20.4% of GDP
Ranked 89th.
26.4% of GDP
Ranked 37th. 29% more than Bulgaria

Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita 189.82 BoP $
Ranked 48th. 3 times more than Romania
70.85 BoP $
Ranked 72nd.

Bank liquid > Reserves to bank assets ratio 11.04
Ranked 75th.
50.34
Ranked 10th. 5 times more than Bulgaria

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate 10%
Ranked 99th.
16%
Ranked 91st. 60% more than Bulgaria

Stock of narrow money None None
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 30.3%
Ranked 77th.
35%
Ranked 55th. 16% more than Bulgaria
Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $3,008.56
Ranked 44th. 58% more than Romania
$1,909.04
Ranked 56th.

Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU 55.08 billion
Ranked 110th.
277.63 billion
Ranked 90th. 5 times more than Bulgaria

Government spending 2.77 billion
Ranked 57th.
3.44 billion
Ranked 53th. 24% more than Bulgaria

Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita 337.75 BoP $
Ranked 38th. 10% more than Romania
306.45 BoP $
Ranked 41st.

GDP > Current LCU 41948110000 287186000000
High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita $104,010.62 per 1,000 people
Ranked 44th.
$123,351.01 per 1,000 people
Ranked 43th. 19% more than Bulgaria

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 6.7%
Ranked 110th.
10.3%
Ranked 86th. 54% more than Bulgaria
Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita $1,404.85
Ranked 62nd.
$2,367.13
Ranked 50th. 68% more than Bulgaria

Tax > Tax payments > Number 13
Ranked 131st.
39
Ranked 41st. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 189.5 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 57th.
487.09 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 42nd. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Gross domestic savings 8.62 billion
Ranked 61st.
38.06 billion
Ranked 39th. 4 times more than Bulgaria

Inflation 134.23
Ranked 53th. 5% more than Romania
127.24
Ranked 69th.

Investment > External financial assets per capita €6,445.48
Ranked 38th. 67% more than Romania
€3,854.89
Ranked 43th.

Poverty > Gap at $1 a day > PPP 0.5%
Ranked 22nd.
0.51%
Ranked 18th. 2% more than Bulgaria

Outbound tourist spending 3.38 billion
Ranked 45th. 40% more than Romania
2.41 billion
Ranked 50th.

Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $ $15,450.00
Ranked 53th.
$16,860.00
Ranked 49th. 9% more than Bulgaria

Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita $15,454.35
Ranked 53th.
$16,856.42
Ranked 49th. 9% more than Bulgaria

IKEA > First store opening year second half of 2011 2007
GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita 4,488.67
Ranked 95th.
4,958.42
Ranked 88th. 10% more than Bulgaria

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $20.50 billion
Ranked 58th.
$46.71 billion
Ranked 40th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth 0.775%
Ranked 140th. 2 times more than Romania
0.354%
Ranked 145th.

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ 16.03 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 77th.
48.86 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 54th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Debt service 17.37
Ranked 38th.
18.84
Ranked 34th. 8% more than Bulgaria
International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita 237.21$
Ranked 41st. 5 times more than Romania
47.24$
Ranked 76th.

Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $ 0.6 1.47
Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number 216,489
Ranked 9th.
392,544
Ranked 10th. 81% more than Bulgaria
GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 72.1%
Ranked 68th. 1% more than Romania
71.5%
Ranked 69th.
Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ 1.45 billion BoP $
Ranked 64th.
5.06 billion BoP $
Ranked 26th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million 35.65
Ranked 44th.
66.59
Ranked 33th. 87% more than Bulgaria

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU 3.66 billion
Ranked 81st.
30.33 billion
Ranked 61st. 8 times more than Bulgaria

Debt > Net current transfers from abroad > Current LCU 1.61 billion
Ranked 80th.
23.46 billion
Ranked 51st. 15 times more than Bulgaria

Saving rate 15.98
Ranked 69th.
28.97
Ranked 17th. 81% more than Bulgaria

GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita 8,035.84 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 56th.
8,060.2 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 55th. About the same as Bulgaria

International tourism > Number of departures 4.24 million
Ranked 25th.
7.14 million
Ranked 17th. 69% more than Bulgaria

Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita 40,032.53 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 21st.
-134,027.6 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 87th.

GDP > CIA Factbook $57.13 billion
Ranked 67th.
$155.00 billion
Ranked 45th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption 8.5%
Ranked 9th.
8.84%
Ranked 2nd. 4% more than Bulgaria

Investment > External financial assets €45 billion
Ranked 47th.
€84 billion
Ranked 41st. 87% more than Bulgaria

Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU per capita 3,482.68
Ranked 116th.
-1,160.989
Ranked 159th.

Tax > GDP > Current LCU 77.58 billion
Ranked 133th.
587.5 billion
Ranked 97th. 8 times more than Bulgaria

Tax > Average time to clear customs > Days 1.67 days
Ranked 37th.
2.59 days
Ranked 29th. 55% more than Bulgaria
GDP > PPP per capita $8,005.49
Ranked 63th.
$8,408.76
Ranked 59th. 5% more than Bulgaria
Economic aid > Recipient $742.00 million
Ranked 22nd.
$914.30 million
Ranked 5th. 23% more than Bulgaria
GNI 46.59 billion
Ranked 63th.
164.07 billion
Ranked 41st. 4 times more than Bulgaria

Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted 0.704
Ranked 36th. 2% more than Romania
0.687
Ranked 38th.
GDP > PPP $62.29 billion
Ranked 64th.
$182.34 billion
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Poverty > Share of all poor people 0.02%
Ranked 63th.
0.06%
Ranked 52nd. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ 10.32 billion$
Ranked 40th.
32.78 billion$
Ranked 30th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million 52.98
Ranked 17th. 15 times more than Romania
3.61
Ranked 80th.

Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita $6,978.05
Ranked 75th.
$9,036.04
Ranked 67th. 29% more than Bulgaria

Trade > Exports to US $116.20 million
Ranked 84th.
$162.60 million
Ranked 73th. 40% more than Bulgaria
Industrial production growth rate 0.7%
Ranked 121st.
-0.8%
Ranked 134th.

Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ $13,332.74
Ranked 54th.
$14,199.11
Ranked 50th. 6% more than Bulgaria

World trade > Exports 23.3 billion
Ranked 55th.
53.69 billion
Ranked 43th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture 7.1%
Ranked 130th.
31.6%
Ranked 74th. 4 times more than Bulgaria

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Europe 7.09 million
Ranked 13th. 27% more than Romania
5.58 million
Ranked 17th.

Poverty > Poverty gap at national poverty line 4.2%
Ranked 5th.
7.59%
Ranked 6th. 81% more than Bulgaria
Bank capital to assets ratio 10.5%
Ranked 25th. 14% more than Romania
9.2%
Ranked 15th.

Labor force > By occupation > Services 57.7%
Ranked 15th. 22% more than Romania
47.3%
Ranked 35th.

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita $49.55
Ranked 78th.
$99.69
Ranked 66th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Industrial > Production growth rate 0.4%
Ranked 138th.
1.5%
Ranked 128th. 4 times more than Bulgaria

Poverty and inequality > Population below national poverty line > Total 10.6%
Ranked 35th.
13.8%
Ranked 34th. 30% more than Bulgaria

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita 497.82
Ranked 91st.
1,418.15
Ranked 74th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU 6,380.34
Ranked 146th.
16,284.27
Ranked 119th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$ $3,228.24
Ranked 54th.
$3,314.77
Ranked 52nd. 3% more than Bulgaria

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $ $16,043.58
Ranked 62nd.
$17,004.50
Ranked 57th. 6% more than Bulgaria

Technological achievement 0.41
Ranked 27th. 11% more than Romania
0.37
Ranked 31st.
Business > Companies > Specific companies > IKEA > Debut 2,011
Ranked 9th. About the same as Romania
2,007
Ranked 13th.

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index > 2005 = 100 121.73
Ranked 27th. 21% more than Romania
100.63
Ranked 53th.

Net domestic credit > Current LCU 18299810000 59839570000
International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita 390.96$
Ranked 46th. 6 times more than Romania
60.55$
Ranked 78th.

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure 32.79 billion
Ranked 71st.
105.75 billion
Ranked 46th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita 826.5
Ranked 103th. 66% more than Romania
496.47
Ranked 130th.

Household spending per capita 1,885.29
Ranked 51st.
2,290.7
Ranked 45th. 22% more than Bulgaria

Commercial bank prime lending rate 9.72%
Ranked 91st.
11.33%
Ranked 73th. 17% more than Bulgaria

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ $6.67 billion
Ranked 78th.
$15.93 billion
Ranked 65th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ -3,004,300,000 BoP $
Ranked 119th.
-8,503,510,000 BoP $
Ranked 126th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Trade > Imports $22.78 billion
Ranked 65th.
$59.84 billion
Ranked 42nd. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Currency > Real effective exchange rate index 120.45%
Ranked 16th. About the same as Romania
119.94%
Ranked 17th.

Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average 1.56 2.81
GDP > CIA Factbook per capita $7,302.31
Ranked 64th. 2% more than Romania
$7,129.05
Ranked 65th.

Oil > Exports 75,840 bbl/day
Ranked 68th.
95,500 bbl/day
Ranked 62nd. 26% more than Bulgaria

GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 66.6%
Ranked 38th. 67% more than Romania
40%
Ranked 96th.
Purchasing power parity > GNI per capita > PPP > Current international $ $12,750.00
Ranked 53th.
$14,460.00
Ranked 42nd. 13% more than Bulgaria

Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $1,063.99
Ranked 58th. 18% more than Romania
$901.48
Ranked 67th.

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita $4,488.67
Ranked 63th.
$5,359.23
Ranked 55th. 19% more than Bulgaria

Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita 10,620.95
Ranked 154th.
27,547.34
Ranked 124th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Debt > Strength of legal rights index > 0=weak to 10=strong per million 1.23
Ranked 74th. 3 times more than Romania
0.422
Ranked 112th.

Oil > Production 2,925 bbl/day
Ranked 99th.
107,100 bbl/day
Ranked 49th. 37 times more than Bulgaria

Economy growth -4.95
Ranked 137th.
-8.5
Ranked 157th. 72% more than Bulgaria

Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services 33.96 billion
Ranked 67th.
67.75 billion
Ranked 54th. Twice as much as Bulgaria

Purchasing power parity > Gross domestic product per capita > PPP 11,457.77
Ranked 56th. 6% more than Romania
10,795.91
Ranked 59th.

Debt > Interest payments > Current LCU 514.6 million
Ranked 83th.
8.61 billion
Ranked 58th. 17 times more than Bulgaria

Innovation 16.9
Ranked 47th. 4% more than Romania
16.3
Ranked 52nd.
Electricity > Consumption per capita 3,730.98 kWh
Ranked 16th. 59% more than Romania
2,351.53 kWh
Ranked 64th.

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 190.84$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 80th.
208.88$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 76th. 9% more than Bulgaria

GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita $7,302.82 per capita
Ranked 69th. 2% more than Romania
$7,129.05 per capita
Ranked 71st.

Household spending 14.3 billion
Ranked 59th.
49.21 billion
Ranked 40th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $6,919.15
Ranked 45th. 23% more than Romania
$5,641.43
Ranked 57th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption 7.8%
Ranked 183th. 18% more than Romania
6.6%
Ranked 186th.
GDP > Per $ GDP $11,841.00 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 66th. 7% more than Romania
$11,092.63 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 69th.

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ $32.79 billion
Ranked 64th.
$114.30 billion
Ranked 45th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Bank and trade-related lending > PPG + PNG > NFL > Current US$ per capita 312.82$
Ranked 5th.
326.61$
Ranked 3rd. 4% more than Bulgaria

Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking 80
Ranked 75th. 10 times more than Romania
8
Ranked 147th.
GNI > Current US$ per capita 3,482.37$
Ranked 67th.
4,514.11$
Ranked 60th. 30% more than Bulgaria

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ 3.05 billion$
Ranked 76th.
12.15 billion$
Ranked 50th. 4 times more than Bulgaria

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 2,071.5 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 80th.
2,258.65 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 76th. 9% more than Bulgaria

Poverty > Population under $4 a day 22%
Ranked 7th.
23%
Ranked 6th. 5% more than Bulgaria
Trade > Exports $19.33 billion
Ranked 67th.
$51.91 billion
Ranked 50th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Purchasing power parity > GDP > PPP > Current international $ $101.13 billion
Ranked 61st.
$305.03 billion
Ranked 35th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 2,458.27 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 44th.
2,564.85 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 42nd. 4% more than Bulgaria

Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking 90
Ranked 64th.
149
Ranked 6th. 66% more than Bulgaria
Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita $16,043.58
Ranked 62nd.
$17,004.50
Ranked 57th. 6% more than Bulgaria

Total > Reserves in months of imports 4.8
Ranked 36th.
5.48
Ranked 25th. 14% more than Bulgaria

Imports > Commodities machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materials machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products
Debt > Banks > Automated teller machines > ATMs > Per 100,000 adults 92.84
Ranked 18th. 53% more than Romania
60.64
Ranked 39th.

Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 147.54
Ranked 73th.
147.57
Ranked 72nd. The same as Bulgaria

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 114.47$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 95th.
123.22$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 92nd. 8% more than Bulgaria

GDP > Constant LCU 37680590000 287186000000
Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index 0.592
Ranked 40th. 10% more than Romania
0.54
Ranked 45th.
Trade > Export growth -10.34
Ranked 62nd.
-11.77
Ranked 66th. 14% more than Bulgaria

Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU 22.14 billion
Ranked 82nd.
167.51 billion
Ranked 58th. 8 times more than Bulgaria

Welfare > Social contributions > Current LCU 5.53 billion
Ranked 53th.
50.48 billion
Ranked 33th. 9 times more than Bulgaria

Labor force per thousand people 0.000286
Ranked 205th.
0.000413
Ranked 155th. 44% more than Bulgaria

Business > Companies > Specific companies > Carrefour > First store 2,009
Ranked 4th. About the same as Romania
2,001
Ranked 6th.
Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services 35.85 billion
Ranked 65th.
76.49 billion
Ranked 48th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

GDP > Median household income (PPP) $10,354.00
Ranked 60th. 16% more than Romania
$8,933.00
Ranked 69th.
Household final > Consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 1,480.86 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 54th.
1,906.31 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 49th. 29% more than Bulgaria

Public institution index 4.36
Ranked 55th. 11% more than Romania
3.94
Ranked 73th.
GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita 3,454.22$
Ranked 63th.
3,911.99$
Ranked 58th. 13% more than Bulgaria

Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $50.54 billion
Ranked 59th.
$120.31 billion
Ranked 43th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ $112.89 billion
Ranked 59th.
$359.50 billion
Ranked 36th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ $117.19 billion
Ranked 65th.
$362.65 billion
Ranked 38th. 3 times more than Bulgaria

Currency > Monetary unit 1 lev = 100 stotinki 1 new leu = 100 bani
Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP $0.37 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 41st. 13% more than Romania
$0.33 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 60th.

Per capita GDP <font style="color:green;">$5,552</FONT> <font style="color:green;">$3,525</FONT>
Taxes and other revenues 35.9% of GDP
Ranked 55th. 8% more than Romania
33.3% of GDP
Ranked 66th.

Patents granted 23 per million people
Ranked 37th.
71 per million people
Ranked 22nd. 3 times more than Bulgaria
Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports > Goods and services > Current U $23.27 billion
Ranked 58th.
$50.49 billion
Ranked 46th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Balance of payments > Financial > Reserves -224,703,828.88
Ranked 75th.
6.96 billion
Ranked 14th.

Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$ $-4,751,148,663.22
Ranked 120th.
$-7,298,000,000.00
Ranked 127th. 54% more than Bulgaria

Debt > External debt stocks per capita $5,433.89
Ranked 8th.
$6,070.74
Ranked 5th. 12% more than Bulgaria

Oil > Proved reserves 15 million bbl
Ranked 82nd.
600 million bbl
Ranked 41st. 40 times more than Bulgaria

Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations 58
Ranked 131st.
73
Ranked 116th. 26% more than Bulgaria

Natural gas > Production 54 million cu m
Ranked 38th.
10.86 billion cu m
Ranked 33th. 201 times more than Bulgaria

GDP deflator 111.33
Ranked 150th. 11% more than Romania
100
Ranked 168th.

New businesses registered > Number 49,328
Ranked 10th.
103,733
Ranked 5th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Oil > Consumption 91,000 bbl/day
Ranked 80th.
196,000 bbl/day
Ranked 56th. 2 times more than Bulgaria

Poverty > Gap at $2 a day > PPP 1.53%
Ranked 27th.
2.98%
Ranked 23th. 95% more than Bulgaria

Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$ $4.55 billion
Ranked 49th. 2 times more than Romania
$2.08 billion
Ranked 67th.

Electricity > Consumption 28.3 billion kWh
Ranked 22nd.
50.59 billion kWh
Ranked 33th. 79% more than Bulgaria

Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $3,941.24
Ranked 53th. 1% more than Romania
$3,913.46
Ranked 54th.

Tax > GDP > Current US$ $50.97 billion
Ranked 70th.
$192.71 billion
Ranked 50th. 4 times more than Bulgaria

Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $4,634.63
Ranked 81st.
$5,588.94
Ranked 74th. 21% more than Bulgaria