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Economy Stats: compare key data on Cuba & United States

Definitions

  • Budget > Revenues: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Budget surplus > + or deficit > -: This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
  • Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP: Public debt as % of GDP (CIA).

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  • Overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
  • Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Exports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • GDP > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP per capita: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Inflation rate > Consumer prices: This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
  • Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
  • Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
  • Human Development Index: The human development index values in this table were calculated using a consistent methodology and consistent data series. They are not strictly comparable with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
  • Tourist arrivals > Per capita: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
  • Fiscal year: The beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Industry: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the industrial sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Development > Human Development Index: Human Development Index trends, 1980-2012.
  • GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Exports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Budget > Expenditures: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourist arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival."
  • Budget > Revenues > Per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Inbound tourism income > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • GDP per person: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Exports > Main exports: Country main exports.
  • Budget > Revenues per capita: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Debt > External: Total public and private debt owed to non-residents repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Services: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Consumer spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources."
  • GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture: The gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods produced by the agricultural sector within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations. See the CIA World Factbook for more information.
  • Industries: A rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.
  • GDP > Real growth rate: GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
  • International tourism > Number of arrivals: International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited.
  • Economic growth > Per capita: Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
  • Economic freedom: Index of 'economic freedom', according to the American organisation 'The Heritage Foundation'. It is worth noting that such indices are based on highly culturally contingent factors. This data makes a number of assumptions about 'freedom' and the role of the government that are not accepted by much of the world's population. A broad discussion of The Heritage Foundation's definition and methodology can be found at http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/ChapterPDFs/chapter5.HTML.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Current account balance: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • Trade > Imports per capita: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency: The national medium of exchange and its basic sub-unit.
  • GNI per capita: Country GNI per capita.
  • GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Trade > Exports per capita: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Current account balance per capita: This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals: International tourism, number of arrivals. International inbound tourists (overnight visitors) are the number of tourists who travel to a country other than that in which they have their usual residence, but outside their usual environment, for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose in visiting is other than an activity remunerated from within the country visited. When data on number of tourists are not available, the number of visitors, which includes tourists, same-day visitors, cruise passengers, and crew members, is shown instead. Sources and collection methods for arrivals differ across countries. In some cases data are from border statistics (police, immigration, and the like) and supplemented by border surveys. In other cases data are from tourism accommodation establishments. For some countries number of arrivals is limited to arrivals by air and for others to arrivals staying in hotels. Some countries include arrivals of nationals residing abroad while others do not. Caution should thus be used in comparing arrivals across countries. The data on inbound tourists refer to the number of arrivals, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips to a country during a given period is counted each time as a new arrival.
  • Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits), plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports). The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).
  • Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita: GDP (constant LCU). GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars.
  • Budget > Expenditures per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Exchange rates: The official value of a country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market forces or official fiat.
  • Size of economy > Share of world GDP : Percent of world GDP (exchange rates).

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    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

    No date was available from the Wikipedia article, so we used the date of retrieval.

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  • Exports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GDP > Official exchange rate: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
  • Investment > Gross fixed: This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Exports of goods and services (constant 2000 US$). Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Government spending: General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > Current LCU: GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars." Per capita figures expressed per 1,000 population.
  • GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by sector of origin, which shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Gross domestic savings: Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
  • Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth: GDP growth (annual %).
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • International tourism > Number of departures: International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency.
  • GNI: GNI (formerly GNP) is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes (less subsidies) not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • World trade > Exports: Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Industrial > Production growth rate: The annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
  • Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU: GDP per capita (constant LCU). GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita: Gross Value Added by Kind of Economic Activity at current prices - US dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Household spending per capita: Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2000 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • Trade > Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook per capita: . Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Oil > Exports: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
     .
  • Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $: Health expenditure per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $). Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in international dollars converted using 2005 purchasing power parity (PPP) rates.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita: GDP (current LCU). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current local currency. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Oil > Production: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Economy growth: Measures growth in the economy or ""economy growth"". Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources."
  • Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Electricity > Consumption per capita: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita: Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • Household spending: Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2000 U.S. dollars."
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • GDP > Per $ GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much smaller. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$: Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (current US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Trade > Exports: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.
  • Imports > Commodities: This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • GDP > Constant LCU: GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant local currency.
  • Trade > Export growth: Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2000 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments."
  • Labor force per thousand people: This entry contains the total labor force figure. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services: GDP by Type of Expenditure at current prices - US dollars.
  • Currency > Monetary unit: Country currency.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries, and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.
  • Oil > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Natural gas > Production: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
  • GDP deflator: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • Oil > Consumption: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$: International tourism, receipts (current US$). International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except when these are important enough to justify separate classification. For some countries they do not include receipts for passenger transport items. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Electricity > Consumption: This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: GDP (constant 2000 US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2000 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Tax > GDP > Current US$: GDP (current US$). GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
  • Budget > Expenditures > Per capita: Expenditures calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per capita figures expressed per 1 population.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
  • High-technology > Exports > Current US$: High-technology exports are products with high research and development intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Oil > Exports per thousand people: This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
    Additional details:
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,570 bbl/day (2007)
    • Bahamas, The: transshipments of 41,610 bbl/day (2009)
    . Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • National accounts > US$ at constant 2000 prices > Aggregate indicators > GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$: GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant U.S. dollars.
  • Scientific and technical journals > Articles published: Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences."
  • Oil > Consumption per thousand people: This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP: Revenues calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Natural gas > Production per capita: This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Researchers in RandD > Per million people: Researchers in R&D are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods, or systems and in the management of the projects concerned. Postgraduate PhD students (ISCED97 level 6) engaged in R&D are included.
  • GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital: This entry is derived from Economy > GDP > Composition, by end use, which shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
    household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals. This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.
    government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt, unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.
    investment in fixed capital consists of total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital. Earlier editions of The World Factbook referred to this concept as Investment (gross fixed) and that data now have been moved to this new field.
    investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user, such as automobiles sitting on a dealer’s lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative. If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative. Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy. If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying - the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls - and goods "go flying off the shelves" - businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.
    exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.
    imports of goods and ...
    Full definition
    .
  • Trade > Exports > Goods and services: Exports of goods and services as a % of GDP, 2000
  • Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$: Final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Final consumption expenditure (formerly total consumption) is the sum of household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) and general government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption). Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars.
  • Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$: Total reserves minus gold (current US$). Total reserves minus gold comprise special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. Gold holdings are excluded. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita: Household final consumption expenditure (constant 2000 US$). Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. Data are in constant 2005 U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$: Gross domestic savings (current US$). Gross domestic savings are calculated as GDP less final consumption expenditure (total consumption). Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Financial sector > Exchange rates and prices > GDP deflator > Base year varies by country: The GDP implicit deflator is the ratio of GDP in current local currency to GDP in constant local currency. The base year varies by country.
  • World Bank exchange rate: The DEC alternative conversion factor is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method. As a rule, it is the official exchange rate reported in the IMF's International Financial Statistics (line rf). Exceptions arise where further refinements are made by World Bank staff. It is expressed in local currency units per U.S. dollar."
  • Electricity > Production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
  • Electricity > Imports per capita: This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Patent applications > Residents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • International tourism > Receipts > Current US$: International tourism receipts are expenditures by international inbound visitors, including payments to national carriers for international transport. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Terms of trade: Terms of trade (1980 = 100) 1999. The ratio of the export price index to the import price index measured relative to the base year 1980. A value of more than 100 implies that the price of exports has risen relative to the price of imports.
  • Oil > Production per thousand people: This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, nonresidents per million: Patent applications, nonresidents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years. Figures expressed per million population for the same year.
  • Innovation > Patent applications, residents: Patent applications, residents. Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
  • Trade > Exports > Export growth in USD: Export values are the current value of exports (f.o.b.) converted to U.S. dollars and expressed as a percentage of the average for the base period (2000). UNCTAD's export value indexes are reported for most economies. For selected economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export value indexes are derived from export volume indexes (line 72) and corresponding unit value indexes of exports (line 74) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics."
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc: Imports of Silver/platinum etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Innovation > Scientific and technical journal articles: Scientific and technical journal articles. Scientific and technical journal articles refer to the number of scientific and engineering articles published in the following fields: physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, clinical medicine, biomedical research, engineering and technology, and earth and space sciences.
  • Imports > Partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
  • Oil > Imports: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
  • Oil > Imports per thousand people: This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products. Figures expressed per thousand people for the same year.
  • Electricity > Production per capita: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc: Imports of Passenger cars etc, by country, in thousands USD
  • Merchandise > Exports > Current US$: Merchandise exports show the f.o.b. value of goods provided to the rest of the world valued in U.S. dollars. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
  • Natural gas > Proved reserves per capita: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • Natural gas > Consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
  • Natural gas > Proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
  • Tourism > International tourism, number of departures: International tourism, number of departures. International outbound tourists are the number of departures that people make from their country of usual residence to any other country for any purpose other than a remunerated activity in the country visited. The data on outbound tourists refer to the number of departures, not to the number of people traveling. Thus a person who makes several trips from a country during a given period is counted each time as a new departure.
  • Tourism > International tourism, receipts for travel items > Current US$ per capita: International tourism, receipts for travel items (current US$). International tourism receipts for travel items are expenditures by international inbound visitors in the reporting economy. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Figures expressed per capita for the same year.
  • International tourism > Receipts for travel items > Current US$: International tourism receipts for travel items are expenditures by international inbound visitors in the reporting economy. The goods and services are purchased by, or on behalf of, the traveler or provided, without a quid pro quo, for the traveler to use or give away. These receipts should include any other prepayment made for goods or services received in the destination country. They also may include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases where these are so important as to justify a separate classification. Excluded is the international carriage of travelers, which is covered in passenger travel items. Data are in current U.S. dollars."
  • Tourism receipts > International > Per $ GDP: Per $ GDP figures expressed per $1,000 gross domestic product
  • Trade > Tariffs > Binding coverage > All products: Binding coverage is the percentage of product lines with an agreed bound rate. Bound rates result from trade negotiations incorporated into a country's schedule of concessions and are thus enforceable.
  • Patent applications > Nonresidents: Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years."
  • Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP: The total US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. Per $ GDP figures expressed per 1 $ gross domestic product.
  • Trade > Exports > Export growth: Export volume indexes are derived from UNCTAD's volume index series and are the ratio of the export value indexes to the corresponding unit value indexes. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year's trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. For economies for which UNCTAD does not publish data, the export volume indexes (lines 72) in the IMF's International Financial Statistics are used."
  • Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics: Exports of Perfume/toilet/cosmetics, by country, in thousands USD
STAT Cuba United States HISTORY
Budget > Revenues $47.78 billion
Ranked 55th.
$2.45 trillion
Ranked 1st. 51 times more than Cuba

Budget surplus > + or deficit > - -3.7% of GDP
Ranked 116th.
-6.8% of GDP
Ranked 157th. 84% more than Cuba

Debt > Government debt > Public debt, share of GDP 35.1 CIA
Ranked 102nd.
72.5 CIA
Ranked 35th. 2 times more than Cuba
Overview The government continues to balance the need for loosening its socialist economic system against a desire for firm political control. The government in April 2011 held the first Cuban Communist Party Congress in almost 13 years, during which leaders approved a plan for wide-ranging economic changes. President Raul CASTRO said such changes were needed to update the economic model to ensure the survival of socialism. The government has expanded opportunities for self-employment and has introduced limited reforms, some initially implemented in the 1990s, to increase enterprise efficiency and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods, services, and housing. The average Cuban's standard of living remains at a lower level than before the downturn of the 1990s, which was caused by the loss of Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies. Since late 2000, Venezuela has been providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies over 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil, in part, with the services of Cuban personnel in Venezuela including some 30,000 medical professionals. The US has the largest and most technologically powerful economy in the world, with a per capita GDP of $49,800. In this market-oriented economy, private individuals and business firms make most of the decisions, and the federal and state governments buy needed goods and services predominantly in the private marketplace. US business firms enjoy greater flexibility than their counterparts in Western Europe and Japan in decisions to expand capital plant, to lay off surplus workers, and to develop new products. At the same time, they face higher barriers to enter their rivals' home markets than foreign firms face entering US markets. US firms are at or near the forefront in technological advances, especially in computers and in medical, aerospace, and military equipment; their advantage has narrowed since the end of World War II. The onrush of technology largely explains the gradual development of a "two-tier labor market" in which those at the bottom lack the education and the professional/technical skills of those at the top and, more and more, fail to get comparable pay raises, health insurance coverage, and other benefits. Since 1975, practically all the gains in household income have gone to the top 20% of households. Since 1996, dividends and capital gains have grown faster than wages or any other category of after-tax income. Imported oil accounts for nearly 55% of US consumption. Crude oil prices doubled between 2001 and 2006, the year home prices peaked; higher gasoline prices ate into consumers' budgets and many individuals fell behind in their mortgage payments. Oil prices climbed another 50% between 2006 and 2008, and bank foreclosures more than doubled in the same period. Besides dampening the housing market, soaring oil prices caused a drop in the value of the dollar and a deterioration in the US merchandise trade deficit, which peaked at $840 billion in 2008. The sub-prime mortgage crisis, falling home prices, investment bank failures, tight credit, and the global economic downturn pushed the United States into a recession by mid-2008. GDP contracted until the third quarter of 2009, making this the deepest and longest downturn since the Great Depression. To help stabilize financial markets, in October 2008 the US Congress established a $700 billion Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). The government used some of these funds to purchase equity in US banks and industrial corporations, much of which had been returned to the government by early 2011. In January 2009 the US Congress passed and President Barack OBAMA signed a bill providing an additional $787 billion fiscal stimulus to be used over 10 years - two-thirds on additional spending and one-third on tax cuts - to create jobs and to help the economy recover. In 2010 and 2011, the federal budget deficit reached nearly 9% of GDP. In 2012 the federal government reduced the growth of spending and the deficit shrank to 7.6% of GDP. Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan required major shifts in national resources from civilian to military purposes and contributed to the growth of the budget deficit and public debt. Through 2011, the direct costs of the wars totaled nearly $900 billion, according to US government figures. US revenues from taxes and other sources are lower, as a percentage of GDP, than those of most other countries. In March 2010, President OBAMA signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a health insurance reform that was designed to extend coverage to an additional 32 million American citizens by 2016, through private health insurance for the general population and Medicaid for the impoverished. Total spending on health care - public plus private - rose from 9.0% of GDP in 1980 to 17.9% in 2010. In July 2010, the president signed the DODD-FRANK Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, a law designed to promote financial stability by protecting consumers from financial abuses, ending taxpayer bailouts of financial firms, dealing with troubled banks that are "too big to fail," and improving accountability and transparency in the financial system - in particular, by requiring certain financial derivatives to be traded in markets that are subject to government regulation and oversight. In December 2012, the Federal Reserve Board announced plans to purchase $85 billion per month of mortgage-backed and Treasury securities in an effort to hold down long-term interest rates, and to keep short term rates near zero until unemployment drops to 6.5% from the December rate of 7.8%, or until inflation rises above 2.5%. Long-term problems include stagnation of wages for lower-income families, inadequate investment in deteriorating infrastructure, rapidly rising medical and pension costs of an aging population, energy shortages, and sizable current account and budget deficits - including significant budget shortages for state governments.
Exports $5.97 billion
Ranked 105th.
$1.56 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 261 times more than Cuba

Exports per capita $529.86
Ranked 128th.
$4,972.70
Ranked 50th. 9 times more than Cuba

GDP $60.81 billion
Ranked 68th.
$15.68 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 258 times more than Cuba

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Services 74%
Ranked 30th.
79.7%
Ranked 14th. 8% more than Cuba
GDP > Per capita $10,150.20 per capita
Ranked 40th.
$45,759.46 per capita
Ranked 8th. 5 times more than Cuba

GDP > Per capita > PPP $10,200.00
Ranked 91st.
$51,700.00
Ranked 6th. 5 times more than Cuba

GDP > Purchasing power parity per capita $10,113.66
Ranked 80th.
$47,587.30
Ranked 7th. 5 times more than Cuba

GDP per capita $5,382.82
Ranked 96th.
$49,965.27
Ranked 10th. 9 times more than Cuba

Inflation rate > Consumer prices 5.5%
Ranked 69th. 3 times more than United States
2.1%
Ranked 160th.

Public debt 35.8% of GDP
Ranked 100th.
70% of GDP
Ranked 37th. 96% more than Cuba

Unemployment rate 3.8%
Ranked 98th.
8.1%
Ranked 47th. 2 times more than Cuba

Human Development Index 0.817
Ranked 52nd.
0.944
Ranked 10th. 16% more than Cuba
Tourist arrivals > Per capita 202.73 per 1,000 people
Ranked 87th. 6% more than United States
190.7 per 1,000 people
Ranked 91st.

GDP > Purchasing power parity $121.00 billion
Ranked 66th.
$16.24 trillion
Ranked 1st. 134 times more than Cuba

Fiscal year calendar year 1
GDP > Composition by sector > Industry 22.3%
Ranked 140th. 17% more than United States
19.1%
Ranked 160th.

Imports per capita $1,217.29
Ranked 120th.
$7,336.40
Ranked 47th. 6 times more than Cuba

Development > Human Development Index 0.78
Ranked 59th.
0.937
Ranked 3rd. 20% more than Cuba

GDP > Per capita > PPP per thousand people $0.90
Ranked 106th. 5 times more than United States
$0.16
Ranked 139th.

Exports > Commodities petroleum, nickel, medical products, sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus, coffee agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn) 9.2%, industrial supplies (organic chemicals) 26.8%, capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment) 49.0%, consumer goods (automobiles, medicines) 15.0%
Imports $13.72 billion
Ranked 86th.
$2.30 trillion
Ranked 1st. 168 times more than Cuba

Budget > Expenditures $50.45 billion
Ranked 52nd.
$3.54 trillion
Ranked 1st. 70 times more than Cuba

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold per capita $375.79
Ranked 88th. 60% more than United States
$234.27
Ranked 105th.

Tourist arrivals 2.32 million
Ranked 55th.
57.94 million
Ranked 3rd. 25 times more than Cuba

Budget > Revenues > Per capita $4,137.47 per capita
Ranked 15th.
$8,527.60 per capita
Ranked 29th. 2 times more than Cuba

Inbound tourism income > Current US$ $2.55 billion
Ranked 58th.
$166.53 billion
Ranked 2nd. 65 times more than Cuba

GDP per person 5,596.28
Ranked 81st.
45,989.18
Ranked 9th. 8 times more than Cuba

Exports > Main exports Nickel, sugar, tobacco, shellfish, medical products, citrus, coffee Computers and electrical machinery, vehicles, chemical products, food and live animals, military equipment and aircraft
Budget > Revenues per capita $4,122.58
Ranked 43th.
$6,763.09
Ranked 33th. 64% more than Cuba

Debt > External $22.51 billion
Ranked 76th.
$15.93 trillion
Ranked 1st. 708 times more than Cuba

GDP > Composition by sector > Services 73.8%
Ranked 28th.
79.7%
Ranked 15th. 8% more than Cuba

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU 56.94 billion
Ranked 123th.
14.23 trillion
Ranked 18th. 250 times more than Cuba

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals per capita 0.238
Ranked 97th. 18% more than United States
0.201
Ranked 98th.

Consumer spending 53.82
Ranked 110th.
71.37
Ranked 53th. 33% more than Cuba

GDP > Composition by sector > Agriculture 3.8%
Ranked 140th. 3 times more than United States
1.2%
Ranked 191st.

Industries petroleum, nickel/cobalt, pharmaceuticals, tobacco, construction, steel, cement, agricultural machinery, sugar highly diversified, world leading, high-technology innovator, second largest industrial output in world; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer goods, lumber, mining
GDP > Composition, by end use > Imports of goods and services -20.9%
Ranked 12th. 24% more than United States
-16.9%
Ranked 4th.
GDP per capita > Constant LCU 3114.61 37267.33
Labor force 5
Ranked 148th.
155
Ranked 39th. 31 times more than Cuba

GDP > Real growth rate 3.1%
Ranked 97th. 11% more than United States
2.8%
Ranked 106th.

International tourism > Number of arrivals 2.26 million
Ranked 50th.
49.21 million
Ranked 3rd. 22 times more than Cuba

Economic growth > Per capita 4.31
Ranked 54th.
-3.47
Ranked 111th.

Economic freedom 28.5
Ranked 175th.
76
Ranked 10th. 3 times more than Cuba

GDP > Official exchange rate per capita $5,095.83
Ranked 86th.
$47,264.02
Ranked 8th. 9 times more than Cuba

Current account balance $-134,400,000.00
Ranked 65th.
$-440,400,000,000.00
Ranked 180th. 3277 times more than Cuba

Agriculture > Products sugar, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes, beans; livestock wheat, corn, other grains, fruits, vegetables, cotton; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish; forest products
Trade > Imports per capita $908.55
Ranked 96th.
$6,152.08
Ranked 42nd. 7 times more than Cuba

Currency Cuban peso and Convertible peso US dollar
GNI per capita $3,946.00
Ranked 34th.
$48,620.00
Ranked 11th. 12 times more than Cuba
GDP > Purchasing power parity > Per capita $10,150.20 per capita
Ranked 40th.
$45,759.46 per capita
Ranked 8th. 5 times more than Cuba

Trade > Exports per capita $293.48
Ranked 117th.
$4,105.70
Ranked 46th. 14 times more than Cuba

Current account balance per capita 0.0
Ranked 82nd.
0.0
Ranked 79th.

Tourism > International tourism, number of arrivals 2.69 million
Ranked 62nd.
62.71 million
Ranked 3rd. 23 times more than Cuba

Gross national saving 11.1% of GDP
Ranked 120th.
12.5% of GDP
Ranked 118th. 13% more than Cuba

Tax > GDP > Constant LCU per capita 5,049.59
Ranked 152nd.
45,335.9
Ranked 81st. 9 times more than Cuba

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels 8.98 billion
Ranked 70th.
2.36 trillion
Ranked 1st. 263 times more than Cuba

Budget > Expenditures per capita $4,333.54
Ranked 44th.
$10,981.93
Ranked 24th. 3 times more than Cuba

Stock of broad money None None
Exchange rates Cuban pesos (CUP) per US dollar -<br />1 (2012 est.)<br />0.98 (2011 est.)<br />0.93 (2010 est.)<br />0.93 (2009)<br />0.93 (2008) <strong>British pounds per US dollar: </strong>0.6324 (2012 est.), 0.624 (2011 est.), 0.6472 (2010), 0.6175 (2009), 0.5302 (2008)<br /><strong>Canadian dollars per US dollar:</strong> (2012 est.), 1.001 (2012 est.), 0.9895 (2011 est), 1.0302 (2010 est.), 1.1431 (2009), 1.0364 (2008)<br /><strong>Chinese yuan per US dollar:</strong> (2011 est.), 6.311 (2012 est.), 6.4615 (20111 est.), 6.7703 (2010 est.), 6.8314 (2009), 6.9385 (2008)<br /><strong>euros per US dollar:</strong> 0.7838 (2012 est.), 0.7185 (2011 est.), 0.755 (2010 est.), 0.7198 (2009), 0.6827 (2008)<br /><strong>Japanese yen per US dollar:</strong> 79.42 (2012 est.), 79.81 (2011 est.), 87.78 (2010), 93.57 (2009), 103.58 (2008)
Size of economy > Share of world GDP 0.09%
Ranked 61st.
31.49%
Ranked 1st. 350 times more than Cuba
Exports > Partners Canada 17.7%, China 16.9%, Venezuela 12.5%, Netherlands 9%, Spain 5.9% Canada 18.9%, Mexico 14%, China 7.2%, Japan 4.5%
GDP > Official exchange rate $72.30 billion
Ranked 66th.
$16.02 trillion
Ranked 1st. 222 times more than Cuba

Investment > Gross fixed 10.7% of GDP
Ranked 142nd.
12.9% of GDP
Ranked 139th. 21% more than Cuba

Stock of narrow money None None
GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Industry 22.2%
Ranked 143th. 16% more than United States
19.2%
Ranked 161st.
Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $1,147.76
Ranked 71st.
$5,885.16
Ranked 34th. 5 times more than Cuba

Government spending 15.34 billion
Ranked 37th.
1.74 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 113 times more than Cuba

GDP > Current LCU 41064800000 12416510000000
High-technology > Exports > Current US$ > Per capita $21,969.31 per 1,000 people
Ranked 68th.
$760,722.33 per 1,000 people
Ranked 24th. 35 times more than Cuba

GDP > Composition, by sector of origin > Agriculture 3.8%
Ranked 139th. 3 times more than United States
1.1%
Ranked 194th.
Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ per capita $785.20
Ranked 87th.
$8,113.69
Ranked 21st. 10 times more than Cuba

Gross domestic savings 8.01 billion
Ranked 72nd.
1.61 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 201 times more than Cuba

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure per capita 3,177.21
Ranked 112th.
35,518
Ranked 8th. 11 times more than Cuba

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold $4.69 billion
Ranked 94th.
$150.20 billion
Ranked 18th. 32 times more than Cuba

Size of economy > GDP > GDP growth 2.06%
Ranked 133th.
2.21%
Ranked 111th. 7% more than Cuba

GDP > Composition, by end use > Household consumption 53.5%
Ranked 148th.
68.6%
Ranked 80th. 28% more than Cuba
Innovation > Patent applications, residents per million 5.5
Ranked 68th.
795.12
Ranked 3rd. 145 times more than Cuba

International tourism > Number of departures 115,000
Ranked 83th.
63.5 million
Ranked 3rd. 552 times more than Cuba

GDP > CIA Factbook $32.13 billion
Ranked 87th.
$10.99 trillion
Ranked 1st. 342 times more than Cuba

Tax > GDP > Current LCU 68.23 billion
Ranked 136th.
16.24 trillion
Ranked 28th. 238 times more than Cuba

GNI 61.76 billion
Ranked 60th.
14.01 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 227 times more than Cuba

Tax > GDP > Current US$ per capita $6,051.22
Ranked 91st.
$51,748.56
Ranked 10th. 9 times more than Cuba

Industrial production growth rate 6.2%
Ranked 41st. 94% more than United States
3.2%
Ranked 79th.

World trade > Exports 12.56 billion
Ranked 79th.
1.58 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 126 times more than Cuba

Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Europe 1.05 million
Ranked 46th.
10.7 million
Ranked 10th. 10 times more than Cuba

Industrial > Production growth rate 0.8%
Ranked 136th.
3.3%
Ranked 92nd. 4 times more than Cuba

Tax > GDP per capita > Constant LCU 5,049.59
Ranked 152nd.
45,335.9
Ranked 81st. 9 times more than Cuba

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure per capita > Constant 2000 US$ $2,562.31
Ranked 65th.
$30,898.88
Ranked 3rd. 12 times more than Cuba

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ per capita 170.03$
Ranked 62nd.
416.03$
Ranked 44th. 2 times more than Cuba

GDP > By type of expenditure > Household consumption expenditure 35.81 billion
Ranked 66th.
11.15 trillion
Ranked 1st. 311 times more than Cuba

Retail > Gross value added by wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels per capita 796.64
Ranked 106th.
7,520.82
Ranked 17th. 9 times more than Cuba

Household spending per capita 2,448.1
Ranked 51st.
26,782.83
Ranked 1st. 11 times more than Cuba

Trade > Imports $10.25 billion
Ranked 86th.
$1.90 trillion
Ranked 1st. 186 times more than Cuba

GDP > CIA Factbook per capita $2,857.03
Ranked 105th.
$37,882.45
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than Cuba

Oil > Exports 6,882 bbl/day
Ranked 95th.
1.92 million bbl/day
Ranked 9th. 279 times more than Cuba

GDP > Composition, by end use > Exports of goods and services 24.9%
Ranked 151st. 84% more than United States
13.5%
Ranked 182nd.
Income > Health expenditure per capita, PPP > Constant 2005 international $ $429.84
Ranked 102nd.
$8,607.88
Ranked 1st. 20 times more than Cuba

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Current US$ per capita $2,974.60
Ranked 91st.
$35,518.00
Ranked 4th. 12 times more than Cuba

Tax > GDP > Current LCU per capita 6,051.22
Ranked 170th.
51,748.56
Ranked 98th. 9 times more than Cuba

Oil > Production 53,690 bbl/day
Ranked 61st.
9.69 million bbl/day
Ranked 3rd. 180 times more than Cuba

Economy growth 4.31
Ranked 89th.
-2.63
Ranked 111th.

Trade > Exports > Exports of goods and services 15.25 billion
Ranked 83th.
2.2 trillion
Ranked 1st. 144 times more than Cuba

Electricity > Consumption per capita 1,257.04 kWh
Ranked 80th.
12,194.74 kWh
Ranked 2nd. 10 times more than Cuba

GDP > CIA Factbook > Per capita $2,863.68 per capita
Ranked 113th.
$37,791.00 per capita
Ranked 2nd. 13 times more than Cuba

Household spending 27.43 billion
Ranked 51st.
8.22 trillion
Ranked 1st. 300 times more than Cuba

GDP > Composition, by end use > Government consumption 35.4%
Ranked 3rd. 82% more than United States
19.5%
Ranked 53th.
GDP > Per $ GDP $10,150.20 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 40th.
$45,759.46 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 8th. 5 times more than Cuba

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure, etc. > Current US$ $33.54 billion
Ranked 69th.
$11.15 trillion
Ranked 1st. 332 times more than Cuba

Trade > Exports $3.31 billion
Ranked 113th.
$1.27 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 384 times more than Cuba

Imports > Commodities petroleum, food, machinery and equipment, chemicals agricultural products 4.9%, industrial supplies 32.9% (crude oil 8.2%), capital goods 30.4% (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods 31.8% (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys)
GDP > Constant LCU 35023800000 11046430000000
Trade > Export growth 3.79
Ranked 46th.
8.37
Ranked 54th. 2 times more than Cuba

Labor force per thousand people 0.000452
Ranked 135th.
0.000489
Ranked 115th. 8% more than Cuba

Trade > Imports > Imports of goods and services 12.93 billion
Ranked 93th.
2.74 trillion
Ranked 1st. 212 times more than Cuba

Currency > Monetary unit 1 Cuban peso = 100 centavos 1 US dollar = 100 cents
Budget > Expenditures > Per $ GDP $0.57 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 8th. 3 times more than United States
$0.20 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 112th.

Taxes and other revenues 66.1% of GDP
Ranked 3rd. 4 times more than United States
15.3% of GDP
Ranked 2nd.

Oil > Proved reserves 124 million bbl
Ranked 64th.
20.68 billion bbl
Ranked 13th. 167 times more than Cuba

Natural gas > Production 1.16 billion cu m
Ranked 53th.
611 billion cu m
Ranked 1st. 527 times more than Cuba

GDP deflator 117.25
Ranked 133th. 4% more than United States
112.4
Ranked 146th.

Oil > Consumption 176,000 bbl/day
Ranked 59th.
19.15 million bbl/day
Ranked 1st. 109 times more than Cuba

Tourism > International tourism, receipts > Current US$ $2.50 billion
Ranked 63th.
$185.89 billion
Ranked 2nd. 74 times more than Cuba

Electricity > Consumption 14.2 billion kWh
Ranked 56th.
3.74 trillion kWh
Ranked 1st. 263 times more than Cuba

Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $4,223.95
Ranked 53th.
$37,586.27
Ranked 5th. 9 times more than Cuba

Currency > GDP > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $5,049.59
Ranked 78th.
$45,335.90
Ranked 10th. 9 times more than Cuba

Tax > GDP > Current US$ $68.23 billion
Ranked 67th.
$16.24 trillion
Ranked 2nd. 238 times more than Cuba

Budget > Expenditures > Per capita $4,349.19 per capita
Ranked 15th.
$9,065.55 per capita
Ranked 26th. 2 times more than Cuba

GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in inventories -2.5%
Ranked 175th.
0.4%
Ranked 87th.
Tourist arrivals by region of origin > Africa 6,619
Ranked 78th.
251,654
Ranked 16th. 38 times more than Cuba

High-technology > Exports > Current US$ $247.94 million
Ranked 60th.
$231.13 billion
Ranked 3rd. 932 times more than Cuba

Stock of direct foreign investment > Abroad $4.14 billion
Ranked 49th.
$4.45 trillion
Ranked 1st. 1076 times more than Cuba

Oil > Exports per thousand people 0.61 bbl/day
Ranked 101st.
6.26 bbl/day
Ranked 55th. 10 times more than Cuba

National accounts > US$ at constant 2000 prices > Aggregate indicators > GDP per capita > Constant 2000 US$ $4,369.98
Ranked 70th.
$37,016.09
Ranked 6th. 8 times more than Cuba

Scientific and technical journals > Articles published 243.5
Ranked 60th.
209,694.7
Ranked 2nd. 861 times more than Cuba

Oil > Consumption per thousand people 15.6 bbl/day
Ranked 93th.
61.91 bbl/day
Ranked 21st. 4 times more than Cuba

Budget > Revenues > Per $ GDP $0.54 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 9th. 3 times more than United States
$0.18 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 115th.

Natural gas > Production per capita 102.76 cu m
Ranked 45th.
1,975.26 cu m
Ranked 10th. 19 times more than Cuba

Researchers in RandD > Per million people 1,145.41 per million people
Ranked 5th.
4,605.01 per million people
Ranked 4th. 4 times more than Cuba

GDP > Composition, by end use > Investment in fixed capital 9.6%
Ranked 187th.
14.8%
Ranked 162nd. 54% more than Cuba
Trade > Exports > Goods and services 16%
Ranked 135th. 45% more than United States
11%
Ranked 149th.
Spending > Final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ $47.63 billion
Ranked 56th.
$11.80 trillion
Ranked 1st. 248 times more than Cuba

Reserves > Total reserves minus gold > Current US$ $143.00 million
Ranked 37th.
$139.13 billion
Ranked 14th. 973 times more than Cuba

Spending > Household final consumption expenditure > Constant 2000 US$ per capita $2,562.31
Ranked 65th.
$30,898.88
Ranked 3rd. 12 times more than Cuba

Savings > Gross domestic savings > Current US$ $8.85 billion
Ranked 82nd.
$2.55 trillion
Ranked 3rd. 288 times more than Cuba

Financial sector > Exchange rates and prices > GDP deflator > Base year varies by country 209.82
Ranked 62nd. 69% more than United States
124.24
Ranked 136th.

World Bank exchange rate 1
Ranked 148th. The same as United States
1
Ranked 143th.

Electricity > Production 16.99 billion kWh
Ranked 36th.
3.95 trillion kWh
Ranked 1st. 233 times more than Cuba

Electricity > Imports per capita 0.0
Ranked 94th.
111.87 kWh
Ranked 38th.

Patent applications > Residents 69
Ranked 47th.
231,588
Ranked 2nd. 3356 times more than Cuba

International tourism > Receipts > Current US$ 1.92 billion$
Ranked 48th.
122.94 billion$
Ranked 1st. 64 times more than Cuba

Terms of trade 74
Ranked 60th.
116
Ranked 15th. 57% more than Cuba
Oil > Production per thousand people 4.76 bbl/day
Ranked 53th.
31.32 bbl/day
Ranked 28th. 7 times more than Cuba

Innovation > Patent applications, nonresidents per million 16.32
Ranked 56th.
821.06
Ranked 7th. 50 times more than Cuba

Innovation > Patent applications, residents 62
Ranked 64th.
247,750
Ranked 3rd. 3996 times more than Cuba

Trade > Exports > Export growth in USD 185.52
Ranked 93th. 37% more than United States
135.15
Ranked 119th.

Trade > Imports > By good > Silver platinum etc 178
Ranked 4th.
3.43 million
Ranked 1st. 19272 times more than Cuba
Innovation > Scientific and technical journal articles 222.4
Ranked 70th.
208,600.8
Ranked 2nd. 938 times more than Cuba

Imports > Partners Venezuela 38.3%, China 10.8%, Spain 8.9%, Brazil 5.2%, US 4.3% China 19%, Canada 14.1%, Mexico 12%, Japan 6.4%, Germany 4.7%
Oil > Imports 109,500 bbl/day
Ranked 59th.
10.27 million bbl/day
Ranked 1st. 94 times more than Cuba

Oil > Imports per thousand people 9.7 bbl/day
Ranked 85th.
33.48 bbl/day
Ranked 37th. 3 times more than Cuba

Electricity > Production per capita 1,504.02 kWh
Ranked 55th.
12,885.81 kWh
Ranked 6th. 9 times more than Cuba

Trade > Imports > By good > Passenger cars etc 68,415
Ranked 5th.
116.2 million
Ranked 1st. 1699 times more than Cuba
Merchandise > Exports > Current US$ 2.68 billion$
Ranked 104th.
904.38 billion$
Ranked 2nd. 337 times more than Cuba

Natural gas > Proved reserves per capita 6,277.91 cu m
Ranked 45th.
22,397.07 cu m
Ranked 30th. 4 times more than Cuba

Natural gas > Consumption 1.16 billion cu m
Ranked 74th.
683.3 billion cu m
Ranked 1st. 589 times more than Cuba

Natural gas > Proved reserves 70.79 billion cu m
Ranked 55th.
6.93 trillion cu m
Ranked 6th. 98 times more than Cuba

External debt > Date of information 2006 est. 30 June 2006 est.
Tourism > International tourism, number of departures 253,000
Ranked 75th.
58.5 million
Ranked 4th. 231 times more than Cuba

Tourism > International tourism, receipts for travel items > Current US$ per capita $202.46
Ranked 78th.
$479.02
Ranked 62nd. 2 times more than Cuba

International tourism > Receipts for travel items > Current US$ $2.27 billion
Ranked 54th.
$134.91 billion
Ranked 2nd. 60 times more than Cuba

Tourism receipts > International > Per $ GDP $57.45 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 54th. 6 times more than United States
$9.90 per $1,000 of GDP
Ranked 131st.

Trade > Tariffs > Binding coverage > All products 31.59%
Ranked 34th.
99.96%
Ranked 12th. 3 times more than Cuba

Patent applications > Nonresidents 191
Ranked 27th.
210,062
Ranked 1st. 1100 times more than Cuba

Trade > Exports > Per $ GDP $0.05 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 147th.
$0.08 per $1 of GDP
Ranked 152nd. 67% more than Cuba

Trade > Exports > Export growth 110.65
Ranked 108th.
115.12
Ranked 92nd. 4% more than Cuba

Trade > Exports > By good > Perfume toilet cosmetics 480
Ranked 4th.
3.41 million
Ranked 3rd. 7097 times more than Cuba

SOURCES: CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011; CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; Wikipedia: List of countries by public debt (List) (Public debt , The World Factbook , United States Central Intelligence Agency , accessed on March 21, 2013.); CIA World Factbooks 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013; CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 28 March 2011. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Human Development Report 2006, United Nations Development Programme; World Tourism Organisation, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics and data files.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008; United Nations Development Programme. Source tables; CIA World Factbook 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.; British Broadcasting Corporation 2014; World Bank national accounts data; World Tourism Organization, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics and data files. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Development Indicators database; The Heritage Foundation; World Tourism Organization, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics and data files.; World Bank national accounts data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division; Wikipedia: World distribution of wealth (North America); United Nations, Comtrade database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; The World Bank. Source tables; World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Intellectual Property Indicators and www.wipo.int/econ_stat. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; Source: World Tourism Organization Statistics Database and Yearbook | United Nations World Tourism Organization; World Development Indicators database. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; All CIA World Factbooks 18 December 2003 to 18 December 2008. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; World Health Organization National Health Account database (see http://apps.who.int/nha/database/DataExplorerRegime.aspx for the most recent updates).; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; United Nations Statistics Division. Source tables; World Bank national accounts data. Population figures from World Bank: (1) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects, (2) United Nations Statistical Division. Population and Vital Statistics Report (various years), (3) Census reports and other statistical publications from national statistical offices, (4) Eurostat: Demographic Statistics, (5) Secretariat of the Pacific Community: Statistics and Demography Programme, and (6) U.S. Census Bureau: International Database.; National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators.; World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators 2002. CD-ROM. Washington, DC; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files. World Bank World Development Indicators.; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics, supplemented by World Bank staff estimates.; World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), WIPO Patent Report: Statistics on Worldwide Patent Activity. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.; calculated on the basis of data on terms of trade from World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators 2002. CD-ROM. Washington, DC; World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Intellectual Property Indicators and www.wipo.int/econ_stat. The International Bureau of WIPO assumes no responsibility with respect to the transformation of these data.; United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Statistics and data files, and International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.; International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO; International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO; Wikipedia: List of countries by external debt; World Bank staff estimates using the World Integrated Trade Solution system, based on data from World Trade Organisation.; International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO

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