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Crime Stats: compare key data on Egypt & Turkey

Definitions

  • Age of criminal responsibility: The age at which a person is no longer excluded from criminal liability.  The lowest age is indicated for countries where there isn’t a single age limit, for example where different states have different regulations (such as the USA) or there is different limits for boy and girls (such as in Iran). The spectrum is specifically wide for the USA and Mexico (both 6-12 years). Several US states do not stipulate any minimal age for criminal responsibility at all. For further qualifications, exceptions and other notes, please refer to notes.
  • Believes crime increasing in the past 3 years: Crime increasing in the past 3 years. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "In the past three years would you say the level of crime in your community has increased, stayed about the same, or decreased?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Crime levels: Level of crime. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How serious you feel the level of crime is?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Drugs > Annual cannabis use: Estimate of percentage of 15-64 year old population who use Cannabis.
  • Fear of crime > Feels safe walking alone > At night: Safety walking alone during night. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How safe do you feel walking alone in this city during the night?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Fear of crime > Violent hate crime: Worries being subject to a physical attack because of your skin colour, ethnic origin or religion. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How worried are you about)......being subject to a physical attack because of your skin colour, ethnic origin or religion?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Justice system > Punishment > Capital punishment (last execution year): Year of last use.
  • Murder rate: Homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants in various countries.
  • Rape rate: Number of rape incidents per 100,000 citizens in different countries. Figures do not take into account rape incidents that go unreported to the police.
  • Suicide rates > Suicide rate (both sexes): Suicides per 100’000 residents per year.
  • Violent crime > Gun crime > Guns per 100 residents: Number of privately owned small firearms per 100 residents.
  • Violent crime > Murder rate: Intentional homicide, number and rate per 100,000 population.
  • Violent crime > Murder rate per million people: Intentional homicide, number and rate per 100,000 population. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Violent crime > Murders: Intentional homicide, number and rate per 100,000 population.
  • Violent crime > Murders per million people: Intentional homicide, number and rate per 100,000 population. Figures expressed per million people for the same year.
  • Kidnappings: Number of kidnappings recorded by police in that country per 100,000 population.
  • Prisoners: Total persons incarcerated
  • Assaults: Number of assaults recorded by police in that country per 100,000 population.
  • Punishment > Maximum length of sentence: Maximum length of sentence (under life).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Perceived problems > Problem violent crimes including assault and armed robbery: Problem violent crimes such as assault and armed robbery. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How much of a problem are...) violent crimes such as assault and armed robbery?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Fear of crime > Feels safe walking alone > During the day: Safety walking alone during daylight. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How safe do you feel walking alone in this city during the daylight?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Violent crime > Domestic violence amongst Muslims: Information on and estimates of prevalence of various forms of domestic violence in Muslim-majority countries.
  • Prisoners > Per capita: Data for 2003. Number of prisoners held per 100,000 population.
  • Punishment > Crimes possibly attracting life sentence: Possible other sentence.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Fear of crime > Worries about being attacked: Worries attacked. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How worried are you about)......being physically attacked by strangers?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Software piracy rate: The piracy rate is the total number of units of pirated software deployed in 2007 divided by the total units of software installed.
  • Perceived problems > Property crimes including vandalism and theft: Problem property crimes such as vandalism and theft. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How much of a problem are...) property crimes such as vandalism and theft?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Perceived problems > Illegal drugs: Problem people using or dealing drugs. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How much of a problem are...) people using or dealing drugs?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Perceived problems > Problem corruption and bribery: Problem corruption and bribery. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How much of a problem are...) corruption and bribery?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Punishment > Minimum life sentence to serve before eligibility for requesting parole: Minimum to serve before eligibility for requesting parole.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Fear of crime > Worries about being insulted: Worries being insulted. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How worried are you about)......being insulted or pestered by anybody, while in the street or any other public place?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Fear of crime > Worries about being mugged or robbed: Worries being mugged or robbed. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How worried are you about)......being mugged and robbed?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Illicit drugs: Crime statistics are often better indicators of prevalence of law enforcement and willingness to report crime, than actual prevalence.
  • Prisoners per 1000: Total persons incarcerated. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Violent crime > Domestic violence > Laws and Prosecution: Information on laws against domestic violence and their implementation in Muslim-majority countries.
  • Punishment > Crimes requiring mandatory sentence: Mandatory sentence.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Judges: Number of professional judges per 100,000 population.
  • Fear of crime > Worries about home break and enter: Worries home broken and things stolen. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "How worried are you about....having your home broken into and something stolen?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Punishment > Life sentence under the age of 18 or 21: Under age of 18 (or 21).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Acquitted: Total acquitted in criminal courts. Crime statistics are often better indicators of prevalence of law enforcement and willingness to report crime, than actual prevalence.
  • Punishment > Has life imprisonment: Life imprisonment.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Fear of crime > Worries about things from car being stolen: Worries things from car stolen. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How worried are you about)......having things stolen from your car?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Punishment > Has indefinite sentence: Indefinite sentence (excl. preventive or psychiatric detainment).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

  • Prosecutors: Number of prosecutors per 100,000 population.
  • Fear of crime > Worries about car being stolen: Worries car stolen. Based on 0-50 contributions for Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria and 82 more countries and 50-100 contributions for Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria and 24 more countries and over 100 contributions for Australia, Brazil, Canada and 17 more countries. The surveys were conducted by numbeo.com from July, 2011 to February, 2014. See this sample survey for the United States, respondents were asked "(How worried are you about)......having your car stolen?". The higher the value, the more survey respondents believe it is high in their country.
  • Acquitted per 1000: Total acquitted in criminal courts. Crime statistics are often better indicators of prevalence of law enforcement and willingness to report crime, than actual prevalence. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Prison staff: Number of correction staff in adult prisons per 100,000 population.
  • Jails: Total number of adult prisons, penal or correctional institutions (excluding temporary jail lock-ups). Crime statistics are often better indicators of prevalence of law enforcement and willingness to report crime, than actual prevalence.
  • Jails per million: Total number of adult prisons, penal or correctional institutions (excluding temporary jail lock-ups). Crime statistics are often better indicators of prevalence of law enforcement and willingness to report crime, than actual prevalence. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Unpaid diplomatic parking fines: Average Unpaid Annual New York City Parking Violations per Diplomat, 11/1997 to 11/2002.
  • Prosecutions > Murders: Number of prosecutions for intentional homicides in the given year. Prosecutions are cases that made it to court, regardless of the verdict.
  • Prosecutions > Adults per 1000: Number of people prosecuted. Prosecutions are cases that made it to court, regardless of the verdict. Figures expressed per thousand population for the same year.
  • Prosecutions > Adults: Number of people prosecuted. Prosecutions are cases that made it to court, regardless of the verdict.
  • Prosecutions > Murders per million: Number of prosecutions for intentional homicides in the given year. Prosecutions are cases that made it to court, regardless of the verdict. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Unpaid diplomatic parking fines per million: Average Unpaid Annual New York City Parking Violations per Diplomat, 11/1997 to 11/2002. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Prosecutions > Juveniles: Number of juveniles who were prosecuted in the given year. Prosecutions are cases that made it to court, regardless of the verdict.
  • Prosecutions > Juveniles per million: Number of juveniles who were prosecuted in the given year. Prosecutions are cases that made it to court, regardless of the verdict. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint: Crime measures the share of senior managers who ranked crime, theft, and disorder as a major or very severe constraint.
  • Property crime > Losses due to theft, robbery, vandalism, and arson > % sales: Losses due to theft, robbery, vandalism, and arson (% sales). Losses due to theft, robbery, vandalism, and arson are the estimated losses from those causes that occurred on establishments' premises as a percentage of annual sales.
  • Corruption > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint: Corruption measures the share of senior managers who ranked corruption as a major or very severe constraint.
  • Courts > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint: Courts measure the share of senior managers who ranked courts and dispute resolution systems as a major or very severe constraint.
STAT Egypt Turkey HISTORY
Age of criminal responsibility 15
Ranked 10th. 25% more than Turkey
12
Ranked 32nd.
Believes crime increasing in the past 3 years 90.91
Ranked 2nd. 68% more than Turkey
54.13
Ranked 73th.
Crime levels 55
Ranked 32nd. 54% more than Turkey
35.81
Ranked 61st.
Drugs > Annual cannabis use 6.2%
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than Turkey
1.9%
Ranked 8th.
Fear of crime > Feels safe walking alone > At night 54.46
Ranked 43th.
55.91
Ranked 39th. 3% more than Egypt
Fear of crime > Violent hate crime 35.19
Ranked 25th. 38% more than Turkey
25.45
Ranked 56th.
Justice system > Punishment > Capital punishment (last execution year) 2,011
Ranked 7th. 1% more than Turkey
1,984
Ranked 14th.
Murder rate 0.8 3.8
Rape rate 0.1
Ranked 51st.
1.5
Ranked 71st. 15 times more than Egypt

Suicide rates > Suicide rate (both sexes) 0.1
Ranked 16th.
3.62
Ranked 10th. 36 times more than Egypt
Violent crime > Gun crime > Guns per 100 residents 3.5
Ranked 110th.
12.5
Ranked 51st. 4 times more than Egypt
Violent crime > Murder rate 992
Ranked 26th.
2,320
Ranked 38th. 2 times more than Egypt

Violent crime > Murder rate per million people 12.92
Ranked 89th.
32.97
Ranked 107th. 3 times more than Egypt

Violent crime > Murders 992
Ranked 26th.
2,320
Ranked 38th. 2 times more than Egypt

Violent crime > Murders per million people 12.92
Ranked 89th.
32.97
Ranked 107th. 3 times more than Egypt

Kidnappings 0.02
Ranked 56th.
14.84
Ranked 1st. 742 times more than Egypt
Prisoners 61,845 prisoners
Ranked 21st.
64,051 prisoners
Ranked 20th. 4% more than Egypt
Assaults 0.3
Ranked 16th.
192.7
Ranked 22nd. 642 times more than Egypt
Punishment > Maximum length of sentence None None
Perceived problems > Problem violent crimes including assault and armed robbery 46.36
Ranked 32nd. 62% more than Turkey
28.6
Ranked 64th.
Fear of crime > Feels safe walking alone > During the day 75
Ranked 58th.
79.91
Ranked 46th. 7% more than Egypt

United States extradition treaties > Entered into force April 22, 1875 January 1, 1981
Violent crime > Domestic violence amongst Muslims A 2012 United Nations Women's study found that 33% of women in Egypt have experienced physical domestic violence in their lifetime, while 18% report having experienced domestic physical violence in last 12 months. A 2009 study published by the Government of Turkey reports widespread domestic violence against women in Turkey. In urban and rural areas, 40% of Turkish women reported having experienced spousal violence in their lifetime, 10% of all women reported of domestic abuse within last 12 months. In the 15-24 year age group, 20% of the women reported of domestic violence by their husbands or male members of their family. The domestic violence ranged from slapping, battering and other forms of violence. The injuries, as a result of the reported domestic violence included bleeding, broken bones and other forms needing medical attention. Over half reported severe injuries. A third of all women who admitted domestic abuse cases, claimed having suffered repeat domestic abuse injuries in excess of 5 times.
Prisoners > Per capita 0.0
Ranked 156th.
92 per 100,000 people
Ranked 99th.
Punishment > Crimes possibly attracting life sentence Drug offenses Sexual offences, military and political crimes
Fear of crime > Worries about being attacked 47.27
Ranked 32nd. 24% more than Turkey
38.06
Ranked 56th.
Software piracy rate 60%
Ranked 55th.
65%
Ranked 50th. 8% more than Egypt
Perceived problems > Property crimes including vandalism and theft 45.75
Ranked 62nd. 17% more than Turkey
38.99
Ranked 72nd.
Perceived problems > Illegal drugs 50
Ranked 37th. 68% more than Turkey
29.73
Ranked 74th.
Perceived problems > Problem corruption and bribery 82.65
Ranked 26th. 46% more than Turkey
56.58
Ranked 60th.
Punishment > Minimum life sentence to serve before eligibility for requesting parole Never Life imprisonment: 24 years (30 if organized crime), Multiple life imprisonments: 30 years (34 if organized crime), Aggravated life imprisonment: 30 years (36 if organized crime), Multiple aggravated life imprisonments: 36 years (40 if organized crime), or never (aggravated life imprisonment for terrorism)
Fear of crime > Worries about being insulted 54.25
Ranked 18th. 29% more than Turkey
41.9
Ranked 41st.
Fear of crime > Worries about being mugged or robbed 58.64
Ranked 28th. 51% more than Turkey
38.86
Ranked 54th.
Illicit drugs transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls
Prisoners per 1000 0.905 prisoners
Ranked 97th.
0.985 prisoners
Ranked 91st. 9% more than Egypt
Violent crime > Domestic violence > Laws and Prosecution The Egyptian Penal Code was amended to no longer provide impunity (legal protection) to men who married the women that they raped. Honor killings are now punishable by life imprisonment and Turkish law no longer provides impunity (legal protection) to men who married the women that they raped.
Punishment > Crimes requiring mandatory sentence Murder, rape, kidnapping, terrorism Murder with special cirucumstances, treason, terrorism
Judges 9.8%
Ranked 26th. 14% more than Turkey
8.6%
Ranked 29th.

Fear of crime > Worries about home break and enter 35.71
Ranked 65th.
43.86
Ranked 51st. 23% more than Egypt
Punishment > Life sentence under the age of 18 or 21 Yes Maximum 24 years
Acquitted 174,230
Ranked 4th.
306,445
Ranked 2nd. 76% more than Egypt
Punishment > Has life imprisonment Yes Yes
Fear of crime > Worries about things from car being stolen 66.35
Ranked 19th. 48% more than Turkey
44.91
Ranked 61st.
Punishment > Has indefinite sentence No Yes
Prosecutors 25.4%
Ranked 3rd. 5 times more than Turkey
4.8%
Ranked 29th.

Fear of crime > Worries about car being stolen 63.21
Ranked 14th. 86% more than Turkey
34.03
Ranked 56th.
Acquitted per 1000 2.55
Ranked 4th.
4.71
Ranked 3rd. 85% more than Egypt
Prison staff 13.2%
Ranked 13th.
35.3%
Ranked 37th. 3 times more than Egypt

Jails 43
Ranked 38th.
504
Ranked 9th. 12 times more than Egypt
Jails per million 0.63
Ranked 77th.
7.75
Ranked 16th. 12 times more than Egypt
Unpaid diplomatic parking fines 139.6
Ranked 2nd.
0.0
Ranked 140th.
Prosecutions > Murders 428%
Ranked 22nd.
17,062%
Ranked 1st. 40 times more than Egypt
Prosecutions > Adults per 1000 8.22e-05
Ranked 60th. 41% more than Turkey
5.83e-05
Ranked 61st.
Prosecutions > Adults 6
Ranked 55th. 50% more than Turkey
4
Ranked 57th.
Prosecutions > Murders per million 5.86%
Ranked 50th.
248.62%
Ranked 1st. 42 times more than Egypt
United States extradition treaties > Date signed August 11, 1874 June 7, 1979
Unpaid diplomatic parking fines per million 2.04
Ranked 42nd.
0.0
Ranked 138th.
Prosecutions > Juveniles 6
Ranked 53th. 50% more than Turkey
4
Ranked 55th.
Prosecutions > Juveniles per million 0.0822
Ranked 58th. 41% more than Turkey
0.0583
Ranked 59th.
% of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint 9.43%
Ranked 7th.
18.17%
Ranked 8th. 93% more than Egypt
Property crime > Losses due to theft, robbery, vandalism, and arson > % sales 3%
Ranked 1st. 8 times more than Turkey
0.4%
Ranked 7th.

Corruption > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint 50.26%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Turkey
16.73%
Ranked 16th.
Courts > % of managers surveyed ranking this as a major business constraint 24.72%
Ranked 5th.
25.54%
Ranked 5th. 3% more than Egypt

SOURCES: Wikipedia: Defense of infancy (Ages of criminal responsibility by country); crime; https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-and-analysis/WDR2011/World_Drug_Report_2011_ebook.pdf, World Drug Report 2011, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), 2011, p. 217.; Wikipedia: Capital punishment in Europe (Abolition); UN Crime Stats; Wikipedia: List of countries by suicide rate (Suicide rates per 100,000 by country, year and sex (Table) ); Annexe I of the Small Arms Survey 2007 ; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Source tables; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control International Statistics on Crime and Justice, 2011; The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2002) (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Centre for International Crime Prevention); Wikipedia: Life imprisonment (Summary by country); Wikipedia: List of United States extradition treaties; Wikipedia: Islam and domestic violence (Incidence of domestic violence among Muslims); International Centre for Prison Studies - World Prison Brief; Fifth Annual BSA and IDC Global Software Piracy Study; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2002) (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Centre for International Crime Prevention). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Wikipedia: Islam and domestic violence (Laws and Prosecution); The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2002) (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Centre for International Crime Prevention). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2002) (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Centre for International Crime Prevention); The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2002) (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Centre for International Crime Prevention). Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Cultures of Corruption: Evidence from Diplomatic Parking Tickets Ray Fisman Edward Miguel Columbia University and NBER University of California, Berkeley and NBER 2006; European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control International Statistics on Crime and Justice, 2011. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Cultures of Corruption: Evidence from Diplomatic Parking Tickets Ray Fisman Edward Miguel Columbia University and NBER University of California, Berkeley and NBER 2006. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Development Indicators database; World Bank, Enterprise Surveys

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