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Health > Infant mortality rate: Countries Compared

Author: chris.lockyer781

Author: chris.lockyer781

Infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the age of 1 year. It is computed as the number of infant deaths during a given time period divided by the number of live births during the same time period multiplied by 1,000.

Description

The infant mortality rate (IMR) is an estimate of the number of infant deaths out of 1,000 live births. It is a useful indicator of the health status of a given population. It reflects the level of education, economic development and the accessibility and quality of health care in a country.

In the past 20 years, the infant mortality rate has decreased in all regions of the world. From 1990 to 2011, the average global IMR has decreased from 36 to 17. The infant mortality rate shows an inverse relationship with a country’s income. Low income countries have the highest IMR with an average of 63, while high income countries have an IMR of 5. The highest rates of infant death are seen in the African Region at 68 and are lowest in the European Region at 11.

In the US, the top 5 leading causes of infant mortality include congenital malformations, low birth weight and preterm births, Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), maternal complications of pregnancy and accidents. In developing countries, the most common causes of neonatal death are preterm birth, birth asphyxia and infections. After the neonatal period, the main causes of mortality are pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Malnutrition is an underlying cause in up to 50% of these deaths.

Citations:

1) World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory: Infant mortality. http://www.who.int/gho/urbanhealth/outcomes/infantmortality_text/en/

2) World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2013. http://www.who.int/gho/publications/worldhealthstatistics/ENWHS2013Full.pdf

3) Heisler EJ. The US infant mortality rate: international comparisons, underlying factors, and federal programs. 2012. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41378.pdf

DEFINITION: The number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

CONTENTS

# COUNTRY AMOUNT DATE GRAPH
1 AngolaAngola 192.5 2005
2 AfghanistanAfghanistan 165.96 2005
3 MozambiqueMozambique 137.08 2005
4 LiberiaLiberia 130.51 2005
5 NigerNiger 122.66 2005
6 MaliMali 117.99 2005
7 Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau 108.72 2005
8 DjiboutiDjibouti 105.54 2005
9 MalawiMalawi 104.23 2005
10 BhutanBhutan 102.56 2005
11 EthiopiaEthiopia 102.12 2005
12 RwandaRwanda 101.68 2005
13 Burkina FasoBurkina Faso 98.67 2005
14 Cote d'IvoireCote d'Ivoire 97.1 2005
15 ChadChad 94.78 2005
16 Democratic Republic of the CongoCongo, DR. 94.69 2005
17 Congo, Republic of theCongo, Republic of the 93.86 2005
South Asia averageSouth Asia average 93.04 2005
18 Central African RepublicCentral Africa 92.15 2005
19 GuineaGuinea 91.82 2005
20 Equatorial GuineaEqu. Guinea 87.08 2005
21 LaosLaos 87.06 2005
22 BeninBenin 85.88 2005
23 LesothoLesotho 85.22 2005
24 AzerbaijanAzerbaijan 82.07 2005
25 MadagascarMadagascar 78.52 2005
26 ComorosComoros 77.22 2005
27 EritreaEritrea 75.59 2005
28 PakistanPakistan 74.43 2005
29 HaitiHaiti 74.38 2005
30 CambodiaCambodia 73.67 2005
31 The GambiaThe Gambia 73.48 2005
32 MauritaniaMauritania 72.35 2005
33 NigeriaNigeria 70.49 2005
34 BurundiBurundi 70.4 2005
35 BotswanaBotswana 69.98 2005
36 NamibiaNamibia 69.58 2005
37 CameroonCameroon 69.18 2005
38 BurmaBurma 68.78 2005
39 NepalNepal 68.77 2005
40 BangladeshBangladesh 64.32 2005
41 MayotteMayotte 64.19 2005
42 KenyaKenya 62.62 2005
43 MaldivesMaldives 58.32 2005
44 IndiaIndia 57.92 2005
45 SenegalSenegal 56.53 2005
46 MongoliaMongolia 55.45 2005
47 BoliviaBolivia 54.58 2005
48 GabonGabon 54.34 2005
49 Papua New GuineaPapua NG 53.15 2005
50 IraqIraq 52.71 2005
51 GhanaGhana 52.22 2005
OPEC countries averageOPEC countries average 51.08 2005
52 KiribatiKiribati 49.9 2005
53 Cape VerdeCape Verde 49.14 2005
54 East TimorEast Timor 48.86 2005
55 Sao Tome and PrincipeSoa Tome+ 44.58 2005
Religious countries averageReligious countries average 43.41 2005
56 MoroccoMorocco 43.25 2005
57 IranIran 42.86 2005
58 MoldovaMoldova 41 2005
59 GuyanaGuyana 37.22 2005
60 GuatemalaGuatemala 36.91 2005
61 IndonesiaIndonesia 36.82 2005
62 KyrgyzstanKyrgyzstan 36.81 2005
63 EgyptEgypt 33.9 2005
64 Dominican RepublicDominican Rep. 33.28 2005
65 PeruPeru 32.95 2005
66 AlgeriaAlgeria 32.16 2005
67 Federated States of MicronesiaMicronesia 31.28 2005
68 BrazilBrazil 30.66 2005
69 KazakhstanKazakhstan 30.54 2005
70 Marshall IslandsMarshall Isl. 30.5 2005
71 NicaraguaNicaragua 30.15 2005
72 HondurasHonduras 29.64 2005
Former Spanish colonies averageFormer Spanish colonies average 29.18 2005
73 SamoaSamoa 28.72 2005
74 RomaniaRomania 27.24 2005
75 ParaguayParaguay 26.67 2005
Catholic countries averageCatholic countries average 26.49 2005
76 BelizeBelize 26.37 2005
77 El SalvadorEl Salvador 25.93 2005
78 LibyaLibya 25.7 2005
79 The BahamasThe Bahamas 25.7 2005
80 LebanonLebanon 25.48 2005
81 ChinaChina 25.28 2005
82 North KoreaNorth Korea 24.84 2005
83 EcuadorEcuador 24.49 2005
84 PhilippinesPhilippines 24.24 2005
85 ArmeniaArmenia 24.16 2005
86 Gaza StripGaza Strip 23.54 2005
Latin America and Caribbean averageLatin America and Caribbean average 23.27 2005
87 AlbaniaAlbania 22.31 2005
88 AnguillaAnguilla 21.91 2005
89 Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia+ 21.88 2005
90 ColombiaColombia 21.72 2005
91 MexicoMexico 21.69 2005
92 BulgariaBulgaria 21.31 2005
93 PanamaPanama 20.95 2005
94 OmanOman 20.26 2005
95 Antigua and BarbudaAntigua+ 20.18 2005
96 Saint HelenaSaint Helena 19.85 2005
97 GeorgiaGeorgia 19.34 2005
98 QatarQatar 19.32 2005
99 MalaysiaMalaysia 18.35 2005
100 JordanJordan 18.11 2005
101 British Virgin IslandsBrit. Virgin Isl. 18.05 2005
102 BahrainBahrain 17.91 2005
103 RussiaRussia 16.96 2005
104 GreenlandGreenland 16.31 2005
105 MauritiusMauritius 15.57 2005
106 PalauPalau 15.3 2005
107 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSt Vincent+ 15.24 2005
108 Saint Kitts and NevisSt Kitts+ 14.94 2005
109 DominicaDominica 14.75 2005
110 GrenadaGrenada 14.62 2005
111 Saint LuciaSaint Lucia 13.95 2005
112 Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia 13.7 2005
113 BelarusBelarus 13.62 2005
114 BruneiBrunei 13.05 2005
115 FijiFiji 12.99 2005
116 JamaicaJamaica 12.81 2005
117 BarbadosBarbados 12.61 2005
118 French GuianaFrench Guiana 12.46 2005
119 Republic of MacedoniaMacedonia Rep. 11.74 2005
120 Netherlands AntillesN. Antilles 10.37 2005
121 Costa RicaCosta Rica 10.26 2005
122 KuwaitKuwait 10.26 2005
123 NauruNauru 10.14 2005
124 LatviaLatvia 9.67 2005
125 American SamoaAmerican Samoa 9.48 2005
126 ChileChile 9.05 2005
127 GuadeloupeGuadeloupe 8.83 2005
128 BermudaBermuda 8.79 2005
129 PolandPoland 8.73 2005
130 HungaryHungary 8.68 2005
131 French PolynesiaFr. Polynesia 8.61 2005
132 Cayman IslandsCayman Islands 8.41 2005
133 Puerto RicoPuerto Rico 8.37 2005
NATO countries averageNATO average 8.21 2005
134 EstoniaEstonia 8.08 2005
135 ReunionReunion 7.95 2005
136 New CaledoniaNew Caledonia 7.89 2005
137 Saint Pierre and MiquelonSt Pierre+ 7.76 2005
138 MontserratMontserrat 7.56 2005
European Union averageEuropean Union average 7.46 2005
139 CyprusCyprus 7.36 2005
140 MartiniqueMartinique 7.27 2005
141 Northern Mariana IslandsN. Mariana 7.25 2005
142 IsraelIsrael 7.21 2005
143 South KoreaSouth Korea 7.18 2005
144 GuamGuam 7.15 2005
145 LithuaniaLithuania 7.13 2005
146 CroatiaCroatia 6.96 2005
147 CubaCuba 6.45 2005
148 Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands 6.38 2005
149 ItalyItaly 6.07 2005
150 ArubaAruba 6.02 2005
151 New ZealandNew Zealand 5.96 2005
152 San MarinoSan Marino 5.85 2005
153 GreeceGreece 5.63 2005
154 MonacoMonaco 5.53 2005
Eurozone averageEurozone average 5.53 2005
155 IrelandIreland 5.5 2005
156 JerseyJersey 5.33 2005
157 GibraltarGibraltar 5.22 2005
158 PortugalPortugal 5.13 2005
159 NetherlandsNetherlands 5.11 2005
160 LuxembourgLuxembourg 4.88 2005
161 CanadaCanada 4.82 2005
162 GuernseyGuernsey 4.78 2005
163 LiechtensteinLiechtenstein 4.77 2005
164 AustraliaAustralia 4.76 2005
165 BelgiumBelgium 4.76 2005
166 AustriaAustria 4.68 2005
167 DenmarkDenmark 4.63 2005
168 MacauMacau 4.39 2005
169 FranceFrance 4.31 2005
170 GermanyGermany 4.2 2005
171 AndorraAndorra 4.05 2005
172 Czech RepublicCzech Republic 3.97 2005
173 MaltaMalta 3.94 2005
174 NorwayNorway 3.73 2005
175 FinlandFinland 3.59 2005
176 IcelandIceland 3.31 2005
177 JapanJapan 3.28 2005
178 Hong KongHong Kong 2.97 2005

Citation

"All countries compared for Health > Infant mortality rate", CIA World Factbook, 28 July 2005. Aggregates compiled by NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Health/Infant-mortality-rate

Health > Infant mortality rate: Countries Compared Map

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STAT
COUNTRIES COVERED
Female 226
Male 226
Total 226

3

Infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the age of 1 year. It is computed as the number of infant deaths during a given time period divided by the number of live births during the same time period multiplied by 1,000.

Description

The infant mortality rate (IMR) is an estimate of the number of infant deaths out of 1,000 live births. It is a useful indicator of the health status of a given population. It reflects the level of education, economic development and the accessibility and quality of health care in a country.

In the past 20 years, the infant mortality rate has decreased in all regions of the world. From 1990 to 2011, the average global IMR has decreased from 36 to 17. The infant mortality rate shows an inverse relationship with a country’s income. Low income countries have the highest IMR with an average of 63, while high income countries have an IMR of 5. The highest rates of infant death are seen in the African Region at 68 and are lowest in the European Region at 11.

In the US, the top 5 leading causes of infant mortality include congenital malformations, low birth weight and preterm births, Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), maternal complications of pregnancy and accidents. In developing countries, the most common causes of neonatal death are preterm birth, birth asphyxia and infections. After the neonatal period, the main causes of mortality are pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, malaria and HIV/AIDS. Malnutrition is an underlying cause in up to 50% of these deaths.

Citations:

1) World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory: Infant mortality. http://www.who.int/gho/urbanhealth/outcomes/infantmortality_text/en/

2) World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2013. http://www.who.int/gho/publications/worldhealthstatistics/ENWHS2013Full.pdf

3) Heisler EJ. The US infant mortality rate: international comparisons, underlying factors, and federal programs. 2012. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41378.pdf

Posted on 14 Apr 2014

chris.lockyer781

chris.lockyer781

377

0

A review by researchers at Pakistan’s Aga Khan University, published in The Lancet, reported that babies born in hospitals in the developing world are up to 20 times more likely to develop infections than those in developed countries.

In developing nations, infections during pregnancy and after birth cause an estimated 1.6 million deaths annually, three-quarters of them in southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Many infections are caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), while another major killer is the organism Klebsiella pneumoniae, which kills an estimated 320,000 infants and unborn babies each year in the developing world.

Up to 70 percent of these infections are believed to be caused by superbugs – bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment.

Neonatal deaths account cause more than a third of all child mortality across the world.

Posted on 29 Mar 2005

Ian Graham <br>Staff Editor

Ian Graham <br>Staff Editor

0

Paulus, you have unwittingly provided evidence which actually refutes your claim that the poor showing of the Us is not related to lack of health care.

'...disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight' are indeed amongst the major causes of infant death - but those two factors are precisely the ones which can be prevented by good ante-natal care, as is provided by every country with universal health care - something which the US, alone amongst all the major developed countries, does not have.

Posted on 01 Sep 2011

Linnaea

Linnaea

0

NYC MOM,
Here is a country comparison given by the CIA. On there list we fall in the 178th place. However, It all depends with age group your looking at.
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2091rank.html

Another website is the Center for Control Disease (CDC) they offer mortality data. The CDC stat'se the US is number one for child homicides aged 1-4, and we are 4th place for Infanticides.

PS. the reason I know this information is because I'm a graduate student specializing in Criminal Justice, and I did a thesis on Infanticide.

Posted on 08 Jan 2011

BALTIMORE

BALTIMORE

0

Joan writes: "The USA is 45th from the bottom/best, and Cuba's mortality rate is lower/better than ours. This is because the USA does not have universal health care."

No, it is not because we do not have universal health care.

"Problems of definition and measurement, however, hamper cross-national comparisons of health statistics. Alternative measures of infant mortality may provide better information but cannot completely compensate for differences among countries in the overall rates of reporting of adverse pregnancy outcomes. For example, very premature births are more likely to be included in birth and mortality statistics in the United States than in several other industrialized countries that have lower infant mortality rates."

"In countries where physicians are more aggressive about attempting to resuscitate very premature newborns--of which the United States is probably the leading example—extremely small neonates are more likely to be classified as live births than in countries with less aggressive resuscitation policies."

You can find it all here: http://www.cbo.gov/doc.cfm?index=6219&type=0

In summary: One of the leading causes of infant mortality in the U.S. is "disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight." In the US, doctors are able to deliver and try to save babies with incredibly low birth weights. In most other countries, extremely premature babies are not recorded as live births and thus do not contribute to their infant mortality rate.

Posted on 28 Mar 2010

Paulus

Paulus

0

In response to Sophie,

The crude birth rate (which measures the number of children born each year per thousand population) and the total fertiliy rate (number of children per woman can be found in the people category.



Birth rate and life expectency are the major factors affecting total population. Countries with a high birth rate and low life expectency generally have a large number of young people.

Most developed countries have low birth rates. Globally 89 countries (including all European and North American countries except Faeroe Islands, Albania and Mexico) have fertility rates below population replacement. This means that their populations would be shrinking if there was no immigration to these countries.

Posted on 02 Jun 2005

Edria Murray<br>Staff Editor

Edria Murray<br>Staff Editor

0

In 2002, a total of 28,034 deaths of children under one year old occurred in the United States, according to the National Vital Statistics Reports. The infant mortality rate was 7.0 infant deaths per 1000 live births, up from 6.8 per 1000 in 2001.

Deaths of infants aged zero to 27 days increased by 4.4 percent from 2001 to 2002. The postneonatal mortality rate (deaths to infants aged 28 days to one year per 1000 live births) remained constant at 2.3.

The 10 leading causes of infant death were: 1) congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; 2) disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight; 3) Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS); 4) maternal complications; 5) complications of placenta, cord and membranes; 6) unintentional injuries; 7) respiratory distress of newborn; 8) bacterial sepsis of newborn; 9) diseases of the circulatory system; 10) intrauterine hypoxia and birth asphyxia.

These 10 causes accounted for 68.4 percent of all infant death in the U.S. There were significant increases in deaths attributed to low birth rate (5.3 percent) and maternal complications (14.2) percent.

Posted on 04 Mar 2005

Ian Graham <br>Staff Editor

Ian Graham <br>Staff Editor

0

Infant mortality has many many causes. The three most common are:
  • Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities. These account for 20 percent of cases
  • Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight alone account for 16 percent of cases
  • SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) which accounts for 8
    percent.

All of these occur more often when maternal health and nutrition are poor. In many cases, causes are multiple with low birth weight being a major factor.

Infant mortality is highest in developing nations. These countries generally have a low href=/graph/eco_gdp>GDP, low literacy,
high levels of poverty, a high rate of maternal mortality and a high number of children per woman.

Posted on 28 Feb 2005

Edria Murray<br>Staff editor

Edria Murray<br>Staff editor

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