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Country vs country: India and Pakistan compared: Economy stats

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Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

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  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross National Income: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop).
  • Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inequality > GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality."
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • Debt > External > Per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Distribution of family income > Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the ric
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Population below poverty line > Per capita: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • GINI index: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • Gross National Income per capita: GNI, Atlas method (current US$). GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and prop). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Tax rates: Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here."
  • Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio: The ratio of average income of the richest 20% of the population to the average income of the poorest 20% of the population.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • Size of economy > Share of world GDP : Percent of world GDP (exchange rates).

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  • Technology index: The technology index denotes the country's technological readiness. This index is created with such indicators as companies spending on R&D;, the creativity of its scientific community, personal computer and internet penetration rates.
  • Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP: Gross government debt as % of GDP (IMF).

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  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar). The ratio of the PPP conversion factor to the official exchange rate (also referred to as the national price level) makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals.
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average: Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average). Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Consumer price index: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
    2000 = 100
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP: National estimates of the percentage of the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 trillion $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty > Population under $1 a day: Population below line - proportion receiving less than $1 per day in income (purchasing power parity). Data from most recent available between the period 1983 to 2000.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
  • Currency > Monetary unit: Country currency.
  • Inflation: Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used."
  • Tax > Average time to clear customs > Days: Average time to clear customs is the number of days to clear an imported good through customs.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > External per capita: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • New businesses registered > Number > Per capita: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Trade > Exports: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GNI > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Aid per capita > Current US$: Aid per capita includes both official development assistance (ODA) and official aid, and is calculated by dividing total aid by the midyear population estimate.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations: Exports of Chocolate/cocoa preparations, by country, in thousands USD
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $: GNI per capita, PPP (current international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • Outbound tourist spending: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Debt > Interest rates > Central bank discount rate: Compares the annualized interest rate set by centrals banks over loans requested by commercial banks to meet temporary shortages of funds. Through these loans, central banks can influence the commercial banks' interest rates as a tool of monetary policy. Usually their interest rates are lower than the ones offered by commercial banks, which lend it at a higher rate to make their profit.
  • Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations: Ease of doing business index (1=most business-friendly regulations). Ease of doing business ranks economies from 1 to 189, with first place being the best. A high ranking (a low numerical rank) means that the regulatory environment is conducive to business operation. The index averages the country's percentile rankings on 10 topics covered in the World Bank's Doing Business. The ranking on each topic is the simple average of the percentile rankings on its component indicators.
  • GDP > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net barter terms of trade: Net barter terms of trade are the ratio of the export price index to the corresponding import price index measured relative to the base year 2000.
    2000 = 100
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Technological achievement: Technology Achievement Index
    Units: Score
  • Labor force > By occupation > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on income, profits and capital gains (current LCU). Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita: Central government debt, total (current LCU). Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Labor force > By occupation > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Poverty > Population under $2 a day: Population below line - proportion receiving less than $2 per day in income (purchasing power parity). Data from most recent available between the period 1983 to 2000.
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > Labor force > By occupation, which lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
    Additional details:
    • Gibraltar: negligible (2013)


  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles.
  • Poverty > Share of all poor people: The percentage of the world's total poor who live in each nation. 'Poor' here is defined as lving below the global poverty line of US$1 per day.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Imports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU: GDP per capita (current LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth: GDP growth (annual %).
  • Total > Reserves in months of imports: Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. This item shows reserves expressed in terms of the number of months of imports of goods and services which could be paid for.
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • Poverty and inequality > Population below $1 (PPP) per day: Percentage of population that lives on less than the equivalent of 1 USD per day.
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here.
  • Labor force per thousand people: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GNI per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GNI is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. GNI is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$: Highest marginal tax rate (individual rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of individuals. This series presents the income levels for individuals above which the highest marginal tax rates levied at the national level apply.
  • Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Trade > Export value index: Export values are from UNCTAD's value indexes or from current values of merchandise exports.
    2000 = 100
  • Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$: Current transfers (receipts) are recorded in the balance of payments whenever an economy receives goods, services, income, or financial items without a quid pro quo. All transfers not considered to be capital are current. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU: Taxes on international trade (current LCU). Taxes on international trade include import duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes.
  • Debt service: Total debt service (% of exports of goods and services). Total debt service is the sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods, or services on long-term debt, interest paid on short-term debt, and repayments (repurchases and charges) to the IMF. Exports of goods and services includes income and workers' remittances.
  • Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Household final consumption expenditure, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are converted to constant 2005 international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > Carrefour > First store: Year in which Carrefour first entered each country.
  • Debt > External > Per $ GDP: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > PPP: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004.
  • Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking: Doing Business records all generic procedures that are officially required for an entrepreneur to start up and operate an industrial or commercial business. These include obtaining all necessary licenses and permits and completing any required notifications, verifications or inscriptions with relevant authorities. After a study of laws, regulations and publicly available information on business entry, a detailed list of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirements is developed. Subsequently, local incorporation lawyers and government officials complete and verify the data on applicable procedures, the time and cost of complying with each procedure under normal circumstances and the paid-in minimum capital. On average 4 law firms participate in each country. Information is also collected on the sequence in which procedures are to be completed and whether procedures may be carried out simultaneously. It is assumed that any required information is readily available and that all government and nongovernment agencies involved in the start-up process function efficiently and without corruption. If answers by local experts differ, inquiries continue until the data are reconciled. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$: Stocks traded, total value (current US$). Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Economic aid > Recipient: This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.
  • Poverty and inequality > Population in severe poverty: Multidimensional Poverty Index.
  • Oil > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate: Highest marginal tax rate (corporate rate) is the highest rate shown on the schedule of tax rates applied to the taxable income of corporations.
  • GDP > PPP per capita: Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in Millions of International Dollars, 2004. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $: GDP per capita, PPP (current international $). GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Debt > Interest payments on external debt, long-term > INT, current US$: Interest payments on external debt, long-term (INT, current US$). Interest payments on long-term debt are actual amounts of interest paid by the borrower in currency, goods, or services in the year specified. Long-term external debt is defined as debt that has an original or extended maturity of more than one year and that is owed to nonresidents by residents of an economy and repayable in currency, goods, or services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > At home per capita: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1980-2000: Gross domestic product GDP growth rate from 1980 to 2000
  • Oil > Proved reserves per capita: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross capital formation > Current US$: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million: Listed domestic companies, total. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. This indicator does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty > CPIA equity of public resource use rating > 1=low to 6=high: CPIA equity of public resource use rating (1=low to 6=high). Equity of public resource use assesses the extent to which the pattern of public expenditures and revenue collection affects the poor and is consistent with national poverty reduction priorities.
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking: Every economy has established a complex system of laws and institutions intended to protect the interests of workers and to guarantee a minimum standard of living for its population. The OECD Job Study and the International Encyclopedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations identify 4 areas subject to statutory regulation in all countries: employment, social security, industrial relations and occupational health and safety. Doing Business focuses on the regulation of employment, specifically the hiring and firing of workers and the rigidity of working hours. This year data on social security payments by the employer and pension benefits, including the mandatory retirement age, have been added. The data on hiring and firing workers are based on a detailed survey of employment and social security regulations. The survey is completed by local law firms. The employment laws of most countries are available online in the NATLEX database, published by the International Labour Organization. In all cases both actual laws and secondary sources are used to ensure accuracy. Conflicting answers are further checked against 2 additional sources, including a local legal treatise on employment regulation. NOTE: This is a ranking derived from several indicators, 1 being the best (ranked first). The higher the number on this graph, the lower their overall ranking. Invert this graph by clicking on 'Amount' at the top. Consult source for details on methodology.
  • Poverty > Gap at $1 a day > PPP: Poverty gap is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence. Data showing as 0.5 signifies a poverty gap of less than 0.5 percent.
  • Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU per capita: Revenue, excluding grants (current LCU). Revenue is cash receipts from taxes, social contributions, and other revenues such as fines, fees, rent, and income from property or sales. Grants are also considered as revenue but are excluded here. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross fixed capital formation (formerly gross domestic fixed investment) includes land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit is the sum of net credit to the nonfinancial public sector, credit to the private sector, and other accounts. Data are in current local currency.
  • Researchers in RandD > Per million people: Researchers in R&D; are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D; are included.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Exports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc: Imports of Silver/platinum etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes foreign income of nonresident citizens: Indicates whether or not a tax is levied on the foreign income of non-resident citizens. An asterisk indicates that certain exemptions exist.
  • Government > Finance minister: The name of each country's finance minister. A finance minister is a cabinet member in charge of overseeing and regulating the economic and monetary activity of a country. Certain countries have different titles for their finance minister, such as the UK's "Chancellor of the Exchequer" or the United States' "Secretary of the Treasury".
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $: GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 international dollars.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $: GDP, PPP (current international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption: Percentage of country's total income or consumption that belongs to the poorest 5% of its citizens.
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Economy growth: Measures growth in the economy or ""economy growth"". Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources."
  • GDP > CIA Factbook per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number per million: Tax payments (number). Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Public institution index: Public institution index indicates the state of the country's public institutions.
  • Oil > Consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index: Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > Taxes on exports > Current LCU: Taxes on exports (current LCU). Taxes on exports are all levies on goods being transported out of the country or services being delivered to nonresidents by residents. Rebates on exported goods that are repayments of previously paid general consumption taxes, excise taxes, or import duties are deducted from the gross amounts receivable from these taxes, not from amounts receivable from export taxes.
  • Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on international trade (current LCU). Taxes on international trade include import duties, export duties, profits of export or import monopolies, exchange profits, and exchange taxes. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics: Exports of Perfume/toilet/cosmetics, by country, in thousands USD
  • Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
  • Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) imports, imports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Per 1,000 people: Micro, small, and medium-size enterprises are business that may be defined by the number of employees. There is no international standard definition of firm size; however, many institutions that collect information use the following size categories: micro enterprises have 0-9 employees, small enterprises have 10-49 employees, and medium-size enterprises have 50-249 employees.
  • Savings > Gross savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross savings (current US$). Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant LCU: Final consumption expenditure (constant LCU). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant local currency.
  • Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ per capita: Total reserves (includes gold, current US$). Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Saving rate: ""Saving rate"" or gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers."
  • Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$: Stocks traded refers to the total value of shares traded during the period.
  • Services growth: Annual growth rate for value added in services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. They include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3."
  • Inflation > Duration 1990-2000: Average annual change in consumer price index (%) 1990 - 2000
  • Trade > Exports to US: in US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Trade balance with US: In US dollars. Jan 2003 - March 2003
  • Debt > External debt stocks: External debt stocks, total (DOD, current US$).
  • Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment is net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows total net, that is, net FDI in the reporting economy from foreign sources less net FDI by the reporting economy to the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net income > BoP > Current US$: Net income refers to receipts and payments of employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (receipts and payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Oil > Exports: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)


  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Portfolio investment > Bonds > PPG + PNG > NFL > Current US$: Portfolio bond investment consists of bond issues purchased by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Transnational corporations > Affiliates: Number of foreign affiliates to transnational corporations
  • Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$: International tourism, expenditures (current US$). International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These expenditures may include those by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include expenditures for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Money and quasi money > M2 > Current LCU: Money and quasi money comprise the sum of currency outside banks, demand deposits other than those of the central government, and the time, savings, and foreign currency deposits of resident sectors other than the central government. This definition of money supply is frequently called M2; it corresponds to lines 34 and 35 in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) International Financial Statistics (IFS). Data are in current local currency.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Terms of trade: Terms of trade (1980 = 100) 1999. The ratio of the export price index to the import price index measured relative to the base year 1980. A value of more than 100 implies that the price of exports has risen relative to the price of imports.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Royalty and license fees are payments and receipts between residents and nonresidents for the authorized use of intangible, nonproduced, nonfinancial assets and proprietary rights (such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, industrial processes, and franchises) and for the use, through licensing agreements, of produced originals of prototypes (such as films and manuscripts). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 million $ gross domestic product.
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports > Goods and services > Current U: Exports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from residents to nonresidents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Poverty > Gap at $2 a day > PPP: Poverty gap is the mean shortfall from the poverty line (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence. Data showing as 0.5 signifies a poverty gap of less than 0.5 percent.
  • Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita: Market capitalization of listed companies (current US$). Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Exports > Manufactured: Manufactured exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • Tax > Taxes on exports > Current LCU per capita: Taxes on exports (current LCU). Taxes on exports are all levies on goods being transported out of the country or services being delivered to nonresidents by residents. Rebates on exported goods that are repayments of previously paid general consumption taxes, excise taxes, or import duties are deducted from the gross amounts receivable from these taxes, not from amounts receivable from export taxes. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP growth > Duration 1975-2000: GDP per capita annual growth rate (%) from 1975 to 2000
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Poverty and inequality > Population vulnerable to poverty > Proportion: Multidimensional Poverty Index.
  • Debt > CPIA debt policy rating > 1=low to 6=high: CPIA debt policy rating (1=low to 6=high). Debt policy assesses whether the debt management strategy is conducive to minimizing budgetary risks and ensuring long-term debt sustainability.
  • Trade > Exports > Primary: Primary exports as % of manufactured export, 2000.
  • Oil > Production: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Income payments > BoP > Current US$: Income payments refer to employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Stocks traded > Turnover ratio: Turnover ratio is the total value of shares traded during the period divided by the average market capitalization for the period. Average market capitalization is calculated as the average of the end-of-period values for the current period and the previous period.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$: International tourism, receipts (current US$). International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$: Adjusted savings: education expenditure (current US$). Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Milk products excl butter cheese: Exports of Milk products excl. butter/cheese, by country, in thousands USD
  • Oil > Imports: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Debt > Net foreign assets > Current LCU: Net foreign assets (current LCU). Net foreign assets are the sum of foreign assets held by monetary authorities and deposit money banks, less their foreign liabilities. Data are in current local currency.
  • Bank capital to assets ratio: Bank capital to assets is the ratio of bank capital and reserves to total assets. Capital and reserves include funds contributed by owners, retained earnings, general and special reserves, provisions, and valuation adjustments. Capital includes tier 1 capital (paid-up shares and common stock), which is a common feature in all countries' banking systems, and total regulatory capital, which includes several specified types of subordinated debt instruments that need not be repaid if the funds are required to maintain minimum capital levels (these comprise tier 2 and tier 3 capital). Total assets include all nonfinancial and financial assets.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports of goods > Services and income: Exports of goods, services and income is the sum of goods (merchandise) exports, exports of (nonfactor) services and income (factor) receipts. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Gross savings: Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Balances > Current account balance > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Real interest rate: Real interest rate is the lending interest rate adjusted for inflation as measured by the GDP deflator.
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$ per capita: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Portfolio investment > Excluding LCFAR > BoP > Current US$: Portfolio investment excluding liabilities constituting foreign authorities' reserves covers transactions in equity securities and debt securities. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Stock of direct foreign investment > Abroad per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Natural gas > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GDP, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $: GNI, PPP (current international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Computer equipment: Exports of Computer equipment, by country, in thousands USD
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Computer equipment: Imports of Computer equipment, by country, in thousands USD
  • Electricity > Production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Trade > Export to Import ratio: Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000."
  • Current account balance > BoP > Current US$: Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods, services, net income, and net current transfers. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Net trade in goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Net trade in goods and services is derived by offsetting imports of goods and services against exports of goods and services. Exports and imports of goods and services comprise all transactions involving a change of ownership of goods and services between residents of one country and the rest of the world. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • IBRD loans and IDA credits > PPG DOD > Current US$: IBRD loans and IDA credits are extended by the World Bank Group. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) lends at market rates. Credits from the International Development Association (IDA) are at concessional rates. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Veneer plywood etc: Imports of Veneer/plywood/etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Poverty and inequality > Population below national poverty line > Rural: Percentage of country's population that lives in rural poverty. The poverty line is determined by each country separately.
  • Poverty and inequality > Population below national poverty line > Total: Percentage of country's population that falls below its poverty line.
  • GNI > PPP > Current international $: PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current international dollars.
  • Income > CO2 emissions > Kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP: CO2 emissions (kg per 2005 PPP $ of GDP). Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
  • Trade > Exports > Per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$: International tourism expenditures are expenditures of international outbound visitors in other countries, including payments to foreign carriers for international transport. These may include expenditures by residents traveling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Companies > Trademark applications, direct nonresident per million: Trademark applications, direct nonresident. Trademark applications filed are applications to register a trademark with a national or regional Intellectual Property (IP) office. A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. A trademark provides protection to the owner of the mark by ensuring the exclusive right to use it to identify goods or services, or to authorize another to use it in return for payment. The period of protection varies, but a trademark can be renewed indefinitely beyond the time limit on payment of additional fees. Direct nonresident trademark applications are those filed by applicants from abroad directly at a given national IP office. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Tax > Tax payments > Number > Per capita: Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent." Per capita figures expressed per 1 million population.
  • National accounts > Local currency at constant prices > Aggregate indicators > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Gold > Reserves > Tonnes > December 2010: Gold reserves of different countries as of December 2010. Figures are in tonnes.
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross National Income > Constant LCU: Gross national income is derived as the sum of GNP and the terms of trade adjustment. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Adjusted savings: education expenditure (current US$). Education expenditure refers to the current operating expenditures in education, including wages and salaries and excluding capital investments in buildings and equipment. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > External debt stocks per capita: External debt stocks, total (DOD, current US$). Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Maximum tax rate for individuals: Individual (max).

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    Mexico had range specified: 29%-3%

  • Income payments > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita: Income payments refer to employee compensation paid to nonresident workers and investment income (payments on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Net capital account > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Net capital account includes government debt forgiveness, investment grants in cash or in kind by a government entity, and taxes on capital transfers. Also included are migrants' capital transfers and debt forgiveness and investment grants by nongovernmental entities. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Imports > Goods and services > BoP > Current US$: Imports of goods and services comprise all transactions between residents of a country and the rest of the world involving a change of ownership from nonresidents to residents of general merchandise, goods sent for processing and repairs, nonmonetary gold, and services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Poverty and inequality > Causes of poverty > Education: Percentage education counts for in the country's total Multidimensional Poverty Index (UN). For instance, education is only 31% of Senegal's poverty issues, while the remaining 69% is for living standards and health. Cross country comparisons based off these numbers aren't an accurate telling of how poor education is between countries, but rather how much of an issue poor education is in each country.
  • Poverty and inequality > Multidimensional poverty index: Multidimensional Poverty Index.
  • Oil > Consumption per thousand people: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • External debt > Total > DOD > Current US$: Total external debt is debt owed to nonresidents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services. Total external debt is the sum of public, publicly guaranteed, and private nonguaranteed long-term debt, use of IMF credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt includes all debt having an original maturity of one year or less and interest in arrears on long-term debt. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > With US > US imports of bauxite and aluminum: US imports of bauxite and aluminum, USD Thousands, 2004
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold > Per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Portfolio investment > Equity > DRS > Current US$: Portfolio investment flows are net and include non-debt-creating portfolio equity flows (the sum of country funds, depository receipts, and direct purchases of shares by foreign investors). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average: Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • New businesses registered > Number: New businesses registered are the number of new firms, defined as firms registered in the current year of reporting."
  • Electricity > Consumption per capita: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > Carrefour > Hard Discounters: Amount of shops of the type “hard discounter” Carrefour has per country. Carrefour's brands Dia, Ed and Minipreço are considered hard discounters.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax revenue as percentage of GDP: Heritage Foundation (2012).
  • Business > Companies > Specific companies > Carrefour > Hypermarkets: Amount of shops of the type “Hypermarket” Carrefour has per country. Carrefour’s brands Carrefour, Atacadão and Hyperstar make up the category Hypermarket.
  • Purchasing power parity > PPP conversion factor > GDP to market exchange rate ratio: Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. The ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the result obtained by dividing the PPP conversion factor by the market exchange rate. The ratio, also referred to as the national price level, makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States."
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Tractors: Imports of Tractors, by country, in thousands USD
  • Electricity > Imports per capita: This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > Median household income (PPP): Median Household Income $PPP.
  • Debt > Banks > Borrowers from commercial banks > Per 1,000 adults: Borrowers from commercial banks (per 1,000 adults). Borrowers from commercial banks are the reported number of resident customers that are nonfinancial corporations (public and private) and households who obtained loans from commercial banks and other banks functioning as commercial banks. For many countries data cover the total number of loan accounts due to lack of information on loan account holders.
  • GDP > Constant 2000 US$ > Per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Constant LCU: GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Merchandise > Exports > Current US$: Merchandise exports show the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services > Current US$ > Per capita: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude labor and property income (formerly called factor services) as well as transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Gross national expenditure > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GNI > Atlas method > Current US$: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U.S. dollars at official exchange rates for comparisons across economies, although an alternative rate is used when the official exchange rate is judged to diverge by an exceptionally large margin from the rate actually applied in international transactions. To smooth fluctuations in prices and exchange rates, a special Atlas method of conversion is used by the World Bank. This applies a conversion factor that averages the exchange rate for a given year and the two preceding years, adjusted for differences in rates of inflation between the country, and through 2000, the G-5 countries (France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States). From 2001, these countries include the Euro Zone, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • Trade > Imports > Per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Natural gas > Proved reserves per capita: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Natural gas > Consumption per capita: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Natural gas > Production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
  • Natural gas > Production per capita: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Income receipts > BoP > Current US$: Income receipts refer to employee compensation paid to resident workers working abroad and investment income (receipts on direct investment, portfolio investment, other investments, and receipts on reserve assets). Income derived from the use of intangible assets is excluded from income and recorded under business services. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ > Per $ GDP: Market capitalization (also known as market value) is the share price times the number of shares outstanding. Listed domestic companies are the domestically incorporated companies listed on the country's stock exchanges at the end of the year. Listed companies does not include investment companies, mutual funds, or other collective investment vehicles. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1,000 $ gross domestic product.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts for travel items > Current US$: International tourism, receipts for travel items (current US$). International tourism receipts for travel items are expenditures by international inbound visitors in the reporting economy. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > PPP > Current international $ > Per capita: PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current international dollars. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Spending > General government final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: General government final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Agriculture value added per worker is a measure of agricultural productivity. Value added in agriculture measures the output of the agricultural sector (ISIC divisions 1-5) less the value of intermediate inputs. Agriculture comprises value added from forestry, hunting, and fishing as well as cultivation of crops and livestock production. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Gross national expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > Net current transfers from abroad > Current US$: Net current transfers from abroad (current US$). Current transfers comprise transfers of income between residents of the reporting country and the rest of the world that carry no provisions for repayment. Net current transfers from abroad is equal to the unrequited transfers of income from nonresidents to residents minus the unrequited transfers from residents to nonresidents. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Debt > Net domestic credit > Current LCU: Net domestic credit (current LCU). Net domestic credit is the sum of net claims on the central government and claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (IFS line 32). Data are in current local currency.
  • Spending > Gross national expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Gross national expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Gross national expenditure (formerly domestic absorption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption), general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption), and gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment). Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita (constant LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 per million: Consumer price index (2005 = 100). Consumer price index reflects changes in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$: Final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (general government consumption). This estimate includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports of goods > Services > Income and wo: Exports of goods and services are the total value of goods and services exported as well as income and workers' remittances received. Workers' remittances include compensation of employees. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports less imports: External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Government expenditure: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Financial sector > Exchange rates and prices > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$ > Period average: Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
  • Financial sector > Interest rates > Lending interest rate: Lending interest rate is the rate charged by banks on loans to prime customers.
  • Trade > Export growth: Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments."
  • Trade > Import value index: Import values are from UNCTAD's value indexes or from current values of merchandise imports.
    2000 = 100
  • Economic aid > Recipient per capita: This entry, which is subject to major problems of definition and statistical coverage, refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance (ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > Interest payments on external debt, long-term > INT, current US$ per capita: Interest payments on external debt, long-term (INT, current US$). Interest payments on long-term debt are actual amounts of interest paid by the borrower in currency, goods, or services in the year specified. Long-term external debt is defined as debt that has an original or extended maturity of more than one year and that is owed to nonresidents by residents of an economy and repayable in currency, goods, or services. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows in reporting econ: Foreign direct investment (net) shows the net change in foreign investment in the reporting country. Foreign direct investment is defined as investment that is made to acquire a lasting management interest (usually of 10 percent of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in a country other than that of the investor (defined according to residency), the investor's purpose being an effective voice in the management of the enterprise. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows in the reporting economy. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • External debt > Net flows > Portfolio investment > Bonds > PPG + PNG > NFL > Current US$: Bonds are securities issued with a fixed rate of interest for a period of more than one year. They include net flows through cross-border public and publicly guaranteed and private nonguaranteed bond issues. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes local income of resident foreigners: Indicates whether or not a tax is levied on income generated within the country by resident foreigners
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition






  • Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes local income of nonresident individuals: Indicates whether or not a tax is levied on income generated in the country by individuals who are not residents (applies to both, citizens and foreigners).
  • Poverty and inequality > Causes of poverty > Living Standards: Percentage living standards count for in the country's total Multidimensional Poverty Index (UN). For instance, poor living standards are only 27% of Senegal's poverty issues, while the remaining 73% is for health and education. Cross country comparisons based off these numbers aren't an accurate telling of how poor living standards are between countries, but rather how much of an issue poor living standards are in each country.
  • Debt > Credit depth of information index > 0=low to 6=high: Credit depth of information index (0=low to 6=high). Credit depth of information index measures rules affecting the scope, accessibility, and quality of credit information available through public or private credit registries. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating the availability of more credit information, from either a public registry or a private bureau, to facilitate lending decisions.
  • Electricity > Consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Currency > PPP conversion factor > GDP to market exchange rate ratio: PPP conversion factor (GDP) to market exchange rate ratio. Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. The ratio of PPP conversion factor to market exchange rate is the result obtained by dividing the PPP conversion factor by the market exchange rate. The ratio, also referred to as the national price level, makes it possible to compare the cost of the bundle of goods that make up gross domestic product (GDP) across countries. It tells how many dollars are needed to buy a dollar's worth of goods in the country as compared to the United States.
  • Income > PPP conversion factor, GDP > LCU per international $: PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per international $). Purchasing power parity conversion factor is the number of units of a country's currency required to buy the same amounts of goods and services in the domestic market as U.S. dollar would buy in the United States. This conversion factor is for GDP.
  • Income > GNI, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: GNI, PPP (constant 2005 international $). PPP GNI (formerly PPP GNP) is gross national income (GNI) converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GNI as a U.S. dollar has in the United States. Gross national income is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in constant 2005 international dollars.
STAT India Pakistan HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $172.10 billion
Ranked 23th. 6 times more than Pakistan
$27.48 billion
Ranked 63th.

Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 49.6 CIA
Ranked 64th.
50.4 CIA
Ranked 62nd. 2% more than India
Overview India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and have served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged under 7% per year since 1997. India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly more than half of the work force is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output, with less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. In 2010, the Indian economy rebounded robustly from the global financial crisis - in large part because of strong domestic demand - and growth exceeded 8% year-on-year in real terms. However, India's economic growth began slowing in 2011 because of a slowdown in government spending and a decline in investment, caused by investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about the global situation. High international crude prices have exacerbated the government's fuel subsidy expenditures, contributing to a higher fiscal deficit and a worsening current account deficit. In late 2012, the Indian Government announced additional reforms and deficit reduction measures to reverse India's slowdown, including allowing higher levels of foreign participation in direct investment in the economy. The outlook for India's medium-term growth is positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. India has many long-term challenges that it has yet to fully address, including poverty, corruption, violence and discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration. Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan's export earnings, and Pakistan's failure to expand a viable export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high. Over the past few years, low growth and high inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of poverty - the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation, climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10% in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in response to a balance of payments crisis. Although the economy has stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy, security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging about $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan's current account turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year from 2008 to 2012. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.
Exports $301.90 billion
Ranked 19th. 12 times more than Pakistan
$24.71 billion
Ranked 69th.

Fiscal year 1 1
GDP $1.84 trillion
Ranked 11th. 8 times more than Pakistan
$231.18 billion
Ranked 42nd.

GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 18%
Ranked 169th.
25.5%
Ranked 115th. 42% more than India

GDP > Per capita $2,625.09 per capita
Ranked 130th. 5% more than Pakistan
$2,500.27 per capita
Ranked 133th.

GDP > Per capita > PPP $3,800.00
Ranked 132nd. 23% more than Pakistan
$3,100.00
Ranked 138th.

GDP per capita $1,489.24
Ranked 135th. 15% more than Pakistan
$1,290.36
Ranked 139th.

Gross National Income $477.00 billion
Ranked 12th. 8 times more than Pakistan
$60.05 billion
Ranked 39th.
Population below poverty line 29.8%
Ranked 19th. 34% more than Pakistan
22.3%
Ranked 2nd.

Public debt 51.7% of GDP
Ranked 61st.
52.1% of GDP
Ranked 57th. 1% more than India

Tourist arrivals 5.37 million
Ranked 37th. 7 times more than Pakistan
823,000
Ranked 92nd.

Unemployment rate 8.5%
Ranked 46th. 42% more than Pakistan
6%
Ranked 74th.

GDP > Purchasing power parity $4.72 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 9 times more than Pakistan
$546.70 billion
Ranked 26th.

Inflation rate > Consumer prices 9.7%
Ranked 25th. The same as Pakistan
9.7%
Ranked 26th.

Human Development Index 0.602
Ranked 127th. 14% more than Pakistan
0.527
Ranked 135th.
Exports per capita $244.12
Ranked 148th. 77% more than Pakistan
$137.92
Ranked 162nd.

Inequality > GINI index 36.8
Ranked 26th. 18% more than Pakistan
31.18
Ranked 30th.

GDP > Real growth rate 3.2%
Ranked 96th.
4.4%
Ranked 74th. 38% more than India

Debt > External > Per capita $146.39 per capita
Ranked 121st.
$235.52 per capita
Ranked 110th. 61% more than India

Distribution of family income > Gini index 36.8
Ranked 6th. 20% more than Pakistan
30.6
Ranked 3rd.

GDP > Composition by sector > Services 65%
Ranked 4th. 19% more than Pakistan
54.4%
Ranked 115th.

Tourist arrivals > Per capita 4.67 per 1,000 people
Ranked 140th.
4.76 per 1,000 people
Ranked 139th. 2% more than India

Budget > Expenditures $263.80 billion
Ranked 17th. 6 times more than Pakistan
$42.15 billion
Ranked 58th.

Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -5% of GDP
Ranked 143th.
-6.6% of GDP
Ranked 155th. 32% more than India

GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $3,355.94
Ranked 126th. 29% more than Pakistan
$2,605.84
Ranked 135th.

Debt > External $378.90 billion
Ranked 27th. 7 times more than Pakistan
$54.50 billion
Ranked 58th.

Imports per capita $407.14
Ranked 154th. 82% more than Pakistan
$223.65
Ranked 166th.

GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 17%
Ranked 60th.
20.1%
Ranked 51st. 18% more than India

Industries textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $0.00
Ranked 185th.
$0.02
Ranked 179th. 6 times more than India

Exports > Commodities petroleum products, precious stones, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, vehicles, apparel textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Imports $503.50 billion
Ranked 8th. 13 times more than Pakistan
$40.07 billion
Ranked 58th.

Population below poverty line > Per capita 0.022% per 1 million people
Ranked 26th.
0.154% per 1 million people
Ranked 28th. 7 times more than India

GINI index 36.8
Ranked 11th. 20% more than Pakistan
30.56
Ranked 19th.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 6.86$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 126th.
7.47$ per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 100th. 9% more than India

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 65%
Ranked 74th. 21% more than Pakistan
53.6%
Ranked 121st.
Economic freedom 55.2
Ranked 119th. About the same as Pakistan
55.1
Ranked 120th.

Gross National Income per capita $450.21
Ranked 119th. 10% more than Pakistan
$408.88
Ranked 122nd.
Tax > Tax rates 14.31
Ranked 78th.
14.47
Ranked 87th. 1% more than India

Poverty and inequality > Richest quintile to poorest quintile ratio 5.6
Ranked 7th. 30% more than Pakistan
4.3
Ranked 14th.
Development > Human Development Index 0.554
Ranked 135th. 8% more than Pakistan
0.515
Ranked 144th.

Central bank discount rate 5.5%
Ranked 57th.
12%
Ranked 2nd. 2 times more than India

Size of economy > Share of world GDP 1.45%
Ranked 11th. 8 times more than Pakistan
0.19%
Ranked 46th.
Technology index 3.72
Ranked 61st. 23% more than Pakistan
3.02
Ranked 84th.
Debt > Government debt > Gross government debt, share of GDP 66.84 IMF
Ranked 43th. 8% more than Pakistan
62.08 IMF
Ranked 45th.
GDP per person 1,134.01
Ranked 126th. 19% more than Pakistan
954.52
Ranked 134th.

Currency > PPP conversion factor to official exchange rate ratio 0.21
Ranked 143th.
0.3
Ranked 117th. 43% more than India

Exports > Main exports Agricultural products, textile goods, gems and jewellery, software services and technology, engineering goods, chemicals, leather products Textile products, rice, cotton, leather goods
Income > GNI, PPP > Current international $ per capita $3,907.19
Ranked 114th. 36% more than Pakistan
$2,882.69
Ranked 123th.

Labor force 482
Ranked 18th. 8 times more than Pakistan
59
Ranked 54th.

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual rate 30%
Ranked 49th. 50% more than Pakistan
20%
Ranked 65th.

GNI per capita $1,420.00
Ranked 83th. 27% more than Pakistan
$1,120.00
Ranked 86th.
GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ 588.44 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 120th.
595.56 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 119th. 1% more than India

Agriculture > Products rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Currency > Official exchange rate > LCU per US$, period average $53.44
Ranked 63th.
$93.40
Ranked 51st. 75% more than India

GDP per capita in 1950 $597.00
Ranked 46th.
$650.00
Ranked 43th. 9% more than India
Budget > Revenues > Per capita $124.97 per capita
Ranked 133th. 13% more than Pakistan
$110.78 per capita
Ranked 135th.

Exchange rates Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -<br />53.44 (2012 est.)<br />46.67 (2011 est.)<br />45.73 (2010 est.)<br />48.41 (2009)<br />43.32 (2008) Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar -<br />93.4 (2012 est.)<br />86.34 (2011 est.)<br />85.19 (2010 est.)<br />81.71 (2009)<br />70.64 (2008)
Exports > Partners UAE 12.3%, US 12.2%, China 5%, Singapore 4.9%, Hong Kong 4.1% US 13.6%, China 11.1%, UAE 8.5%, Afghanistan 7.8%
Current account balance $-91,470,000,000.00
Ranked 178th. 44 times more than Pakistan
$-2,072,000,000.00
Ranked 132nd.

Consumer price index 121.54%
Ranked 71st.
128.49%
Ranked 57th. 6% more than India

GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ 3,452.5 PPP $
Ranked 102nd. 46% more than Pakistan
2,370.32 PPP $
Ranked 112th.

Consumer spending 57.31
Ranked 90th.
80.5
Ranked 26th. 40% more than India

World trade > Exports 269.73 billion
Ranked 14th. 13 times more than Pakistan
20.81 billion
Ranked 59th.

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 58.14 trillion
Ranked 7th. 6 times more than Pakistan
9.79 trillion
Ranked 22nd.

Population below poverty line > Per $ GDP 49.22% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 36th.
215.64% per $1 trillion of GD
Ranked 18th. 4 times more than India

Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita 212.41$
Ranked 79th. 2 times more than Pakistan
85.57$
Ranked 97th.

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals 6.31 million
Ranked 40th. 7 times more than Pakistan
907,000
Ranked 104th.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $237.25
Ranked 104th. 2 times more than Pakistan
$95.71
Ranked 116th.

Poverty > Population under $1 a day 44.2%
Ranked 11th. 43% more than Pakistan
31%
Ranked 21st.
Tax > Tax payments > Number 33
Ranked 66th.
47
Ranked 23th. 42% more than India

Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ $300.43 billion
Ranked 10th. 22 times more than Pakistan
$13.69 billion
Ranked 64th.

Trade > Imports per capita $271.23
Ranked 121st. 44% more than Pakistan
$188.91
Ranked 132nd.

Budget > Revenues per capita $141.59
Ranked 127th.
$146.29
Ranked 125th. 3% more than India

International tourism > Number of arrivals 3.92 million
Ranked 37th. 5 times more than Pakistan
798,000
Ranked 78th.

GDP > Official exchange rate $1.82 trillion
Ranked 10th. 8 times more than Pakistan
$222.50 billion
Ranked 45th.

Currency Indian rupee Pakistani rupee
GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $1,186.11
Ranked 135th. 17% more than Pakistan
$1,009.53
Ranked 141st.

Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU 43.53 trillion
Ranked 5th. 21 times more than Pakistan
2.12 trillion
Ranked 8th.

Currency > Monetary unit 1 Indian Rupee = 100 paise 1 Pakistani Rupee = 100 paisa
Inflation 135.2
Ranked 51st.
158.74
Ranked 10th. 17% more than India

Tax > Average time to clear customs > Days 13.58 days
Ranked 2nd. 53% more than Pakistan
8.88 days
Ranked 1st.
Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $1,856.62
Ranked 83th. 13% more than Pakistan
$1,639.98
Ranked 87th.

Debt > External per capita $142.70
Ranked 120th.
$236.69
Ranked 109th. 66% more than India

GDP per capita > Constant LCU 25968.59 30812.49
New businesses registered > Number > Per capita 0.018 per 1,000 people
Ranked 65th.
0.029 per 1,000 people
Ranked 50th. 61% more than India

Economic growth > Per capita 6.22
Ranked 8th. 4 times more than Pakistan
1.44
Ranked 46th.

Trade > Exports $201.00 billion
Ranked 22nd. 10 times more than Pakistan
$20.29 billion
Ranked 66th.

Balance of payments > Capital and financial account > Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US $34.58 billion
Ranked 8th. 14 times more than Pakistan
$2.39 billion
Ranked 50th.

GNI > Current US$ per capita 709.82$
Ranked 121st. 4% more than Pakistan
685.81$
Ranked 122nd.

Aid per capita > Current US$ 1.58$
Ranked 130th.
10.7$
Ranked 107th. 7 times more than India

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU 5.25 trillion
Ranked 6th. 7 times more than Pakistan
745 billion
Ranked 1st.

GDP per capita in 1973 $853.00
Ranked 47th.
$981.00
Ranked 45th. 15% more than India
Industrial > Production growth rate 9.7%
Ranked 21st. 98% more than Pakistan
4.9%
Ranked 67th.

Stock of direct foreign investment > At home $225.10 billion
Ranked 23th. 10 times more than Pakistan
$22.73 billion
Ranked 66th.

Trade > Exports > By good > Chocolate cocoa preparations 3,928
Ranked 50th. 4 times more than Pakistan
1,010
Ranked 62nd.
GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -25.6%
Ranked 23th. 26% more than Pakistan
-20.3%
Ranked 9th.
Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number > Per capita 0.3 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th.
18.98 per 1,000 people
Ranked 14th. 63 times more than India
GDP per capita in 1900 $625.00
Ranked 36th.
$687.00
Ranked 33th. 10% more than India
GDP > Current LCU 35671770000000 6547590000000
Imports > Commodities crude oil, precious stones, machinery, fertilizer, iron and steel, chemicals petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels 330.45 billion
Ranked 7th. 8 times more than Pakistan
42.88 billion
Ranked 35th.

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Number 295,098
Ranked 2nd.
2.96 million
Ranked 4th. 10 times more than India
Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Current international $ $3,910.00
Ranked 114th. 36% more than Pakistan
$2,880.00
Ranked 123th.

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Europe 1.43 million
Ranked 37th. 4 times more than Pakistan
356,804
Ranked 72nd.

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 17.4%
Ranked 55th.
24.4%
Ranked 34th. 40% more than India
Investment > Gross fixed 30% of GDP
Ranked 18th. 3 times more than Pakistan
10.9% of GDP
Ranked 141st.

Stock of narrow money None None
Outbound tourist spending 12.08 billion
Ranked 23th. 6 times more than Pakistan
2.04 billion
Ranked 52nd.

Debt > Interest rates > Central bank discount rate 7.5%
Ranked 48th.
10%
Ranked 33th. 33% more than India
Companies > Ease of doing business index > 1=most business-friendly regulations 134
Ranked 55th. 22% more than Pakistan
110
Ranked 79th.

GDP > Per $ GDP $2,625.09 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 130th. 5% more than Pakistan
$2,500.27 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 133th.

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ per capita 2.98 BoP $
Ranked 114th.
13.54 BoP $
Ranked 85th. 5 times more than India

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita 47,010
Ranked 80th.
54,617.82
Ranked 79th. 16% more than India

Net barter terms of trade 75.86%
Ranked 99th. 1% more than Pakistan
75.19%
Ranked 35th.

Government spending 98.9 billion
Ranked 13th. 10 times more than Pakistan
9.78 billion
Ranked 41st.

Technological achievement 0.2
Ranked 58th. 18% more than Pakistan
0.17
Ranked 61st.
Labor force > By occupation > Services 28%
Ranked 24th.
34.2%
Ranked 36th. 22% more than India

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 17.6%
Ranked 172nd.
22%
Ranked 146th. 25% more than India
International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ 4.13 billion$
Ranked 30th. 5 times more than Pakistan
827 million$
Ranked 72nd.

Tax > Taxes on income, profits and capital gains > Current LCU per capita 4,295.27
Ranked 47th. 3% more than Pakistan
4,158.29
Ranked 5th.

Debt > Central government debt, total > Current LCU per capita 35,643.99
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than Pakistan
15,441.35
Ranked 25th.

GDP > Constant 2000 US$ 644.1 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 11th. 7 times more than Pakistan
92.77 billion constant 2000 US$
Ranked 45th.

Household final > Consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita 415.22$
Ranked 104th.
560.48$
Ranked 99th. 35% more than India

Labor force > By occupation > Industry 19%
Ranked 89th.
20.7%
Ranked 71st. 9% more than India

Foreign direct investment > Net inflows > BoP > Current US$ per capita 5.85 BoP $
Ranked 130th.
13.82 BoP $
Ranked 115th. 2 times more than India

Net income > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita -4,181.809 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 41st.
-16,151.812 BoP $ per 1,000 people
Ranked 50th. 4 times more than India

Market value of publicly traded shares $1.01 trillion
Ranked 11th. 31 times more than Pakistan
$32.76 billion
Ranked 54th.

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.00517
Ranked 160th.
0.00524
Ranked 185th. 1% more than India

Imports > Partners China 10.7%, UAE 7.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.8%, Switzerland 6.2%, US 5.1% China 19.7%, Saudi Arabia 12.3%, UAE 12.1%, Kuwait 6.3%
GNI 1.3 trillion
Ranked 12th. 8 times more than Pakistan
166.37 billion
Ranked 40th.

Poverty > Population under $2 a day 86.2%
Ranked 4th. 2% more than Pakistan
84.6%
Ranked 7th.
Gross national saving 28.8% of GDP
Ranked 31st. 2 times more than Pakistan
13.3% of GDP
Ranked 111th.

GDP > CIA Factbook $3.03 trillion
Ranked 4th. 10 times more than Pakistan
$318.00 billion
Ranked 26th.

Labor force > By occupation > Agriculture 53%
Ranked 46th. 18% more than Pakistan
45.1%
Ranked 54th.

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ per capita $503.34
Ranked 46th. 8 times more than Pakistan
$66.79
Ranked 73th.

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total 5,191
Ranked 2nd. 9 times more than Pakistan
573
Ranked 17th.

Poverty > Share of all poor people 41.01%
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than Pakistan
3.86%
Ranked 4th.
Budget > Expenditures per capita $213.50
Ranked 121st. 2% more than Pakistan
$209.30
Ranked 123th.

GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 56.8%
Ranked 133th.
82.5%
Ranked 38th. 45% more than India
Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita 267.21
Ranked 148th. 12% more than Pakistan
239.33
Ranked 153th.

GNI > Atlas method > Current US$ per capita 713.37$
Ranked 114th. 5% more than Pakistan
679.14$
Ranked 116th.

Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc 69,105
Ranked 75th.
291,085
Ranked 56th. 4 times more than India
Purchasing power parity > GDP per capita > PPP > Current international $ $3,270.15
Ranked 110th. 25% more than Pakistan
$2,608.59
Ranked 115th.

International tourism > Expenditures > Current US$ per capita 4.35$
Ranked 129th.
11.07$
Ranked 102nd. 3 times more than India

Commercial bank prime lending rate 10.63%
Ranked 81st.
12.41%
Ranked 62nd. 17% more than India

Tax > GDP per capita > Current LCU 81,027.96
Ranked 82nd.
112,139.15
Ranked 76th. 38% more than India

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ $513.98 billion
Ranked 7th. 33 times more than Pakistan
$15.73 billion
Ranked 61st.

Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth 3.24%
Ranked 91st.
4.19%
Ranked 67th. 29% more than India

Total > Reserves in months of imports 12.19
Ranked 5th. 3 times more than Pakistan
4.14
Ranked 45th.

Industrial production growth rate 1.2%
Ranked 114th.
2.7%
Ranked 88th. 2 times more than India

GDP > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ per capita 2,982.81 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 104th. 43% more than Pakistan
2,079.41 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 114th.

Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita 716.25$
Ranked 43th. 3 times more than Pakistan
282.88$
Ranked 50th.

Trade > Imports $327.00 billion
Ranked 12th. 10 times more than Pakistan
$32.71 billion
Ranked 55th.

Stock of direct foreign investment > Abroad $118.10 billion
Ranked 28th. 78 times more than Pakistan
$1.52 billion
Ranked 71st.

High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita $5,659.63 per 1,000 people
Ranked 75th. 4 times more than Pakistan
$1,589.57 per 1,000 people
Ranked 91st.

Poverty and inequality > Population below $1 (PPP) per day $32.68%
Ranked 8th. 55% more than Pakistan
$21.04%
Ranked 10th.

Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU 10.57 trillion
Ranked 11th. 4 times more than Pakistan
2.54 trillion
Ranked 1st.

Labor force per thousand people 0.000395
Ranked 162nd. 29% more than Pakistan
0.000305
Ranked 197th.

Income > GNI per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $3,306.68
Ranked 80th. 31% more than Pakistan
$2,520.53
Ranked 84th.

Trade > Exports per capita $166.72
Ranked 124th. 42% more than Pakistan
$117.18
Ranked 132nd.

Inflation > Consumer price index > 2005 = 100 180.77
Ranked 39th.
221.91
Ranked 13th. 23% more than India

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Africa 130,753
Ranked 27th. 9 times more than Pakistan
14,691
Ranked 68th.

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Individual > On income exceeding > US$ $10,115.00
Ranked 59th.
$107,838.00
Ranked 13th. 11 times more than India

Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP $0.14 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 137th. 3% more than Pakistan
$0.13 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 138th.

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita 861.67
Ranked 162nd.
991.16
Ranked 156th. 15% more than India

Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services 446.83 billion
Ranked 12th. 17 times more than Pakistan
26.53 billion
Ranked 69th.

Trade > Export value index 169.39%
Ranked 30th. 17% more than Pakistan
145.14%
Ranked 15th.

Current transfers > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ 22.83 billion BoP $
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Pakistan
9.13 billion BoP $
Ranked 16th.

Development > Human Development Index > Inequality adjusted 0.392
Ranked 91st. 10% more than Pakistan
0.356
Ranked 97th.
Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU 1.52 trillion
Ranked 8th. 7 times more than Pakistan
215 billion
Ranked 2nd.

Debt service 11.7
Ranked 60th.
25.76
Ranked 23th. 2 times more than India
Income > Household final consumption expenditure, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $2.30 trillion
Ranked 4th. 8 times more than Pakistan
$293.82 billion
Ranked 20th.

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $3,340.60
Ranked 123th. 39% more than Pakistan
$2,401.66
Ranked 132nd.

Business > Companies > Specific companies > Carrefour > First store 2,010
Ranked 3rd. The same as Pakistan
2,009
Ranked 4th.
Debt > External > Per $ GDP $144.66 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 111th.
$281.30 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 89th. 94% more than India

GDP > PPP $3.36 trillion
Ranked 4th. 10 times more than Pakistan
$336.05 billion
Ranked 25th.
Entrepreneurship > Starting a Business > Index ranking 90
Ranked 65th. 2 times more than Pakistan
38
Ranked 117th.
Stock of domestic credit $1.40 trillion
Ranked 13th. 15 times more than Pakistan
$94.65 billion
Ranked 51st.

Companies > Stock market > Stocks traded, total value > Current US$ $622.48 billion
Ranked 17th. 52 times more than Pakistan
$11.97 billion
Ranked 48th.

Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services 591.38 billion
Ranked 8th. 14 times more than Pakistan
43.59 billion
Ranked 61st.

Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services per capita 361.31
Ranked 160th. 2 times more than Pakistan
148.07
Ranked 176th.

Patent applications > Residents 5,314
Ranked 10th. 58 times more than Pakistan
91
Ranked 58th.

Economic aid > Recipient $1.72 billion
Ranked 7th. 3% more than Pakistan
$1.67 billion
Ranked 8th.
Poverty and inequality > Population in severe poverty 28.6%
Ranked 9th. 4% more than Pakistan
27.4%
Ranked 4th.

Oil > Proved reserves 5.68 billion bbl
Ranked 21st. 18 times more than Pakistan
313 million bbl
Ranked 52nd.

Tax > Highest marginal tax rate > Corporate rate 33.99%
Ranked 21st.
35%
Ranked 12th. 3% more than India

GDP > PPP per capita $3,027.99
Ranked 110th. 40% more than Pakistan
$2,165.95
Ranked 119th.
GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $2,625.09 per capita
Ranked 130th. 5% more than Pakistan
$2,500.27 per capita
Ranked 133th.

Income > GDP, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ per capita $3,340.60
Ranked 123th. 39% more than Pakistan
$2,401.66
Ranked 132nd.

Income > GDP per capita, PPP > Current international $ $3,813.12
Ranked 123th. 39% more than Pakistan
$2,741.37
Ranked 132nd.

Debt > Interest payments on external debt, long-term > INT, current US$ $9.57 billion
Ranked 3rd. 8 times more than Pakistan
$1.14 billion
Ranked 23th.

Stock of direct foreign investment > At home per capita $182.02
Ranked 94th. 43% more than Pakistan
$126.87
Ranked 96th.

GDP growth > Duration 1980-2000 105%
Ranked 11th. 67% more than Pakistan
63%
Ranked 21st.
Oil > Proved reserves per capita 4.65 bbl
Ranked 71st. 3 times more than Pakistan
1.78 bbl
Ranked 79th.

Gross capital formation > Current US$ 268.72 billion$
Ranked 7th. 14 times more than Pakistan
18.65 billion$
Ranked 42nd.

Companies > Listed domestic companies, total per million 4.2
Ranked 76th. 31% more than Pakistan
3.2
Ranked 83th.

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita $415.61
Ranked 80th. 5 times more than Pakistan
$87.79
Ranked 100th.

Poverty > CPIA equity of public resource use rating > 1=low to 6=high 4
Ranked 7th. 14% more than Pakistan
3.5
Ranked 32nd.

Gross domestic savings 397.96 billion
Ranked 7th. 22 times more than Pakistan
18.51 billion
Ranked 50th.

Entrepreneurship > Hiring and Firing > Index ranking 116
Ranked 38th. 27% more than Pakistan
91
Ranked 63th.
Poverty > Gap at $1 a day > PPP 7.88%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than Pakistan
3.06%
Ranked 9th.

Welfare > Revenue, excluding grants > Current LCU per capita 8,655.35
Ranked 66th.
14,159.14
Ranked 5th. 64% more than India

Gross fixed capital formation > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 0.281$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 25th. 84% more than Pakistan
0.153$ per $1 of GDP
Ranked 129th.

Net domestic credit > Current LCU 21555150000000 2853430000000
Researchers in RandD > Per million people 119.05 per million people
Ranked 42nd. 58% more than Pakistan
75.25 per million people
Ranked 42nd.

Trade > Exports > By good > Passenger cars etc 554,037
Ranked 26th. 4197 times more than Pakistan
132
Ranked 82nd.
Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc 370,304
Ranked 7th. 79 times more than Pakistan
4,695
Ranked 34th.
Government > Revenue > Tax > Taxes foreign income of nonresident citizens no no
Government > Finance minister Palaniappan Chidambaram Ishaq Dar
Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ per capita 3.45 BoP $
Ranked 119th.
4.16 BoP $
Ranked 117th. 20% more than India

GDP per capita > PPP > Constant 2000 international $ 3,071.54 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 102nd. 46% more than Pakistan
2,108.77 PPP 2000 $
Ranked 112th.

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ per capita $3,813.12
Ranked 123th. 39% more than Pakistan
$2,741.37
Ranked 132nd.

Income > GDP, PPP > Current international $ $4.72 trillion
Ranked 4th. 10 times more than Pakistan
$491.14 billion
Ranked 27th.

Poverty and inequality > Poorest's share in national income or consumption 8.54%
Ranked 7th.
9.6%
Ranked 2nd. 12% more than India

GDP deflator 125.5
Ranked 121st.
136.42
Ranked 113th. 9% more than India

World Bank exchange rate 47.56
Ranked 63th.
78.64
Ranked 54th. 65% more than India

Household spending 516.47 billion
Ranked 11th. 6 times more than Pakistan
81.3 billion
Ranked 32nd.

Economy growth 7.66
Ranked 11th. 2 times more than Pakistan
3.63
Ranked 39th.

GDP > CIA Factbook per capita $2,772.94
Ranked 107th. 33% more than Pakistan
$2,086.34
Ranked 115th.

Tax > Tax payments > Number per million 0.0267
Ranked 186th.
0.262
Ranked 165th. 10 times more than India

Public institution index 4.45
Ranked 52nd. 55% more than Pakistan
2.87
Ranked 100th.
Oil > Consumption 3.18 million bbl/day
Ranked 4th. 8 times more than Pakistan
410,000 bbl/day
Ranked 33th.

Poverty and inequality > Inequality adjusted income index 0.434
Ranked 69th. 2% more than Pakistan
0.426
Ranked 76th.
GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 23.8%
Ranked 158th. 93% more than Pakistan
12.3%
Ranked 188th.
GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita 571.44 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 119th.
587.26 constant 2000 US$
Ranked 118th. 3% more than India

Tax > Taxes on exports > Current LCU 1.95 billion
Ranked 12th.
138.38 billion
Ranked 4th. 71 times more than India
Tax > Taxes on international trade > Current LCU per capita 1,242.27
Ranked 39th. 4% more than Pakistan
1,200.04
Ranked 4th.

Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics 190,982
Ranked 20th. 31 times more than Pakistan
6,213
Ranked 60th.
Purchasing power parity conversion factor > LCU per international $ 9.44 17.73
Trade > Imports of goods > Services and income > BoP > Current US$ 102.15 billion BoP $
Ranked 23th. 3 times more than Pakistan
32.22 billion BoP $
Ranked 48th.

Micro > Small and medium enterprises > Per 1,000 people 0.3 per 1,000 people
Ranked 4th.
18.98 per 1,000 people
Ranked 14th. 63 times more than India
Savings > Gross savings > Current US$ per capita $505.26
Ranked 77th. 98% more than Pakistan
$255.53
Ranked 94th.

Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant LCU 41.26 trillion
Ranked 8th. 5 times more than Pakistan
8.69 trillion
Ranked 16th.

Reserves > Total reserves > Includes gold, current US$ per capita $242.93
Ranked 139th. 3 times more than Pakistan
$76.40
Ranked 164th.

Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita $1,489.23
Ranked 137th. 19% more than Pakistan
$1,256.66
Ranked 141st.

Saving rate 33.6
Ranked 9th. 52% more than Pakistan
22.05
Ranked 38th.

Stocks traded > Total value > Current US$ 638.48 billion$
Ranked 4th. 5 times more than Pakistan
126.56 billion$
Ranked 9th.

Services growth 8.53
Ranked 11th. 5 times more than Pakistan
1.58
Ranked 55th.

Inflation > Duration 1990-2000 9.1%
Ranked 68th.
9.7%
Ranked 62nd. 7% more than India
Trade > Exports to US $3.23 billion
Ranked 18th. 6 times more than Pakistan
$557.90 million
Ranked 52nd.
Trade balance with US $-2,073,000,000.00
Ranked 209th. 5 times more than Pakistan
$-383,600,000.00
Ranked 184th.
Debt > External debt stocks $334.33 billion
Ranked 4th. 6 times more than Pakistan
$60.18 billion
Ranked 19th.

Foreign direct investment > Net > BoP > Current US$ 3.26 billion BoP $
Ranked 13th. 52% more than Pakistan
2.14 billion BoP $
Ranked 28th.

Net income > BoP > Current US$ -4,451,113,000 BoP $
Ranked 136th. 77% more than Pakistan
-2,516,000,000 BoP $
Ranked 108th.

Oil > Exports 825,600 bbl/day
Ranked 21st. 28 times more than Pakistan
29,840 bbl/day
Ranked 81st.

Current account balance per capita 0.0
Ranked 91st.
0.0
Ranked 97th.

Portfolio investment > Bonds > PPG + PNG > NFL > Current US$ -3,959,387,000$
Ranked 46th.
1.09 billion$
Ranked 14th.

Transnational corporations > Affiliates 1,416
Ranked 43th. 2 times more than Pakistan
644
Ranked 52nd.
Tourism > International tourism, expenditures > Current US$ $13.72 billion
Ranked 23th. 7 times more than Pakistan
$1.85 billion
Ranked 59th.

Money and quasi money > M2 > Current LCU 23807900000000 3182515000000
Budget > Expenditures > Per capita $152.76 per capita
Ranked 130th. 2% more than Pakistan
$149.87 per capita
Ranked 133th.

Terms of trade 148
Ranked 6th. 38% more than Pakistan
107
Ranked 27th.
Income receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per capita 3.55 BoP $ per capita
Ranked 120th.
4.22 BoP $ per capita
Ranked 119th. 19% more than India

Royalty and license fees > Receipts > BoP > Current US$ > Per $ GDP 41.8 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 78th.
135.46 BoP $ per $1 million of
Ranked 61st. 3 times more than India

Household spending per capita 447.02
Ranked 80th.
479.04
Ranked 78th. 7% more than India

Balance of payments > Current account > Goods > Services and income > Exports > Goods and services > Current U $258.82 billion
Ranked 16th. 12 times more than Pakistan
$22.22 billion
Ranked 61st.

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita 3.77$
Ranked 133th.
5.24$
Ranked 111th. 39% more than India

GDP per capita in 1820 $531.00
Ranked 20th. The same as Pakistan
$531.00
Ranked 21st.
Poverty > Gap at $2 a day > PPP 35.02%
Ranked 2nd. 34% more than Pakistan
26.09%
Ranked 3rd.

Companies > Market capitalization of listed companies > Current US$ per capita $1,021.55
Ranked 73th. 4 times more than Pakistan
$243.78
Ranked 97th.

Trade > Exports > Manufactured 79%
Ranked 32nd.
85%
Ranked 18th. 8% more than India
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $297.80 billion
Ranked 10th. 22 times more than Pakistan
$13.80 billion
Ranked 68th.

Tax > Taxes on exports > Current LCU per capita 1.6
Ranked 25th.
860.03
Ranked 9th. 539 times more than India
GDP growth > Duration 1975-2000 3.2%
Ranked 24th. 14% more than Pakistan
2.8%
Ranked 31st.
GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital 29.6%
Ranked 37th. 2 times more than Pakistan
13.3%
Ranked 176th.
Poverty and inequality > Population vulnerable to poverty > Proportion 16.4%
Ranked 7th. 49% more than Pakistan
11%
Ranked 9th.

Debt > CPIA debt policy rating > 1=low to 6=high 4
Ranked 13th. 14% more than Pakistan
3.5
Ranked 38th.

Trade > Exports > Primary 19%
Ranked 82nd. 27% more than Pakistan
15%
Ranked 91st.
Oil > Production 954,000 bbl/day
Ranked 23th. 15 times more than Pakistan
63,580 bbl/day
Ranked 55th.

Income payments > BoP > Current US$ 8.23 billion BoP $
Ranked 29th. 3 times more than Pakistan
3.17 billion BoP $
Ranked 51st.

Stocks traded > Turnover ratio 96.41%
Ranked 6th.
251.42%
Ranked 2nd. 3 times more than India

Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$ $17.52 billion
Ranked 19th. 16 times more than Pakistan
$1.12 billion
Ranked 88th.

Savings > Adjusted savings: education expenditure > Current US$ $57.23 billion
Ranked 14th. 17 times more than Pakistan
$3.44 billion
Ranked 53th.

Stock of broad money None None
Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP $0.11 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 135th.
$0.12 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 131st. 16% more than India

Trade > Exports > By good > Milk products excl butter cheese 14,059
Ranked 46th. 83% more than Pakistan
7,698
Ranked 52nd.
Oil > Imports 3.06 million bbl/day
Ranked 5th. 9 times more than Pakistan
346,400 bbl/day
Ranked 30th.

GDP > Official exchange rate > Per capita $972.68 per capita
Ranked 136th. 11% more than Pakistan
$872.88 per capita
Ranked 139th.

Debt >