The Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the South Pacific. Nauru is one of the world's smallest independent, democratic states. Its constitution, adopted in 1968, established it as a republic with a Westminster style parliamentary system of government. The President is elected by, and responsible to, the unicameral Parliament and is both head of government and head of state.
As there are no political parties in Nauru, all MPs stand as independents. MPs are elected every three years by Nauruan citizens over the age of 20. At its first sitting, where possible, Parliament chooses a Speaker, a Deputy Speaker and Chairs of Committees before proceeding to elect the President from among the remaining members. The President then appoints a minimum of four members of Parliament to form the Cabinet.
Nauru's economy faces significant constraints common to other island atoll states. These include its small size, remoteness, a harsh natural environment with infertile soils, limited exploitable resources and the need to create jobs and promote growth for an expanding population. Pelagic fish abound in Nauruan waters, but Nauru has been unable to establish a fishing industry of its own. Fees from fishing licences issued to distant water fishing nations are an important source of revenue for Nauru. An Australian-funded fisheries adviser has been engaged to help maximise revenue from the country's marine assets.
Australia enjoys good relations with Nauru and is its key trade, investment and development assistance partner. In August 2009, then President Stephen signed a Pacific Partnership for Development at the Pacific Islands Forum in Cairns with then Prime Minister Rudd. The Australian Government upgraded its mission in Nauru from Consulate-General to High Commission in August 2009. In September 2012, Australia established a Regional Processing Centre in Nauru for the purpose of processing asylum seekers international protection claims. Nauru participates in the Seasonal Worker Program. Under the Program, seasonal horticultural workers from Pacific countries are recruited by horticultural enterprises in Australia to meet their seasonal harvest needs.
Population. Ranked 222nd in 2013.